Portishead is a coastal town on the Severn Estuary, close to Bristol, but within the unitary authority of North Somerset, which falls within the ceremonial county of Somerset, England. It has a population of around 25,000, with a growth rate in excess of surrounding towns. Portishead has a long history as a fishing port; as a Royal Manor it expanded during the early 19th century around the docks, with supporting transport infrastructure. A power station and chemical works were added in the 20th century, but the dock and industrial facilities have since closed and been redeveloped into a marina and residential areas. Portishead was the telephone control centre used by British Telecom for non-direct dialled calls to maritime vessels, a service known as Portishead Radio; the town's population is expanding, Portishead is now a dormitory town for Bristol and its environs, although a range of service industries has grown up. The headquarters of both Avon and Somerset Constabulary and Avon Fire Brigade are in Portishead.
The name Portishead derives from the "port at the head of the river". It has been called Portshead and Portschute at times in its history and Portesheve in the Domesday Book, was locally known as Posset; the town’s recorded history dates back to Roman times, although there is evidence of prehistoric settlement, including polished flint axe heads. There were Iron Age settlements in the area, of which Cadbury Camp was the largest. Other sites that have been identified include a 1,200 by 600 feet site, successively occupied by the Romans and Danes. There is some evidence that it may have been the western end of the Wansdyke, an early medieval or Roman boundary with a series of defensive linear earthworks extending to the Savernake Forest near Marlborough in Wiltshire. After the Norman conquest the manor was held by the Bishop of Coutances and reverted to the crown, after which William II gave it to a merchant from Bristol known as Harding and to his son Robert Fitzharding who became Lord of Berkeley.
The Berkeley family held it for generations until it passed by marriage to the Cokes of Holkham in Norfolk. In the 14th century it belonged to Everard le Frenshe. In 1621 the Bristol Corporation purchased large portions of land in Portishead and revived the Manor Court; the rights of the corporation over the manor was disputed but they held it until 1836 when they sold it for £8,050. The parish of Portishead was part of the Portbury Hundred; the town was built on the mouth of a small tributary of the Severn Estuary near the mouth of the River Avon. The old pill or jetty provided protection for craft against the Bristol Channel's large tidal range, iron rings can be seen in the high street at which fishing boats used to moor, its position meant Portishead was used to guard the "King Road", as the waters around the headland are called. In 1497 it was the departure point for John Cabot on the Matthew. A fort was built on Battery Point, was used during the English Civil War when the town supported the Royalists, but surrendered to Fairfax in 1645.
Guns were placed at Battery Point during World War II. The King Road was the site of a naval action in 1758 when HMS Antelope captured HMS Belliqueux, one of a French squadron returning from Quebec. A mill was built on Welhay stream but this was replaced by tidal mills. In the 17th century the City of Bristol bought the manors of North Weston and Portishead for access to the channel and as a place to stay outside of the city and, in the 19th century, as a seaside resort. An outer sea wall was built allowing the local marshes to be drained and increased the land available for farming; the dominant architecture is early Victorian, with some buildings maintaining their original features. The expansion in residential property coincided with the construction of the dock and the rail link to Bristol; the Royal Hotel by the pier was built in a Tudor Gothic style in 1830, to provide accommodation and catering for travellers on the steamers from Bristol and Ireland. The Act of Parliament governing the enclosure of Portishead was passed in 1814, stipulated the right to a public wharf, although there is historical evidence of nautical connections dating back to the Patent Rolls of 1331.
Around the 1860s, at the height of the iron and steel era, a pier and a deep-water dock were built by the Bristol & Portishead Pier and Railway to accommodate the large ships that had difficulty in reaching Bristol Harbour. They exported local products overseas. Ships carrying coal were commonplace in Portishead Docks. In the 1880s Portishead Dock was acquired by Bristol Corporation, was subsequently managed as part of the Port of Bristol until its closure; the Portishead power stations were coal-fed power stations built next to the dock. Construction work started on Portishead "A" power station in 1926, it began generating electricity in 1929 for the Bristol Corporation's Electricity Department. In 1937 its original six short chimney stacks were replaced by a 350 ft high stack. A second 350 ft stack was added when the power station was expanded in 1948. Construction of Portishead "B" power station began in 1949; the power stations became part of the nationalised electricity industry after 1949, were operated in turn by the British Electricity Authority, the Central Electricity Authority and the CEGB.
