Scouting in Arizona
Scouting in Arizona has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. Boy Scouting was founded by Robert Baden-Powell in England and co-founded by the American Scout Major Frederick Russell Burnham. Boy Scouting was brought to the United States by William D. Boyce, he incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. The Boy Scouts of America was chartered by Congress on June 15, 1916; this is the same year as the first Boy Scout Council in Arizona was formed with the Prescott Council. Burnham served as the Honorary President of the Arizona Boy Scouts throughout the 1940s until his death in 1947; the first two Boy Scout troops in Arizona Territory were organized in Prescott, in September 1910 and in Tombstone at the same time. In Prescott, E. P. Cole of Whipple Barracks was the first Scoutmaster. Arizona Territorial Historian Sharlot Hall was an honorary member of the Tombstone troop. Scouting came to Phoenix in the fall 1910 with Clarence R. Craig as the Scoutmaster.
Other Scout troops were formed. Harold Steele, principal of the new Tucson High School, organized the first Scout troop in Tucson on April 20, 1911. On November 29, 1911 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints organized the MIA Scouts along the lines recommended by the Boy Scouts of America as part of their Mutual Improvement Association youth program. In March 1912, the LDS Church published their first lessons for the MIA Scouts in the Improvement Era. On May 21, 1913 the LDS Church was invited by the Boy Scout National Council to become the first Chartered Sponsored Organization in their movement; the Boy Scouts of America program was adopted in all LDS Church congregations as part of their youth program. Each LDS Church congregation in Arizona organized a Scout troop. In April 1921 the eight LDS troops in the Maricopa Stake and the Methodist troop met in at the Coffee Cup in Mesa to organize the Apache Council; this was the second council in Arizona. George A. Johnson was the first Council President.
Edwin M. LeBaron was the first Field Commissioner, their first summer camp was held on Sycamore Creek near Arizona. On September 16, 1921, the board of the Apache Council met with Scouters from Phoenix at the Tempe National Bank to reorganized into the Roosevelt Council, to be headquartered in Phoenix. Tim Murray from Galveston Texas, was the first professional Scout Executive; the 1922 summer camp was at Pineair. The name, Camp Geronimo, is still used by the Grand Canyon Council camp although the location has changed several times. Throughout the 1940s, Frederick Russell Burnham served as the Honorary President of the Roosevelt Council Boy Scouts; the Roosevelt Council changed its name to the Theodore Roosevelt Council. In 1993 the Theodore Roosevelt Council and the Grand Canyon Council merged with the Phoenix council assuming the current name, the Grand Canyon Council; the Nassau County Council in New York was renamed to the Theodore Roosevelt Council in 1997. In 1936, Boy Scouts in Arizona mounted a statewide campaign to save the Bighorn Sheep.
The Scouts first became interested in the sheep through the efforts of Major Frederick Russell Burnham. Burnham observed, he called George F. Miller Scout Executive of the Phoenix Scout Council, with a plan to save the sheep. Burnham said, I want you to save this majestic animal, not only because it is in danger of extinction, but of more importance, some day it might provide domestic sheep with a strain to save them from disaster at the hands of a yet unknown virus. Several other prominent Arizonans join the movement and a save the bighorns poster contest was started in schools throughout the state. Burnham appeared in store windows across Arizona; the contest-winning bighorn emblem was made up into neckerchief slides for the 10,000 Boy Scouts, talks and dramatizations were given at school assemblies and on radio. The National Wildlife Federation, the Izaak Walton League, the Audubon Society joined the effort; these efforts led to the establishment of two bighorn game ranges in Arizona: Kofa National Wildlife Refuge and Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge.
On January 18, 1939, over 1,500,000 acres were set aside and a civilian conservation corp side camp was set up to develop high mountain waterholes for the sheep. The Desert Bighorn Sheep is now the official mascot for Arizona Boy Scouts. There are two Boy Scouts of America local councils in Arizona, other multi-state councils that serve portions of Arizona: Catalina Council serves the southeastern portion of Arizona, from Ajo, Arizona to the US-Mexico border in the south, all the way east to the New Mexico border. Catalina Council is headquartered in Tucson, has four Districts, two camps. In 1920, the Tucson Council was formed, changing its name to Catalina Council in 1922; the Cochise County Council, founded in 1922, merged with the Catalina Council in 1963. Cochise Old Pueblo Santa Cruz Spanish Trails Camp Lawton has been leased from the US forest service since 1921 and has been continuously operated by the Boy Scouts of America, Catalina Council, it is located in the Santa Catalina mountains outside of Arizona.
