Healthcare in Israel
Healthcare in Israel is universal and participation in a medical insurance plan is compulsory. All Israeli residents are entitled to basic health care as a fundamental right; the Israeli healthcare system is based on the National Health Insurance Law of 1995, which mandates all citizens resident in the country to join one of four official health insurance organizations, known as Kupat Holim which are run as not-for-profit organizations and are prohibited by law from denying any Israeli resident membership. Israelis can increase their medical coverage and improve their options by purchasing private health insurance. In a survey of 48 countries in 2013, Israel's health system was ranked fourth in the world in terms of efficiency, in 2014 it ranked seventh out of 51. In 2015, Israel was ranked sixth-healthiest country in the world by Bloomberg rankings and ranked eighth in terms of life expectancy. During the Ottoman era, health care in the region of Palestine was underdeveloped. Most medical institutions were run by Christian missionaries, who attracted the indigent by offering free care.
In the late nineteenth century, as the Yishuv, the pre-state Jewish community, began to grow in the wake of the First Aliyah, the Jews attempted to establish their own medical system. In 1872, Max Sandreczky, a German Christian physician, settled in Jerusalem and opened the first children's hospital in the country, which admitted children of all faiths; the Jewish agricultural settlements, financially backed by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, hired a physician who traveled between the communities and ran a pharmacy in Jaffa which he visited twice a week. In 1902, the first Jewish hospital, Shaarei Zedek, opened in the Old City of Jerusalem. Additional Jewish hospitals were built in Jaffa. In 1911, the Judea Worker's Health Fund, which evolved into Clalit Health Services, was established as the first Zionist health insurance fund in the country. During World War I, the Ottoman authorities closed the Jewish hospitals in Jaffa; the Ottoman Army drafted most of the doctors. With the war's end and the British conquest of Palestine, the Yishuv was left without an effective hospital system.
In 1918, the Hadassah Women's Zionist Organization of America established the American Zionist Medical Unit to rebuild the Yishuv's medical system. With assistance from the AZMU and foreign contributions, the Jewish hospitals were reopened, a new one was established in Jaffa. In 1919, hospitals were opened in Safed and Tiberias, a hospital was opened in Haifa in 1922; the AZMU was turned into the Hadassah Medical Federation. With the start of British rule, measures were taken to improve public health in the area, they began during British military rule, continued to grow with the establishment of the British Mandate in 1922. In Jerusalem, accumulated refuse heaps were removed, public rubbish bins were installed. In 1929, the Zionist Commission and the British authorities sent the Jewish epidemiologist Gideon Mer to Rosh Pinna to establish a laboratory for malaria research. Mer's laboratory was instrumental in eradicating the disease; the campaign against malaria was headed by Hadassah until 1927, when the organization turned responsibility over to the authorities.
The Mandate administration operated a Health Department that operated its own hospitals and laboratories. The Health Department cared for British personnel stationed in Israel and provided health services to the Arab population. Little was invested in Jewish health, as it was assumed that the Yishuv was capable of managing its own healthcare system. With the expansion of the Yishuv through the Third and Fourth Aliyah, the number of new Jewish medical facilities grew; the number of Hadassah hospital beds tripled. New Jewish hospitals and health insurance funds were established; the other major provider of healthcare aside from Hadassah was the Histadrut labor federation, which had its own sick fund and by 1946 operated two hospitals and hundreds of clinics and health centers. In addition, some private medical centers and health funds were established; the Yishuv's health system formed the basis of the Israeli healthcare system with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. The Israeli government replaced the British Mandate's health department with a Ministry of Health, established regional health bureaus and an epidemiological service.
Hospital facilities run by the British authorities were taken over by the state, new hospitals and clinics were established. At the end of 1948, only 53% of Israel's Jewish population was insured, about 80% of them by Clalit, with a few small health funds insuring the remainder. Throughout the following years, Israel's healthcare system was expanded, within a decade, about 90% were insured. In 1973, a law was enacted which forced all employers to participate in the medical insurance of their workers, by means of a direct payment to their workers' insurance plans; the duty of participation was changed and diminished in 1991. Until the enactment of the National Health Insurance Law in 1995, the Israeli healthcare system was based on a series of independently operating Sick Funds, which were known as Kupot Holim; the largest Kupat Holim was Clalit Health Services, owned by the Histadrut labor federation. There were six other Kupot Holim, though the number was reduced to four after two of them merged.
