In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Perry is a city in Houston and Peach counties in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the county seat of Houston County; the population was 13,839 at the 2010 census, up from 9,602 at the 2000 census. As of 2015 the estimated population was 15,457, it is part of the Warner Robins, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area, within the Macon–Bibb County–Warner Robins Combined Statistical Area. Perry is best known as the location of the annual Georgia National Fair. Founded in 1823 as "Wattsville", the town was located near the center of Houston County and served as its courthouse; the name was soon changed to honor Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, a hero of the War of 1812. The Georgia General Assembly incorporated the town on December 9, 1824; the original city limit was a circle, one mile in diameter, except where bounded on the north by Big Indian Creek. Antebellum industry in Perry included gristmills and cotton gins; the Houston Home Journal began publishing in 1870. Cotton was the most significant commodity crop into the 20th century.
Tourism has been important to the local economy since about 1920, when U. S. Highway 41 to Florida was paved; the New Perry Hotel, built in 1870 and rebuilt in 1925, became a landmark for many Florida tourists. President Jimmy Carter's family frequented the hotel; the downtown area has several quaint shops and restaurants. Since World War II, when Robins Air Force Base was established in nearby Warner Robins, the military has been a significant employer in the area. Warner Robins is several times larger than Perry. Other manufacturers in the city have included Frito-Lay, Perdue Farms, Cemex, Inc.. In the early 1960s Interstate 75 was constructed through the western side of the city, it has attracted more businesses. The Georgia National Fairgrounds and Agricenter opened in 1990; the Go Fish Georgia Education Center opened October 8, 2010. Perry is located in west-central Houston County at 32°27′54″N 83°43′16″W; the city limits extend northwest into Peach County. It is on a tributary of the Ocmulgee River.
U. S. Highway 41 passes through the center of Perry, leading north 30 miles to Macon and south 16 miles to Unadilla. Interstate 75, the major north-south artery through Georgia, passes through the western side of Perry, with access from Exits 134 through 138. I-75 leads south 123 miles to Valdosta. U. S. Highway 341 passes through Perry, leading northwest 12 miles to Fort Valley and southeast 21 miles to Hawkinsville. According to the United States Census Bureau, Perry has a total area of 26.3 square miles, of which 26.2 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.48%, are water. The Georgia National Fair is a state-sponsored fair, held every October at the Georgia National Fairgrounds and Agricenter in the southern part of Perry; the fair is an 11-day event offering a wide range of activities and shows, such as agricultural and horse shows and fine arts competitions, youth organization events, midway rides and games, fair food, major live music concerts in Reaves Arena, family entertainment, nightly fireworks.
The Go Fish Education Center takes visitors on an educational journey through Georgia's watersheds to learn about the diverse aquatic wildlife, their natural habitats and the impact of water pollution. Visitors can see freshwater aquariums, explore underwater habitats, view aquatic wildlife, catch fish in a stocked pond, view a movie exploring Georgia's fishing options and traditions, try out interactive fishing and boating simulators; the Go Fish Education Center is part of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Resources Division. The hours are Saturday 9:00 am to 5:00 pm and Sunday 1:00 pm to 5:00 pm; the center is reserved Tuesday through Thursday for other groups. The City of Perry and Perry Main Street Program present the Perry Buzzard Drop each New Year's Eve; the event includes live entertainment, spirits sold on site, a dance contest, souvenir memorabilia. The Perry Area Historical Museum was founded to identify and preserve the area's historical landmarks and histories of its people.
Exhibits include military, agricultural, fashion and political memorabilia. Services offered by the museum include a heritage library of local and regional publications, documents, family histories, other research material. Programs offered include guided tours, special events, kids programs, activities; the hours are Tuesday through Thursday, 10:00 am to 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm. The museum is open by appointment; the Dogwood Festival is held the second weekend of April each year in downtown Perry. For each festival, there is a pageant, crafts, food vendors, kids zone, youth entertainment stage, dog dock-diving competitions, hot air balloon rally. Historic Downtown Perry The Perry Players Community Theater Perry Historic Walking/Driving Tour Perry Music Festival Flat Creek Public Fishing Area Georgia Grown Trail 41/341 Perry Independence Parade and Freedom Fireworks Christmas at the Crossroads As of the census of 2000, there were 9,602 people, 3,720 households, 2,574 families residing in the city.