Double V Scout Ranch is located on South Kinney Road six miles southwest of Tucson, near Tucson Mountain Park's Cat Mountain. The 360-acre ranch was acquired on a long-term lease from the Bureau of Land Management in 1969, it is used fo
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Scouting in Arkansas
Scouting in Arkansas has a long history, from 1913 to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. The Boy Scouts of America began in Arkansas in 1913, when the Little Rock Council was chartered by the National Boy Scout Council and was directed by a volunteer commissioner. In 1920, the Little Rock Council was reclassified and W. G. Moseley became the first council executive in 1921. Two years the Little Rock Council was renamed to the Pulaski County Council. In 1916, the De Soto Area Council was formed. In 1916, the Blytheville Council was formed. In 1916, the Westark Area Council was formed. In 1916, Kia Kima Scout Reservation was opened in Hardy by the Chickasaw Council. In 1917, the Jonesboro Council was formed; the council disbanded in 1930. In 1918, the Hot Springs Council was formed. In 1919, the Jefferson County Council was formed. In 1920, the Fort Smith Council was formed. In 1928 the council merged into the Northwest Arkansas Council.
In 1926, the Ozark Council was formed. In 1930, the council changed its name to the Fort Smith Area Council, changing again in 1936 to the Westark Area Council. In 1922, the Fayetteville Council was formed. In 1924, the Crowley Ridge Council was formed. In 1930, the Kanawha Area Council was formed; the council disbanded in 1930, with half of the council moving to the De Soto Area Council and the other half to the Quapaw Area Council. The Arkadelphia Boy Scout Hut, located in Central Park, Arkadelphia, is on the National Register of Historic Places. Since the roof and the original shutters and windows were replaced in 1953, the Hut is precluded from being listed on the National Register under Criterion C. However, it is listed under Criterion A as a "property that made a contribution to the major pattern of American history"; the Boy Scout Hut was constructed from 1938 to 1939 as a National Youth Administration project. It is an example of the typical type of buildings constructed by the New Deal's Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps and NYA during the Great Depression.
However, it is the only known building constructed by the NYA and the only building designed in a Rustic style that remains standing in Arkadelphia, designed and constructed during the New Deal era. Aubrey Williams, Executive Director of the National Youth Administration, stated in a press release on 24 September 1937: City Recreation Departments, children's agencies, YMCA's, YWCA's, Settlement Houses, institutions for the blind, public schools, hospitals for handicapped and crippled children, Boy's clubs, Boy Scouts, community centers and churches were reported as cooperating agencies in supervising the students and providing facilities for increased recreational programs to all young people in the community. While the Boy Scout Hut was constructed as a meeting place for two local Boy Scout troops, its use is controlled by the Boy Scouts, the building is owned by the city of Arkadelphia. Starting around 1958, the Boy Scouts allowed local Girl Scout troops to use the building. Cub Scout Pack 3024 and Girl Scout Troop 454 use the building.
All boy Scouts in the State of Arkansas are served by five area councils: the Caddo Area Council, the De Soto Area Council, the Quapaw Area Council, the Westark Area Council, the Chickasaw Council. The Caddo Area Council serves youth in ten counties in northeast Texas; the council is divided into the Double Eagle and Longhorn districts. The council is supported by the Akela Wahinapay Lodge #232. Camp Pioneer in Hatfield, Arkansas, a regional Boy Scout resident summer camp Camp Preston Hunt - near Texarkana, Arkansas, a Cub Scout and Webelos resident camp, year-round camping facility. Located outside Texarkana, Camp Preston Hunt is over 250 acres, with eleven campsites with cabins, as well as numerous areas for tent camping, swimming pool, large dining hall, lake with canoes, shower facilities, cub pirate ship, COPE course. Camp Preston Hunt is used year-round for Webelos resident camp; the Chickasaw Council serves Scouts in Crittenden County, Arkansas as well as in Shelby County and fifteen counties in northwest Mississippi.