There was a series of government-owned hospitals, with 29 hospitals operated by the government in 1987. Clalit
An ambulance is a medically equipped vehicle which transports patients to treatment facilities, such as hospitals. In some instances, out-of-hospital medical care is provided to the patient. Ambulances are used to respond to medical emergencies by emergency medical services. For this purpose, they are equipped with flashing warning lights and sirens, they can transport paramedics and other first responders to the scene, carry equipment for administering emergency care and transport patients to hospital or other definitive care. Most ambulances use a design based on pick-up trucks. Others take the form of motorcycles, buses and boats. Vehicles count as an ambulance if they can transport patients. However, it varies by jurisdiction as to whether a non-emergency patient transport vehicle is counted as an ambulance; these vehicles are not equipped with life-support equipment, are crewed by staff with fewer qualifications than the crew of emergency ambulances. Conversely, EMS agencies may have emergency response vehicles that cannot transport patients.
These are known by names such as fly-cars or response vehicles. The term ambulance comes from the Latin word "ambulare" as meaning "to walk or move about", a reference to early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling; the word meant a moving hospital, which follows an army in its movements. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish forces during the siege of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs against the Emirate of Granada. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called ambulance wagons. Field hospitals were still called ambulances during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and in the Serbo-Turkish war of 1876 though the wagons were first referred to as ambulances about 1854 during the Crimean War; the history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s.
Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances. Ambulances can be grouped into types depending on whether or not they transport patients, under what conditions. In some cases, ambulances may fulfil more than one function (such as combining emergency ambulance care with patient transport Emergency ambulance – The most common type of ambulance, which provide care to patients with an acute illness or injury; these can be road-going vans, helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft or converted vehicles such as golf carts. Patient transport ambulance – A vehicle, which has the job of transporting patients to, from or between places of medical treatment, such as hospital or dialysis center, for non-urgent care; these can be buses or other vehicles. Response vehicle – Also known as a fly-car, nontransporting EMS vehicle and variations. A vehicle, used to reach an acutely ill patient and provide on scene care. In some places, these vehicles can transport a patient, but only if they are able to sit in a regular car seat.
Response units may be backed up by an emergency ambulance which can transport the patient, or may deal with the problem on scene, with no requirement for a transport ambulance. These can be a wide variety of vehicles, from standard cars, to modified vans, pedal cycles, quad bikes or horses. Fire engines are used for this purpose in North America; these units can function as a vehicle for supervisors. Charity ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance is provided by a charity for the purpose of taking sick children or adults on trips or vacations away from hospitals, hospices or care homes where they are in long term care. Examples include; these are based on a bus. Bariatric ambulance – A special type of patient transport ambulance designed for obese patients equipped with the appropriate tools to move and manage these patients. In the US, there are four types of ambulances. There are Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV. Type I is based upon a heavy truck chassis and is used for Advanced Life Support and rescue work.
Type II is a van based ambulance with few modifications except for a raised roof and is used for basic life support and transfer of patients. Type III is a van chassis but with a custom-made rear compartment and has the same uses as Type I ambulances. Type IV is for smaller ad hoc patient transfer that use smaller utility vehicles in which passenger vehicles and trucks would have difficulty in traversing, such as large industrial complexes, commercial venues, special events with large crowds. Ambulances can be based on many types of vehicle although emergency and disaster conditions may lead to other vehicles serving as makeshift ambulances: Van or pickup truck – A typical general-purpose ambulance is based on either the chassis of a van or a light-duty truck; this chassis is modified to the designs and specifications of the purchaser. Vans may either retain their original body and be upfitted inside, or may be based on a chassis without the original body with a modular box body fitted instead.