They used some local coal produced in the Somerset coalfield, delivered by train along the Portishead branch of the Great Western Railway. The line had opened on 12 April 1867 as Railway Company; the main supply of coal was imported by boat from N
River Avon, Bristol
The River Avon is an English river in the south west of the country. To distinguish it from a number of other rivers of the same name, this river is also known as the Bristol Avon; the name "Avon" is a cognate of the Welsh word afon, "river". The Avon rises just north of the village of Acton Turville in South Gloucestershire, before flowing through Wiltshire. In its lower reaches from Bath to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth near Bristol, the river is navigable and known as the Avon Navigation; the Avon is the 19th longest river in the UK at 75 miles although there are just 19 miles as the crow flies between the source and its mouth in the Severn Estuary. The catchment area is 2,220 square kilometres; the name "Avon" is a cognate of the Welsh word afon "river", both being derived from the Common Brittonic abona, "river". "River Avon", therefore means "River River". The County of Avon that existed from 1974 to 1996 was named after the river, covered Bristol and the lower Avon valley; the Avon rises east of the town of Chipping Sodbury in South Gloucestershire, just north of the village of Acton Turville.
Running a somewhat circular path, the river drains east and south through Wiltshire. Its first main settlement is the village of Luckington, two miles inside the Wiltshire border, on to Sherston. At Malmesbury it joins up with its first major tributary, the Tetbury Avon, which rises just north of Tetbury in Gloucestershire; this tributary is known locally as the Ingleburn, which in Old English means'English river'. Here, the two rivers meet but their path is blocked by a rocky outcrop of the Cotswolds creating an island for the ancient hilltop town of Malmesbury to sit on. Upstream of this confluence the river is sometimes referred to as the'River Avon' to distinguish it from the Tetbury Branch. After the two rivers merge, the Avon turns south east away from the Cotswolds and quickly south into the clay Dauntsey Vale, where it is joined by the River Marden, until it reaches the biggest town so far, Chippenham; the wide vale is now known as the Avon Vale, the river flows on via Lacock to Melksham turns north-west through Bradford on Avon, where the centre of the town grew up around the ford across the river Avon, hence the origin of the town's name.
This was supplemented in Norman times by the stone bridge. The Norman side is upstream, has pointed arches; the Town Bridge and Chapel is a grade. It was a Packhorse bridge, but widened in the 17th century by rebuilding the western side. On the bridge stands a small building, a chapel but used as a town lock-up; the Avon Valley between Bradford on Avon and Bath is a classic geographical example of a valley where four forms of ground transport are found: road, river, canal. The river passes under the Avoncliff and Dundas Aqueducts and at Freshford is joined by the Somerset River Frome. Avoncliff Aqueduct was built by John Rennie and chief engineer John Thomas, between 1797 and 1801; the aqueduct consists of three arches and is 110 yards long with a central elliptical arch of 60 ft span with two side arches each semicircular and 34 ft across, all with V-jointed arch stones. The spandrel and wing walls are built in alternate courses of ashlar masonry, rock-faced blocks; the central span has been repaired many times.
The Dundas Aqueduct was built by the same team between 1797 and 1801 and completed in 1805. James McIlquham was appointed contractor; the aqueduct is 150 yards long with three arches built of Bath Stone, with Doric pilasters, balustrades at each end. The central semicircular arch spans 64 feet, it is a grade I listed building, was the first canal structure to be designated as a Scheduled Ancient Monument in 1951. The stretch of river below and above the aqueduct, where it is joined by Midford Brook, is used by the Bluefriars of the Monkton Combe School Boat Club up to six days a week since at least the 1960s, it flows past Claverton Pumping Station, which pumped water from the River Avon into the canal, using power from the flow of the river. The pumping station is located in a pump house built of Bath Stone, located at river level. Water is diverted from the river by Warleigh Weir, about 200 yd upstream; the water flows down a leat to the pumping station, where it powers a water wheel, 24 ft wide and 17 ft in diameter, with 48 wooden slats.