It was founded on February 22, 1916 to oversee the many Boy Scout troops present in Memphis, Tennessee. The Chickasaw Council has two camps: Camp Currier; the Chickasaw Council is home to the Order of the Arrow Ahoalan-Nachpikin Lodge 558. The De Soto Area Council serves youth in eleven counties in southeastern Arkansas; the council is divided into three districts. Camp De Soto The council is supported by the Abooikpaagun Lodge; the lodge's headquarters is located in El Dorado and was founded in 1948, the same year the Order of the Arrow became integrated into the national camping program of the Boy Scouts of America. The Quapaw Area Council is the largest in Arkansas in both area and members, is headquartered in Little Rock. In 1927, the Pulaski County Council was renamed the Quapaw Area Council and covered several counties. In 1934, the Kanawha Area Council of Jefferson County was split between the Quapaw Area Council and t
Lone Scouts of America
Lone Scouts of America was a Scouting organization for American boys that operated from 1915 until it merged with the Boy Scouts of America in 1924. The LSA was founded by W. D. Boyce, publisher of the Chicago Ledger and the Saturday Blade and one of the founders of the BSA. Boyce felt that the program of the BSA did not help the rural boy who could not find enough other boys to form a troop or a patrol. James E. West, the first Chief Scout Executive of the BSA, disagreed with Boyce's concept, believing that the 4-H program was fulfilling the role. After Boyce left the BSA, he started the Lone Scouts of America and incorporated it on January 9, 1915. Boyce became the executive officer or Chief Totem and Frank Allan Morgan became the editor of The Lone Scout. In October 1915, Boyce appointed all of his paperboys as members of the LSA and published the first issue of The Lone Scout magazine; the LSA program was inspired by the Lonecraft program of the British Boy Scout Association and by Ernest Thompson Seton's Woodcraft Indians program that used American Indian themes.
No adult leaders were required in the Lone Scout program, there were no age limits. By November 1915, over 30,000 members were reported. Lone Scouts who lived near each other could form a "local tribe", while others could form a "mail tribe" and communicate by post. Tribes could join together to form "wigwams". Tribes elected officers such as chief, sachem and wampum-bearer. By October 1916, the LSA reported 133,000 members. By popular demand, a uniform was created in 1917 and the Lone Scout Supply Company was formed; the main link of the Lone Scouts of America was the weekly newspaper The Lone Scout, published by Boyce's company, sold by Lone Scouts. Boys were encouraged to write articles and cartoons for Lone Scout, several prizes and contests were announced. Many tribes started their own local "tribe papers"– this became part of a program that became the Authorized Lone Scout Amateur Publications. By December 1920, financial difficulties forced Boyce to publish the magazine on a monthly basis and increase the price.
The Tribe Paper Editors' Protective Association was formed to help maintain the quality of the more prestigious of the tribe papers. In 1924, a radio tribe was sponsored by Sears, Roebuck and Co.. Lone Scouts would read news stories on Sears' WLS radio station. An advancement program was developed, split into lodges; the Teepee Lodge consisted of Second Degree and the Third Degree. The Totem Pole Lodge included Fifth Degree and Sixth Degree; the Sagamore Lodge consisted of the Seventh Degree. The literary competitions were awarded with Lone Scout Contributor, Lone Scout Scribe, Lone Scout Graduate and Lone Scout Quill; the Booster Award system recognized Lone Scouts who recruited new members and was awarded in two levels: Lone Scout Organizer and Lone Scout Booster. A Lone Scout who earned Sagamore Degree, Lone Scout Booster and Lone Scout Quill was recognized as a Supreme Scout – 123 were presented. War Work medals recognized those Lone Scouts who performed service work during World War I; the beginning of the end came in 1920, when Boyce hired the first professional editor for The Lone Scout magazine, George N. Madison.
Madison discovered LSA's membership roster was wildly inaccurate and was full of duplications and inactive members. The magazine switched from a weekly to a monthly. By 1922, Boyce's newspaper business was suffering and The Lone Scout was losing money. Although membership was reported at 490,000 Lone Scouts in 1922, the editors of The Lone Scout realized that the numbers were wildly inflated; as Chicago entered the 1920s nadir of American race relations, The Lone Scout announced that they would no longer accept applications "from members of the negro race" and in 1922, the mast head of The Lone Scout changed from "A Real Boys Magazine" to "The White Boys' Magazine." The Boy Scouts of America defended their right to the usage of the term Scout, West wrote to Boyce voicing his concerns, but the BSA never brought litigation against the LSA. In 1916, the BSA created the Pioneer Scout program in direct competition to the LSA, but it was never successful. In April 1924, Boyce accepted James West's persistent offer of a merger with the BSA.