Those based on pickup trucks always have modular bodies. Those vehicles intended for intensive care or require a large amount of equipment to be carried may be based on
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws; the first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century AD. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, differences in opinion regarding, to be recognized as a rabbi. For example, Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as rabbis. Non-Orthodox movements have chosen to do so for what they view as halakhic reasons as well as ethical reasons; the Hebrew word "master" רב rav, which means "great one", is the original Hebrew form of the title.
The form of the title in English and many other languages derives from the possessive form in Hebrew of rav: רַבִּי rabbi, meaning "My Master", the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word Rav in turn derives from the Semitic root ר-ב-ב, which in biblical Aramaic means "great" in many senses, including "revered", but appears as a prefix in construct forms. Although the usage rabbim "many" "the majority, the multitude" occurs for the assembly of the community in the Dead Sea scrolls there is no evidence to support an association with the title "Rabbi." The root is cognate to Arabic ربّ rabb, meaning "lord". As a sign of great respect, some great rabbis are called "The Rav". Rabbi is not an occupation found in the Hebrew Bible, ancient generations did not employ related titles such as Rabban, Ribbi, or Rab to describe either the Babylonian sages or the sages in Israel; the titles "Rabban" and "Rabbi" are first mentioned in the Mishnah. The term was first used for Rabban Gamaliel the elder, Rabban Simeon his son, Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai, all of whom were patriarchs or presidents of the Sanhedrin in the first century.
The title "Rabbi" occurs in the books of Matthew and John in the New Testament, where it is used in reference to "Scribes and Pharisees" as well as to Jesus. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word רִבִּי ribbī. Other variants are rəvī and, in Yiddish, rebbə; the word could be compared to the Syriac word ܪܒܝ rabi. In ancient Hebrew, rabbi was a proper term of address while speaking to a superior, in the second person, similar to a vocative case. While speaking about a superior, in the third person one could say rabbo; the term evolved into a formal title for members of the Patriarchate. Thus, the title gained an irregular plural form: רַבָּנִים rabbanim, not רַבָּי rabbay; the governments of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah were based on a system that included the Jewish kings, the Jewish prophets, the legal authority of the high court of Jerusalem, the Great Sanhedrin, the ritual authority of the priesthood. Members of the Sanhedrin had to receive their ordination in an uninterrupted line of transmission from Moses, yet rather than being referred to as rabbis they were called priests or scribes, like Ezra, called in the Bible "Ezra, the priest, the scribe, a scribe of the words of God's commandments and of His statutes unto Israel."
"Rabbi" as a religious title does not appear in the Hebrew Bible. All of the above personalities would have been expected to be steeped in the wisdom of the Torah and the commandments, which would have made them "rabbis" in the modern sense of the word; this is illustrated by a two-thousand-year-old teaching in the Mishnah, Ethics of the Fathers, which observed about King David, "One who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single Torah statement, or a single letter, must treat them with honor. For so we find with David King of Israel, who learned nothing from Ahitophel except two things, yet called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, as it is said:'You are a man of my measure, my guide, my intimate'. One can derive from this the following: If David King of Israel who learned nothing from Ahitophel except for two things, called him his teacher, his guide, his intimate, one who learns from their companion a single chapter, a single halakha, a single verse, a single statement, or a single letter, how much more must they treat them with honor.
And honor is due only for Torah, as it is said:'The wise shall inherit honor','and the perfect shall inherit good'. And only Torah is good, as it is said:'I have given you a good teaching, do not forsake My Torah'." With the destruction of the two Temples in Jerusalem, the end of the Jewish monarchy, the decline of the dual institutions of prophets and the priesthood, the focus of scholarly and spiritual leadership within the Jewish people shifted to the sages of the Men of the Great Assembly. This assembly was composed of the earliest group of "rabbis" in the mor
Intensive care medicine
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and intensive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care may require support for cardiovascular instability lethal cardiac arrhythmias, airway or respiratory compromise, acute renal failure, or the cumulative effects of multiple organ failure, more referred to now as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, they may be admitted for intensive/invasive monitoring, such as the crucial hours after major surgery when deemed too unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit. Medical studies suggest a relation between ICU volume and quality of care for mechanically ventilated patients. After adjustment for severity of illness, demographic variables, characteristics of the ICUs, higher ICU volume was associated with lower ICU and hospital mortality rates. For example, adjusted ICU mortality was 21.2% in hospitals with 87 to 150 mechanically ventilated patients annually, 14.5% in hospitals with 401 to 617 mechanically ventilated patients annually.