At full power the wheel rotates five times a minute. The water wheel drives gearing. From here, cranks drive vertical connecting rods which transfer the energy to two 18 ft long cast iron rocking beams; each rocking beam in turn drives an 18 in diameter lift pump, which take their supply from the mill leat. Each pump stroke raises 50 imperial gallons of water to the canal. In 1981, British Waterways installed two 75 horsepower electric pumps just upstream from the station; the Avon flows through Bathford, where it is joined by the Bybrook River, Bathampton where it passes under the Bathampton Toll Bridge. It is joined by the Lam Brook at Lambridge in Bath and passes under Cleveland and Pulteney Bridges and over the weir. Cleveland Bridge was built in 1826 by William Hazledine, owner of the Coalbrookdale Ironworks, with Henry Goodridge as the architect, on the site of a Roman ferry crossing. Named after the 3rd Duke of Cleveland, it spans the River Avon at Bathwick
Bath and North East Somerset
Bath and North East Somerset is the district of the unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset Council, created on 1 April 1996 following the abolition of the county of Avon. It is part of the ceremonial county of Somerset; the unitary authority provides a single tier of local government with responsibility for all local government functions within the district, including local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection, cemeteries, leisure services and tourism. It is responsible for education, social services, main roads, public transport, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, although fire and ambulance services are provided jointly with other authorities through the Avon Fire and Rescue Service and Somerset Constabulary and the South Western Ambulance Service, its administrative headquarters is in Bath, though many departments are based at offices in Keynsham. The air ambulance and critical care service is provided by the charity Great Western Air Ambulance Charity.
Bath and North East Somerset covers an area of 136 square miles. It stretches from the outskirts of Bristol, south into the Mendip Hills and east to the southern Cotswold Hills and Wiltshire border; the city of Bath is the principal settlement in the district, but BANES covers Keynsham, Midsomer Norton, Radstock and the Chew Valley. The area has varied geography including rolling hills; the history of human habitation is long but expanded massively during Roman times, played significant roles in the Saxon era and English civil war. Industry developed from a agricultural basis to include coal mining with the coming of canals and railways. Bath developed as a spa resort in Georgian times and remains a major cultural tourism centre having gained World Heritage City status. Although BANES was only created in 1996 the area it covers has been occupied for thousands of years; the age of the henge monument at Stanton Drew stone circles is unknown, but is believed to be from the Neolithic period, as is the chambered tomb known as Stoney Littleton Long Barrow.
Solsbury Hill has an Iron Age hill fort. The hills around Bath such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century. Bathampton Camp may have been stock enclosure. A Long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down; the archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman Baths' main spring was treated as a shrine by the Celts, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Excavations carried out before the flooding of Chew Valley Lake uncovered Roman remains, indicating agricultural and industrial activity from the second half of the first century until the third century AD; the finds included a moderately large villa at Chew Park, where wooden writing tablets with ink writing were found. There is evidence from the Pagans Hill Roman Temple at Chew Stoke, a villa at Keynsham; the Saxon advance from the east seems to have been halted by battles between the British and Saxons, for example.
This area became the border between the Romano-British Celts and the West Saxons following the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD. The Western Wandsdyke was built during the 5th or 6th century; the ditch is on the north side, so it was used by the Celts as a defence against Saxons encroaching from the upper Thames valley. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Saxon Cenwalh achieved a breakthrough against the British Celtic tribes, with victories at Bradford-on-Avon in 652 AD. In 675, King of the Hwicce, set up a monastic house at Bath using the walled area as its precinct. King Offa of Mercia gained control of this monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. In the ninth century the old Roman street pattern had been lost and it had become a royal possession, with King Alfred laying out the town afresh, leaving its south-eastern quadrant as the abbey precinct. Edgar of England was crowned king of England in Bath Abbey in 973. King William Rufus granted the city to a royal physician, John of Tours, who became Bishop of Wells and Abbot of Bath in 1088.
It was papal policy for bishops to move to more urban seats, he translated his own from Wells to Bath. He planned and began a much larger church as his cathedral, to, attached a priory, with the bishop's palace beside it. New baths were built around the three springs. Bishops, returned the episcopal seat to Wells, while retaining the name of Bath in their title as the Bishop of Bath and Wells; the priory at Hinton Charterhouse was founded in 1232 by Ela, Countess of Salisbury who founded Lacock Abbey. By the 15th century, Bath's abbey church was badly dilapidated and in need of repairs. Oliver King, Bishop of Bath and Wells, decided in 1500 to rebuild it on a smaller scale; the new church was completed just a few years before Bath Priory was dissolved in 1539 by Henry VIII. The abbey church was allowed to become derelict before being restored as the city's parish church in the Elizabethan period, when the city revived as a spa; the baths were improved and the city began to attract the ar
In Greek mythology, Procrustes or "the stretcher " known as Prokoptas or Damastes, was a rogue smith and bandit from Attica who attacked people by stretching them or cutting off their legs, so as to force them to fit the size of an iron bed. The word "Procrustean" is thus used to describe situations where different lengths or sizes or properties are fitted to an arbitrary standard. In the Greek myth, Procrustes was a son of Poseidon with a stronghold on Mount Korydallos at Erineus, on the sacred way between Athens and Eleusis. There he had a bed, in which he invited every passer-by to spend the night, where he set to work on them with his smith's hammer, to stretch them to fit. In tellings, if the guest proved too tall, Procrustes would amputate the excess length. Procrustes continued his reign of terror until he was captured by Theseus, travelling to Athens along the sacred way, who "fitted" Procrustes to his own bed: He killed Damastes, surnamed Procrustes, by compelling him to make his own body fit his bed, as he had been wont to do with those of strangers.