On June 16, 1924 the merger was formalized. When The Lone Scout ceased publication, many of the boys dropped out of Scouting entirely. About 65,000 Lone Scouts transferred to the BSA, membership peaked at 108,000 in 1926; the BSA ran the program unchanged for about a decade as the Lone Scout Service and the Lone Scout Division. The unique program features were eliminated and the Lone Scouts transitioned to the standard Boy Scout program. Lone Cub Scouts were added after the Cub Scouting program was introduced in 1930; the last issue of The Lone Scout in April 1924 announced the merger with the BSA. The BSA continued to print The Lone Scout for a short time before it was merged as a section of Boys' Life; some of the more literary Lone Scouts helped form the National Boy Scout Press Association. Both the Lone Scout and Lone Cub Scout programs continue to serve boys who cannot take part in a nearby troop or pack on a regular basis because of such factors as distance, disability or other difficulties.
As a Lone Scout, Charles J. Merlin of Hudson Heights, New Jersey published a tribe paper called the Lone Beaver Tribune or LBT. In 1927 he formed the Elbeetian Legion to tie together former Lone Scouts and published the Elbeetee newsletter until his death in 1995. Merlin
Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (Scouts-in-Exile)
The Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders is one of the two large Russian Scouting in Exile movements. This organization has drawn the conservative side of the spectrum of Russians in exile. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the organization Русский Скаут went into exile, continued in many countries where fleeing White Russian émigrés settled, establishing groups in France, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Hungary, Argentina, Canada, United States and for a short time in the Netherlands and Surinam. A much larger mass of Russian Scouts moved through Vladivostok to the east into Manchuria and south into China and Hong Kong; the most important leader of Russian Scouting in exile was Oleg Pantyukhov. Oleg Pantyukhov, Chief Scout of Russia, first went to Turkey and resided in France and moved to the United States, where large troops of Russian Scouts were established in cities such as San Francisco, California, Los Angeles, etc, he returned to France where he died. He served as Chief Scout of N.
O. R. S. until his death on October 25, 1973 and was involved in Russian Scouting since 1908/1909. National Organization of Russian Scouts was recognized as a Member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in exile, from 1922 to 1945; the Headquarters was first in Constantinople in Brussels and Belgrade. After World War II Russian Scout and Guide troops were founded in Displaced Persons camps in i.e. in Austria and West Germany. In Monchehof Displaced Persons Camp the Russian Scouts provided postal delivery and issued Scout stamps. So from November 14 to November 15, 1945 a Conference of Russian DP-Scout leaders took place in Munich and the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders was founded. Among the founders were Boris Borisovitsch Martino. Oleg Pantyukhov was appointed to the Chief Scout of the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders and so he was at this time the Chief Scout of both Russian Scouts-in-exile associations, he tried to unite the associations, but it failed and so he resigned as Chief Scout from ORYuR in 1957.
As neither organization was created ex nihilo, they may both be considered legitimate successors to the Русский Скаут heritage. ORYuR became a member of the Displaced Persons Scout Division from 1947 to 1950. There are groups of this Scout association in Germany, the United States and other countries in Europe, the Americas and Australia. In Germany the name "Russische St. Georgs-Pfadfinder" is sometimes used. Together with N. O. R. S. ORYuR helped to restart Scouting in Russia and other parts of the former USSR. So there are today groups of ORYuR in Lithuania. Scouting in Russia National Organization of Russian Scouts National Association of Russian Explorers Orthodox Organization of Russian Pathfinders
Camp Fire (organization)
Camp Fire Camp Fire USA and Camp Fire Girls of America, is a co-ed inclusive youth development organization. Camp Fire was the first multicultural organization for girls in America, its programs emphasize other outdoor activities for youth. Its informal roots extend back to 1910, with efforts by Mrs. Charles Farnsworth in Thetford and Luther Gulick M. D. and his wife Charlotte Vedder Gulick on Sebago Lake, near South Casco, Maine. Camp Fire Girls, as it was known at the time, was created as the sister organization to the Boy Scouts of America; the organization changed its name in 1985 to Camp Fire Boys and Girls when membership eligibility was expanded to include boys. In 2001, the name Camp Fire USA was adopted, in 2012 it became Camp Fire. Camp Fire's programs, including small group experiences, after-school programs and environmental education, child care and service learning, build confidence in younger children and provide hands-on, youth driven leadership experiences for older youth. In 1910, young girls in Thetford, watched their brothers and schoolmates – all Boy Scouts – practice their parts in the community's 150th anniversary, which would be celebrated the following summer.