Hospitals with intermediate numbers of patients had outcomes between these extremes. ICU delirium and inaccurately referred to as ICU psychosis, is a syndrome common in intensive care and cardiac units where patients who are in unfamiliar, monotonous surroundings develop symptoms of delirium; this may include interpreting machine noises as human voices, seeing walls quiver, or hallucinating that someone is tapping them on the shoulder. There exists systematic reviews in which interventions of sleep promotion related outcomes in the ICU have proven impactful in the overall health of patients in the ICU. In general, it is the most expensive, technologically advanced and resource-intensive area of medical care. In the United States, estimates of the 2000 expenditure for critical care medicine ranged from US$15–55 billion. During that year, critical care medicine accounted for 0.56% of GDP, 4.2% of national health expenditure and about 13% of hospital costs. In 2011, hospital stays with ICU services accounted for just over one-quarter of all discharges but nearly one-half of aggregate total hospital charges in the United States.
The mean hospital charge was 2.5 times higher for discharges with ICU services than for those without. Intensive care takes a system-by-system approach to treatment; as such, the nine key systems are each considered on an observation-intervention-impression basis to produce a daily plan. In addition to the key systems, intensive care treatment raises other issues including psychological health, pressure points and physiotherapy, secondary infections. In alphabetical order, the nine key systems considered in the intensive care setting are: cardiovascular system, central nervous system, endocrine system, gastro-intestinal tract, integumentary system, microbiology and respiratory system. Intensive care is provided in a specialized unit of a hospital called the intensive care unit or critical care unit. Many hospitals have designated intensive care areas for certain specialities of medicine, such as the coronary intensive care unit for heart disease, medical intensive care unit, surgical intensive care unit, pediatric intensive care unit, neuroscience critical care unit, overnight intensive-recovery, shock/trauma intensive-care unit, neonatal intensive care unit, other units as dictated by the needs and available resources of each hospital.
The naming is not rigidly standardized. For a time in the early 1960s, it was not clear that specialized intensive care units were needed, so intensive care resources were brought to the room of the patient that needed the additional monitoring and resources, it became evident, that a fixed location where intensive care resources and dedicated personnel were available provided better care than ad hoc provision of intensive care services spread throughout a hospital. Common equipment in an intensive care unit includes mechanical ventilation to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy. Critical care medicine is an important medical specialty. Physicians with training in critical care medicine are referred to as intensivists. In the United States, the specialty requires additional fellowship training for physicians having completed their primary residency training in internal medicine, anesthesiology, surgery or emergency medicine. US board certification in critical care medicine is available through all five specialty boards.
Intensivists with a primary training in internal medicine sometimes pursue combined fellowship training in another subspecialty such as pulmonary medicine, infectious disease, or nephrology. The American Society of Critical Care Medicine is a well-established multiprofessional society for practitioners working in the ICU including nurses, respiratory therapists, physicians. Most medical research has demonstrated that ICU care provided by intensivists produces better outcomes and more cost-effective care; this has led the Leapfrog Group
Bnei Brak is a city located on the central Mediterranean coastal plain in Israel, just east of Tel Aviv. A center of Ultra Orthodox Judaism, Bnei Brak covers an area of 709 hectares, had a population of 193,774 in 2017, it is one of the poorest and most densely populated cities in Israel, eighth most densely populated city in the world. Bnei Brak takes its name from the ancient Biblical city of Beneberak, mentioned in the Tanakh in a long list of towns of ancient Judea; the name is cited by some as continuing the name of the Palestinian village of Ibn Ibraq, located on the site of ancient Beneberak, 4 kilometers to the south of where modern Bnei Barak was founded in 1924. Bnei Brak was founded as an agricultural village by eight Polish Hasidic families who had come to Palestine as part of the Fourth Aliyah. Yitzchok Gerstenkorn led them, it was a moshava, the primary economic activity was the cultivation of citrus fruits. Due to a lack of land, many of the founders turned to other occupations, the village began to develop an urban character.