The population density was 584.7 people per square mile. There were 4,053 housing units at an average density of 246.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.53% White, 37.18% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.25% Asian
Hawkinsville is a city in and the county seat of Pulaski County, United States. The population was 4,589 at the 2010 census. Hawkinsville is known as the "Harness Horse Capital" of Georgia; the Lawrence Bennett Harness Horse Racing facility is owned by the city and serves as an important training ground during winter months. The Harness Festival takes place every April at the end of training before horses head north for the harness racing season. Hawkinsville was founded by European Americans in 1830. In 1837, the seat of Pulaski County was transferred to Hawkinsville from Hartford; the community was named for Benjamin Hawkins, delegate to the Continental Congress, the United States Indian Agent in the Southeast, appointed by President George Washington. The city includes Hawkinsville High School and several historical sites, including Hawkinsville City Hall-Auditorium, Hawkinsville Public School, the Merritt-Ragan House, the Pulaski County Courthouse, Taylor Hall. St. Thomas African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized after the American Civil War as one of hundreds of AME churches planted in the South by missionaries from the first black independent denomination in the United States, founded in the early 19th century in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Hawkinsville Commercial and Industrial Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Hawkinsville is home to the historic Hawkinsville Opera House. On May 15, 1919 a black man, Henry Prince, was lynched in Hawkinsville. Hawkinsville is located at 32°17′1″N 83°28′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.4 square miles, of which 4.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 4,589 people, 3,485 households, 3,062 families residing in the city; the population density was 748.4 people per square mile. There were 1,579 housing units at an average density of 360.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 48.32% White, 49.15% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.37% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. There were 3,485 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 21.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.3% were non-families.
33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,977, the median income for a family was $32,926. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $19,628 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,670. About 19.7% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under age 18 and 27.2% of those age 65 or over. The Pulaski County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, it consists of one elementary school, a middle school, a high school.
The district has 122 full-time teachers and over 1,632 students. Pulaski County Elementary School Pulaski County Middle School Hawkinsville High School The Georgia Department of Corrections operates the Pulaski State Prison in Hawkinsville; the United States Postal Service operates the Hawkinsville Post Office. The United States Air Force operates the Hawkinsville Air Force Space Surveillance System. Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood was born in Hawkinsville. Charles Johnson, defensive end for the Carolina Panthers, was born in Hawkinsville.-Young Jeezy was born in Columbia, South Carolina but was raised in Hawkinsville for most of his life despite dealing drugs in Macon and Atlanta. Therefore from Hawkinsville. Hawkinsville Chamber of Commerce
Avondale Estates, Georgia
Avondale Estates is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 2,960 at the 2010 census, it is near Decatur. In the 1890s, lots were sold in the area, known as Ingleside. Avondale Estates was founded in 1924 by George Francis Willis, a patent medicine magnate, who purchased the entire village of Ingleside to create a planned community; the city was named after Stratford-upon-Avon, birthplace of Shakespeare. Downtown buildings were designed in a Tudor style to reinforce this image, as were many of the houses in the city; the city incorporated in 1927. Avondale Estates is located at 33°46′15″N 84°15′54″W; the city is underlain by granite, clay-rich soil developed on it. Some of this granite can be seen outcropped along the shore of Lake Avondale. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 0.88% is water. As of the 2010 census, Avondale Estates had a population of 2,960; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 80.9% white, 14.5% black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.5% reporting some other race and 2.0% reporting two or more races.
2.2% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The Tudor-style downtown area of Avondale Estates, known as the commercial district, is home to a variety of businesses including antique and consignment stores. Pizza, Mexican fare, southern comfort food, a soda fountain/diner and Chicago style hot dogs are some of the restaurant fare options within the city limits; the city is the location of the first Waffle House, which opened its doors Labor Day weekend of 1955. Waffle House operates a museum at the original location today, a separate restaurant elsewhere in the city. A selection of art galleries and studios are located in an area of the city known as the Rail Arts District. Little Tree Art Studios located on Franklin Street, is a warehouse that include multiple artist studios and a music rehearsal space; the movie, “Instant Family”, starring Mark Wahlberg and produced by Wahlberg, was filmed in Avondale. The city is governed by a board of commissioners. Avondale Estates has a city manager and other administrative positions.