And he did this in imitation of Heracles. For that hero punished those who offered him violence in the manner in which they had plotted to serve him. Killing Procrustes was Theseus's last adventure on his journey from Troezen to Athens. A Procrustean bed is an arbitrary standard. In Edgar Allan Poe's influential crime story "The Purloined Letter", the private detective Dupin uses the metaphor of a Procrustean bed to describe the Parisian police's overly rigid method of looking for clues. French philosopher Jacques Derrida, in "The Purveyor of Truth", his response to Jacques Lacan's seminar on "The Purloined Letter", applies the metaphor to the structural analysis of texts: "By framing in this violent way, by cutting the narrated figure itself from a fourth side in order to see only triangles, one evades a certain complication." This is one of deconstruction's central critiques of structural literary analysis. Slavoj Žižek draws upon the metaphor to critique poetic form: "The most elementary form of torturing one's language is called poetry—think of what a complex form like a sonnet does to language: it forces the free flow of speech into a Procrustean bed of fixed forms of rhythm and rhyme."
Poet Hollis Robbins draws upon the metaphor to structure a sonnet about cutting lines to fit meter and rhyme. The concept of the Procrustean bed has been invoked by those opposed to it to describe the relationship between the Eurozone and its member states. Theodosius Dobzhansky, a founding figure in evolutionary biology and genetics, wrote "Progress of scientific understanding is obstructed and side-tracked when a working hypothesis which proves serviceable in a certain field is used as a Procrustean bed to mutilate the evidence derived from other fields." Dobzhansky made this chiding statement in response to claims that certain biological phenomena could only arise via one mechanism. The Austrian-American writer Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn's 1943 book The Menace of the Herd, or Procrustes at Large is a critique of what the author describes as the negative effects of egalitarianism as a political philosophy, where state power is used to force individuals to fit the standards designed by politicians and intellectuals.
In a poem Damastes Speaks Polish poet Zbigniew Herbert shows an analogy between'fitting' people to the bed of Procrustes and totalitarian regimes of 20th century trying to create a'new man' that will be subordinate to their authority. The Bed of Procrustes: Philosophical and Practical Aphorisms is a 2010 book by philosopher and probability theorist Nassim Nicholas Taleb, author of The Black Swan and Antifragile. Giving continuation to this idea, in Antifragile, the author uses the image of the Procrustean bed as an allegory to modernity, linking it to present-day man's fear of randomness. Procrustes analysis is the process of performing a shape-preserving Euclidean transformation to a set of shapes; this removes variations in translation and scaling across the dataset in order to move them into a common frame of reference. This is the precursor to further statistical analysis. A related problem in linear algebra is the orthogonal Procrustes problem of finding the closest orthogonal matrix to any given matrix.
A Procrustean solution is the undesirable practice of tailoring data to fit its container or some other preconceived structure. In a Procrustean solution in statistics, instead of finding the best fit line to a scatter plot of data, one first chooses the line one wants selects only the data that fits it, disregarding data that does not, so to "prove" some idea, it is a form of rhetorical deception made to forward one set of interests at the expense of others. The unique goal of the Procrustean solution is not win-win, but rather that Procrustes wins and the other loses. In this case, the defeat of the opponent justifies the deceptive means. In computer science, a Procrustean string is a fixed length string into which strings of varying lengths are placed. If the string inserted is too short it is padded out with spaces or null characters. If the string inserted is too long, it is truncated; the concept is mentioned in the Sinclair ZX81 and Sinclair Spectrum user manuals, where a portion of a string is replaced by another string using Procrustean assignment—the replacement string is truncated or padded in order to have length equal to the portion being replaced.
Although the term did not catch on in wider usage, it appears in some references, notably FOLDOC. The film editor Walter Murch refers, not enti
Clevedon is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of North Somerset, which covers part of the ceremonial county of Somerset, England. It has a population of 21,281 according to the United Kingdom Census 2011, it lies among a group of small hills, including Church Hill, Wain's Hill, Dial Hill, Strawberry Hill, Castle Hill, Hangstone Hill and Court Hill, a Site of Special Scientific Interest along the Severn estuary. Though mentioned in the Domesday Book, Clevedon grew in the Victorian period as a seaside resort and in the 20th century as a dormitory town; the seafront has a Victorian bandstand and other attractions. Salthouse Field has a light railway running round the perimeter and is used for donkey rides in the summer; the shore consists of pebbled beaches and low rocky cliffs, with an old harbour at the western edge of the town, at the mouth of the Land Yeo. The rocky beach has been designated as the Clevedon Shore Geological Site of Special Scientific Interest. Clevedon Pier, which opened in 1869, is one of the earliest surviving examples of a Victorian pier.
On 17 October 1970, two outward spans collapsed when the seventh set of legs from the shore failed during a routine insurance load test. A trust was formed and the pier and its buildings were restored and reopened on 27 May 1989, when the Waverley paddle steamer berthed and took on passengers. Other landmarks include Clevedon Court the Clock Tower and the Curzon Cinema. Clevedon's light industry is located in industrial estates, including Hither Green Trading Estate near the M5 motorway junction, it is a dormitory town for Bristol. The town is home to educational and cultural buildings and sports clubs; the name derives from the Old English, cleve meaning "cleave" or "cleft" and don meaning "hill". Wain's Hill is an univallate Iron Age hill fort situated 1 mile south-west of Clevedon; the hill fort is defined by a steep, natural slope from the south and north with two ramparts to the east. The Domesday Book mentions Clevedon as a holding of a tenant-in-chief by the name of Mathew of Mortaigne, with eight villagers and ten smallholders.
The parish of Clevedon formed part of the Portbury Hundred. The small rivers the Land Yeo and Middle Yeo supported at least two mills; the Tuck Mills were used for fulling cloth. Other mills, near Wain's Hill date from the early 17th century. During the Victorian era Clevedon became a popular seaside town; the Victorian craze for bathing in the sea was catered for in the late 19th century by saltwater baths adjacent to the pier, bathing machines on the main beach. Clevedon was the site of St Edith's Children's Home for 100 years, until it closed in 1974; the home was run by nuns from the Community of the Sisters of the Church, an international body of women within the Anglican Communion, living under the gospel values of poverty and obedience. The building on Dial Hill is listed, so that the outside has changed little, but now contains owned flats; the first large-scale production of penicillin took place in the town. In 1938 Howard Florey was working at Lincoln College, Oxford University with Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley, when he read Alexander Fleming's paper discussing the antibacterial effects of Penicillium notatum mould.
He made arrangements for this to be grown in deep culture tanks at the Medical Research Council's Antibiotic Research Station in Clevedon, enabling mass production of this mould for the injections of the forthcoming soldiers of World War II who suffered from infections. Clevedon was served by a short branch line from the main railway at Yatton, it opened in 1847, six years after the main line itself, but closed in 1966. The site of the station is now a shopping precinct; the town was the headquarters for another railway, the Weston and Portishead Light Railway, which connected the three coastal towns in its name. It opened to Weston-super-Mare in 1897, was extended to Portishead ten years and closed in 1940, its trains crossed the road in the town centre, known as The Triangle, preceded by a man with red and green flags. The town has seven electoral wards, their area and population are the same as mentioned above. Clevedon falls within the non-metropolitan district of North Somerset unitary authority which replaced the Woodspring district, having been part of Somerset, between 1974 and 1996 within the county of Avon.
Until 2010 the parliamentary constituency was still called Woodspring. Following the review of parliamentary representation by the Boundary Commission for England in Somerset, this seat was renamed North Somerset, it elects one Member of Parliament Liam Fox of the Conservative Party. It is part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament, which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. Clevedon is situated on and round seven hills called Church Hill, Wain's Hill, Dial Hill, Strawberry Hill, Castle Hill, Hangstone hill and Court Hill, a Site of Special Scientific Interest. On a clear day there are far reaching views across the Severn estuary to Wales; when the visibility is good the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm in the Bristol Channel can be seen. The tidal rise and fall in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel can be as great as 14.5 m, second only to Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada. The seafront stretches for half a mile from the pier to Salthouse Field, includes ornamental ga
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t