Arye Mordechai Rabinowicz rabbi of Kurów in Poland, was the first rabbi. He was succeeded by a scion of the Vurker dynasty; the town was set up as a religious settlement from the outset, as is evident from this description of the pioneers: "Their souls were revived by the fact that they merited what their predecessors had not. What revived their weary souls in the mornings and toward evening, when they would gather in the beis medrash situated in a special shack, built upon the arrival of the first settlers, for tefilla betzibbur three times a day, for the Daf Yomi shiur, a Gemara shiur and an additional one in Mishnayos and the Shulchan Oruch."In 1928, the Great Synagogue was completed, the village committee celebrated its inauguration by presenting statistics noting its development over the past four years. Bnei Brak, with a population of about 800 residents, covered about 2,000 dunams, including about 800 dunams which were citrus groves, it had 116 houses, 31 huts, six public buildings, 48 cowsheds.
In the summer of 1929, Bnei Brak was connected to the electricity grid. In the 1931 census of Palestine, the population of Benei Beraq was 956, all Jewish, in 255 houses. In 1940, it had 25 factories. In 1948, the population was 9,300. Bnei Brak achieved city status in 1950. Rabbi Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz settled from Belarus to Bnei Brak in its early days, attracting a large following. Leading rabbis who have lived in Bnei Brak include Rabbi Yaakov Landau, Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Rabbi Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky, Rabbi Yosef Shlomo Kahaneman, Rabbi Elazar Menachem Mann Shach, Rabbi Michel Yehuda Lefkowitz, Rabbi Aharon Yehuda Leib Shteinman. Notable rabbis who reside in Bnei Brak today are Rabbi Nissim Karelitz, Rabbi Shmuel Wosner and Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky. In the early 1950s, the Vizhnitzer Rebbe, Rabbi Chaim Meir Hager, founded a large neighborhood in Bnei Brak which continued to serve as a dynastic center under his son, Rabbi Moshe Yehoshua Hager, under his grandsons, Rabbi Yisrael Hager and Rabbi Menachem Mendel Hager.
Beginning in the 1960s, the rebbes of the Ukrainian Ruzhin dynasty, who had lived in Tel Aviv, moved to Bnei Brak. In the 1990s, they were followed by the rebbe of Modzhitz. Unlike the former four Gerrer rebbes, who lived in Jerusalem, the current rebbe was a Bnei Brak resident until 2012; the rebbes of Alexander, Biala-Bnei-Brak, Machnovke, Premishlan, Shomer Emunim. Slonim-Schwarze, Tchernobil, Trisk-Bnei-Brak and Zutshke reside in Bnei Brak. Rabbi Moshe Yehuda Leib Landau was the Rabbi of Bnei Brak until his death on March 30 2019, he was a respected authority on Jewish kashrut supervision. The "Rav Landau" hechsher is accepted. Rabbi Nissim Karelitz, chief Rabbi of the Lithuanian Haredi community, heads a beth din of Lithuanian and Hasidic dayanim, called She'eris Yisroel. According to figures by the municipality of Bnei Brak, the city has a population of over 181,000 residents, the majority of whom are Haredi Jews, it has the largest population density of any city in Israel, with 25,540/km2.
In the 2019 Israeli legislative election, 88% of the voters chose Haredi parties. One of the landmarks of Bnei Brak is the Coca-Cola bottling plant in Kahaneman St, it is owned by the Central Bottling Company, which has held the Israeli franchise for Coca-Cola products since 1968. It is among Coca-Cola's ten largest single-plant bottling facilities worldwide. According to D&B, "CBC's dedication to excellence and innovative technologies in all areas of its operations has won it prizes from the US-based Coca-Cola Company, as well as recognition and accolades from various public institutions for its environmental-friendly operation and ongoing community service". Two major factories which dominated the centre of Bnei Brak for many years were the Dubek cigarette factory and the Osem food factory; as the town grew they found themselves in the middle of a residential area. Osem's main factory is now located on Jabotinsky road in Petah Tikva, just next to Bnei Brak. A business district is being built in Bnei Brak as of 2011.
Until the 1970s, the Bnei Brak municipality was headed by religious Zionist mayors. After Mayor Gottlieb of the National Religious Party was defeated, Haredi parties grew in status and influence; as the Haredi population grew, the demand
Aliyah is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel. Defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism; the opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida. The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship. For much of Jewish history, most Jews have lived in the diaspora where aliyah was developed as a national aspiration for the Jewish people, although it was not fulfilled until the development of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century; the large-scale immigration of Jews to Palestine began in 1882. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, more than 3 million Jews have moved to Israel; as of 2014, Israel and adjacent territories contain 42.9% of the world's Jewish population. Throughout the 2,000 years of dispersion, a small-scale return migration of Diaspora Jews to the Land of Israel is characterized as the Pre-Modern Aliyah.
Successive waves of Jewish settlement are an important aspect of the history of Jewish life in Israel. The'Land of Israel' is the Hebrew name for the region known in English as Israel; this traditional Hebrew toponym, in turn, has lent its name to the modern State of Israel. Since the birth of Zionism in the late 19th century, the advocates of Aliyah have striven to facilitate the settlement of Jewish refugees in Ottoman Palestine, Mandatory Palestine, the sovereign State of Israel; the following waves of migration have been identified: the First Aliyah and the Second Aliyah to Ottoman Palestine. Today, most aliyah consists of voluntary migration for ideological, economic, or family reunification purposes. Aliyah in Hebrew means "ascent" or "going up". Jewish tradition views traveling to the land of Israel as an ascent, both geographically and metaphysically. Anyone traveling to Eretz Israel from Egypt, Babylonia or the Mediterranean basin, where many Jews lived in early rabbinic times, climbed to a higher altitude.
Visiting Jerusalem, situated 2,700 feet above sea level involved an "ascent". Aliyah is a fundamental component of Zionism, it is enshrined in Israel's Law of Return, which accords any Jew and eligible non-Jews, the legal right to assisted immigration and settlement in Israel, as well as Israeli citizenship. Someone who "makes aliyah" is called an olah. Many religious Jews espouse aliyah as a return to the Promised land, regard it as the fulfillment of God's biblical promise to the descendants of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham and Jacob. Nachmanides includes making aliyah in his enumeration of the 613 commandments. In the Talmud, at the end of tractate Ketubot, the Mishnah says: "A man may compel his entire household to go up with him to the land of Israel, but may not compel one to leave." The discussion on this passage in the Mishnah emphasizes the importance of living in Israel: "One should always live in the Land of Israel in a town most of whose inhabitants are idolaters, but let no one live outside the Land in a town most of whose inhabitants are Israelites.
Sifre says that the mitzvah of living in Eretz Yisrael is as important as all the other mitzvot put together. There are many mitzvot such as shmita, the sabbatical year for farming, which can only be performed in Israel. In Zionist discourse, the term aliyah includes both voluntary immigration for ideological, emotional, or practical reasons and, on the other hand, mass flight of persecuted populations of Jews; the vast majority of Israeli Jews today trace their family's recent roots to outside the country. While many have chosen to settle in Israel rather than some other country, many had little or no choice about leaving their previous home countries. While Israel is recognized as "a country of immigrants", it is in large measure, a country of refugees, including internal refugees. Israeli citizens who marry individuals of Palestinian heritage, born within the Israeli-occupied territories and carrying Palestinian IDs, must renounce Israeli residency themselves in order to live and travel together with their spouses.
According to the traditional Jewish ordering of books of the Tanakh, the last word of the last book in the original Hebrew is veya‘al, a jussive verb form derived from the same root as aliyah, meaning "and let him go up". 2 Chronicles 36:23 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD God of heaven given me. Who among you of all his people? The LORD his God with him, let him go up. Return to the land of Israel is a recurring theme in Jewish prayers recited every day, three times a day