The city uses the DeKalb County Fire Service for fire and EMS calls, but provides its own police service. The Avondale Estates Police Department has 15 members providing around the clock coverage. Officers drive Dodge Chargers equipped with PIT bumpers, LED lights, in-car computers with e-tickets, digital video cameras. City Court is held multiple times a month; the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has its headquarters in Avondale Estates. The United States Postal Service operates the Avondale Estates Post Office. Avondale Estates is served by the DeKalb County School System. Avondale Elementary School is in the city limits. Druid Hills Middle School, Druid Hills High School serve the community. Avondale Middle School and Avondale High School adjacent to the city limits and serving the city, closed at the end of May 2011, the students were distributed to neighboring schools; the campus is now used by the magnet school DeKalb School of the Arts. In 2008, local parents began organizing formal efforts through the Avondale Education Association, a local grass-roots non-profit organization, founded in October 2003, to create a charter school that would achieve the standards required by law, while establishing an elementary school that reflected the values of the community.
Their proposal was rejected by the Dekalb County School Board, but it was subsequently selected by the Georgia Charter Schools Commission as one of a small number of schools to be chartered directly by the State of Georgia. The school, Museum School of Avondale Estates, opened in 2010, Avondale Estates therefore lies within its attendance zone. City of Avondale Estates official website Museum School of Avondale Estates
Fort Valley, Georgia
Fort Valley is a city in and the county seat of Peach County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 9,815; the city is in the Warner Robins metropolitan area and the Macon-Warner Robins combined statistical area. The town's name is a mystery. Historians believe that the name was mistakenly changed in a transcription error when the post office was named. Founded in 1836, Fort Valley was incorporated as a town in 1854 and as a city in 1907. In 1924 Fort Valley was the designated seat of the newly formed Peach County. Fort Valley was the backdrop for a Life magazine feature story in the March 1943 edition; the World War II-era story focused on the town's sponsoring of the "Ham and Egg Show," a contest held by African-American farmers to highlight ham and poultry production in Peach County, Georgia. Fort Valley is located at 32°33′N 83°53′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,005 people, 3,050 households, 1,878 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,519.5 people per square mile. There were 3,303 housing units at an average density of 627.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 22.10% White, 74.65% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.85% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.37% of the population. There were 3,050 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.9% were married couples living together, 30.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 16.9% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,646, the median income for a family was $24,206. Males had a median income of $27,016 versus $20,110 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,815. About 31.8% of families and 37.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.3% of those under the age of 18 and 17.3% of those 65 and older. Fort Valley is the corporate headquarters of the Blue Bird Corporation, a large manufacturer of activity buses and school buses, which opened its first Fort Valley facility in 1935. Despite being a city of less than 10,000 people, Fort Valley boasts one of the best football teams in the state; the Peach County High Trojans have played in eight state title games since 1990, have made the playoffs every year since then. 1992 AAA State Runners-Up 1998 AAA State Runners-Up 2003 AAA State Runners-Up 2005 AAA State Champions 2006 AAA State Champions 2009 AAA State Champions 2011 AAA State Runners-Up 2017 AAA State Runners-Up 1993 AAA 4x100 Relay State Champions Massee Lane Gardens Blue Bird Corporation's headquarters their only Georgia plant.
The Peach County School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consists of three elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school. The district has 270 full-time teachers and over 3,927 students. Byron Elementary School Hunt Elementary School Kay Road Elementary School Byron Middle School Fort Valley Middle School Peach County High School The city is home to Fort Valley State University, a Black college and university. U. S. Route: U. S. Route 341State Routes: State Route 7 State Route 42 State Route 49 State Route 96 The Medical Center of Peach County Louie Crew, emeritus professor at Rutgers University and activist, taught at Fort Valley State 1973-79 Antone Davis, former National Football League offensive lineman, born in Fort Valley Harold Houser, United States Navy Rear admiral, the 35th Governor of American Samoa, born in Fort Valley Jacquez Green, former National Football League wide receiver and punt returner, born in Fort Valley Edward H. Hurst, Brigadier general in the Marine Corps and recipient of Navy Cross, born in Fort Valley Louis Ivory, former American college football running back, 2000 Walter Payton Award Winner, born in Fort Valley Benny Johnson, NFL player Pete Johnson, former NFL player Greg Lloyd, Sr. former NFL player, attended Fort Valley State 1983-86 Dannie Lockett, former NFL player Randy McMichael, former NFL player for the San Diego Chargers, Miami Dolphins, the St.