The pageant's organizer, William Chauncey Langdon, promised the girls that they, would have an organized role in the pageant, although no organization such as Boy Scouts existed for girls. Langdon consulted with Mrs. Charles Farnsworth, preceptress of Horace Mann School near Thetford, Vermont. Both approached Luther Halsey Gulick M. D. about creating a national organization for girls. Gulick introduced the idea to friends, among them G. Stanley Hall, Ernest Thompson Seton, James West, executive secretary of the Boy Scouts. After many discussions and help from Gulick and his wife Charlotte, Langdon named the group of Thetford girls the Camp Fire Girls. In 1907, the Gulicks had established Camp WoHeLo, a camp for girls, on Lake Sebago, near South Casco, Maine. There were seventeen WoHeLo maidens at the camp in the summer of 1910. Both the Vermont group and the Maine group would lead to the creation of the organization formally organized as Camp Fire Girls in 1912. On March 22, 1911 Dr. Gulick organized a meeting "To consider ways and means of doing for the girls what the Boy Scout movement is designed to do for the boys".
On April 10, 1911 James E. West issued a press release from Boy Scouts of America headquarters announcing that with the success of the Boy Scout movement a group of preeminent New York men and women were organizing a group to provide outdoor activities for girls, similar to those in the Boy Scout movement. In 1911, the Camp Fire Girls planned to merge with the Girls Scouts of America formed by Clara A. Lisetor-Lane of Des Moines and Girl Guides of America to form the Girl Pioneers of America, but relationships fractured and the merger failed. Grace Seton quit the group over the rejection of her committee's draft of a handbook, followed by Linda Beard in September 1911 over difference with the Gulicks. However, there was an organization meeting held by Lina Beard on February 7, 1912 in Flushing, New York of a Girl Pioneers of America organization. Camp Fire Girls of America was incorporated in Washington, D. C, as a national agency on March 17, 1912. In late 1912, Juliette Gordon Low proposed that the Camp Fire Girls merge with her group, Girl Guides of America, but was rejected in January 1913 as the Camp Fire Girls were the larger group.
By December 1913, Camp Fire Girls' membership was an estimated 60,000, many of whom began attending affiliated summer camps. The Bluebird program was introduced that year for younger girls, offering exploration of ideas and creative play built around family and community. In 1989 the Bluebirds became Starflight; the first official Camp Fire handbook was published in 1914. During World War I Camp Fire Girls helped to sell over one million dollars in Liberty Bonds and over $900,000 in Thrift Stamps; the first local Camp Fire council was formed in 1918 in Mo.. In 1977 Kansas City would become the national headquarters for Camp Fire. Camp Fire celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1960 with the "She Cares... Do You?" program. During the project, Camp Fire planted more than two million trees, built 13,000 bird houses, completed several other conservation-oriented tasks. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Camp Fire Girls, in connection with their Golden Jubilee Convention celebration, a stamp designed by H. Edward Oliver was issued featuring the Camp Fire Girls insignia.
A new program, Junior Hi, wherein twelve- and thirteen-year-old girls explore new interests as a group and as individuals was created in 1962. This program name changed to Discovery; that same year, the WoHeLo medallion became honor. In 1969, Camp Fire Girls were allowed to be "Participants" in BSA's Explorer Posts; this arrangement ended in 1971. Membership was at 274,000 by 1974 in 1,300 communities of the United States. Camp Fire expanded its horizons in 1975. While boys were invited to Camp Fire Girls Horizon Conferences in the late 1960s and early 1970s, official membership was not offered them until 1975, when the organization became coeducational. Camp Fire decided boys and girls should be together in one organization, so they learn to play and work alongside each other and appreciate their similarities and differences in positive ways. In 1975, the Camp Fire Girls of America changed its membership policy to being co-ed and its name to Ca
Alpha Phi Omega
Alpha Phi Omega (commonly known as APO, but A-Phi-O is the largest collegiate fraternity in the United States, with chapters at over 350 campuses, an active membership of over 25,000 students, over 400,000 alumni members. There are 250 chapters in the Philippines, one in Australia and one in Canada. Alpha Phi Omega is a national co-ed service fraternity organized to provide community service, leadership development, social opportunities for college students; the purpose of the fraternity is "to assemble college students in a National Service Fraternity in the fellowship of principles derived from the Scout Oath and Scout Law of the Boy Scouts of America. Unlike many other fraternities, APO's primary focus is to provide volunteer service within four areas: service to the community, service to the campus, service to the fraternity, service to the nation & world. Being a service organization, the fraternity restricts its chapters from maintaining fraternity houses to serve as residences for their members.
This encourages members of social fraternities and sororities that have houses to join APO as well. Alpha Phi Omega was founded on December 16, 1925 at Lafayette College, on the 2nd floor of Brainerd Hall, located in Easton, Pennsylvania. APO was founded by Frank Reed Horton and 13 other students who were former Boy Scouts and scouters, as a way to continue participating in the ideals of Scouting at the college level; these founding brothers were Frank Reed Horton, Everett William Probst, Ephraim Moyer Detwiler Jr. Thane Sanford Cooley, William Taylor Wood, Lewis Burnett Blair, Gordon Minnier Looney, Donald LeRoy Terwilliger, William Weber Highberger, Robert Jefferson Green, Donald H. Fritts, Ellsworth Stewart Dobson, George Axel Olsen, Herbert Heinrich. Six advisors were inducted: Lafayette President John H. MacCracken, Dean Donald B. Prentice, Professors D. Arthur Hatch and Harry T. Spengler; the founders insisted that all those gaining membership must pledge to uphold the fraternity's three cardinal principles of Leadership and Service.
Of these important founding members, a few made notable and important contributions to APO that we still recognize today. Everett Probst designed the pin and coat of arms, Thane S. Cooley suggested the hand clasp during the toast song, Elsworth Dobson & Gordon M. Looney helped write the constitution and bylaws. Alpha Phi Omega became a national fraternity on January 11, 1927 with the founding of Beta chapter at University of Pittsburgh. Horton served as Supreme Grand Master from the founding of the fraternity until the 1931 convention. A total of 18 chapters were founded during this period. At the 1931 convention, H. Roe Bartle was elected as Supreme Grand Master and served through World War II, stepping down at the 1946 convention. During his time as president, the number of chapters grew to 109. Early in his term, Alpha Phi Omega was formally recognized by the Boy Scouts of America; the most rapid growth of the fraternity was in the post-war years. By 1950, Alpha Phi Omega had 227 chapters in the United States.
The first chapter outside the US was organized in the Philippines that year. Many Filipinos were active in the Boy Scouts. Sol Levy, an APO member from University of Washington and Professional Scouter introduced the organization to Filipino Scouts. Librado I. Ureta, a graduate student at Far Eastern University in Manila, was among the audience. Inspired by Levy's words, he read the publications and shared them with fellow Eagle Scouts and students on the FEU campus, he asked their opinion about Levy's desire and the response was good. On March 2, 1950, the Alpha Phi Omega International Service Fraternity was chartered on campus. Alpha Phi Omega grew in the Philippines. By its third year, seven chapters had been chartered at Manila and Visayan schools and it was registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a nonstock and nondividend corporation. Alpha Phi Omega Inc. was the first branch of the fraternity to be chartered outside the USA. The fraternity was opened to women in 1976. All members are called "Brothers," regardless of gender.
The Fraternity views "Brothers" as a gender-neutral term. Before women were allowed to join, several smaller sororities, parallel in ideals but independent in structure, were formed for women, Camp Fire Girls or Girl Scouts, including Gamma Sigma Sigma and Omega Phi Alpha. Several Alpha Phi Omega chapters had started "little sister" groups; the first step in paving the way for women to join Alpha Phi Omega was the Constitutional Convention in 1967, which removed the requirement that members have affiliation with the Boy Scouts of America. Starting at the 1970 National Convention, co-ed membership was sponsored by Zeta Chapter and co-sponsored by several other chapters but failed to reach the two-thirds majority at the National Conventions, required to alter the organization's bylaws. Zeta went coed that year with B. Hesselmyer being the first official woman in the national fraternity with the knowledge and help of a past national president and a current board member; some chapters went co-ed prior despite the fact that the national by-laws did not allow it.
They did so by registe