Louis Rams Marcus Robinson, former National Football League wide receiver, born in Fort Valley Tim Watson, former American football safety in the National Football League, born in Fort Valley LeMario Brown youngest African American male city councilman Don Faro, hip hop artist Fort Valley Georgia Website Portal style website, Business, Library and more City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about Fort Valley Football Info
River Avon, Warwickshire
The River Avon or Avon is located in central England, flowing southwestwards. It is known as the Warwickshire Avon or Shakespeare's Avon, to distinguish it from several other rivers of the same name in the United Kingdom. Beginning in Northamptonshire, the river flows through or adjoining the counties of Leicestershire, Warwickshire and Gloucestershire, near the Cotswold Hills area. Notable towns it flows through include Rugby, Stratford-upon-Avon, Evesham and Tewkesbury, where it joins the Severn, it has traditionally been divided since 1719 into the Lower Avon, below Evesham, the Upper Avon, from Evesham to above Stratford-upon-Avon. Improvements to aid navigation began in 1635, a series of locks and weirs made it possible to reach Stratford, to within 4 miles of Warwick; the Upper Avon was tortuous and prone to flooding, was abandoned as a means of navigation in 1877. The Lower Avon struggled on, never closed, although it was only navigable below Pershore by 1945. Restoration of the lower river as a navigable waterway began in 1950, was completed in 1962.
The upper river was a more daunting task, as most of the weirs were no longer extant. Work began in 1965 on the construction of nine new locks and 17 miles of river, using volunteer labour, was completed in 1974 when it was opened by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother; the Avon connects with the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal in the centre of Stratford, is used by leisure craft. Plans to extend the navigable river to provide a link with the Grand Union Canal at either Warwick or Leamington Spa have met with some opposition. "Avon" derives from the British language abona, "river", which survives as a number of other English and Scottish river names, as modern Welsh afon and Breton avon, "river". The source of the Avon is from a spring near the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire. For the first few miles of its length between Welford and the Dow Bridge on Watling Street, it forms the border between Northamptonshire and Leicestershire. On this section, it has been dammed to create Stanford Reservoir.
It flows in a west-southwesterly direction, not far north of the Cotswold Edge and through the Vale of Evesham, passing through the towns and villages of Welford, Wolston, Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon and Pershore, before it joins the River Severn at Tewkesbury. The river has a catchment size of 1,032 square miles; the Avon's tributaries include the Rivers Leam, Sowe, Arrow, Swift and Swilgate as well as many minor streams and brooks. A long distance footpath has been created which follows the river from its source to the River Severn at Tewkesbury; the route is marketed as Shakespeare's Avon Way, is 88 miles long. It uses existing tracks to stay as close to the river as is reasonably possible. Before the last Ice Age about 50,000 years ago, the Warwickshire Avon was a small river which drained northwards to the River Trent. During the Wolstonian glacial period, ice advanced into the Midlands from the north and west blocking the flow of the Avon to its former confluence with the Trent.
The waters were thus trapped: on the north and west by the glacier, by the Cotswolds to the south, resulting in the formation of a large glacial lake, called Lake Harrison. At its maximum, it is considered that this glacial lake covered the whole of Warwickshire and was over 200 feet deep. After about 10,000 years, when the glacier retreated, the water was able to cut through the previous watershed and to escape to the southwest, so forming the present day route of the river. From Alveston weir, 2 miles upstream of Stratford-upon-Avon, downstream to Tewkesbury and the River Severn, the river has been rendered navigable by the construction of locks and weirs; the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal links to the Avon through a lock in the park in front of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon. The River Avon can be used by boats with a maximum length of 70 ft, beam of 13 ft 6 in, height of 10 ft and draught of 4 ft from Tewkesbury to Evesham. Above Evesham, beam is restricted to 12 ft 6 in and draught to 3 ft.
The river is crossed by two manually operated pedestrian chain ferries, these being the Hampton Ferry in Evesham and the Stratford-upon-Avon Ferry in Stratford-upon-Avon. Traffic is now leisure-oriented. Overnight moorings are available at Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon, Offenham, Craycombe, Pershore, Comberton, Eckington and Tewkesbury. There are boatyards at Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon and Tewkesbury; the river forms part of the Avon Ring, a circular cruising route, 109 miles long, includes 129 locks. From Tewkesbury it follows the course of the River Severn, the Worcester and Birmingham Canal and the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal to arrive back at the Avon at Stratford-upon-Avon; the navigation works on the Avon were authorised by an Order in Council and Letters Patent of Charles I in 1635, which named William Sandys as the grantee, with powers to improve both this river and the River Teme. He had bought a number of mills on the river, but there were few objections from millers at those he did not own, for he built pound locks with two sets of gates, to enable vessels to pass by without the larg
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi