A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people.
Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems.
Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, language, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereign
Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase, Wikidata is a document-oriented database, focused on items. Each item represents a topic and is identified by a number, prefixed with the letter Q—for example. This enables the basic information required to identify the topic the item covers to be translated without favouring any language, information is added to items by creating statements. Statements take the form of pairs, with each statement consisting of a property. The creation of the project was funded by donations from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, at this time, only the first phase was available. Historically, a Wikipedia article would include a list of links, being links to articles on the same topic in other editions of Wikipedia.
Initially, Wikidata was a repository of interlanguage links. No Wikipedia language editions were able to access Wikidata, so they needed to continue to maintain their own lists of interlanguage links, on 14 January 2013, the Hungarian Wikipedia became the first to enable the provision of interlanguage links via Wikidata. This functionality was extended to the Hebrew and Italian Wikipedias on 30 January, to the English Wikipedia on 13 February, on 23 September 2013, phase 1 went live on Wikimedia Commons. The first aspects of the second phase were deployed on 4 February 2013, the values were initially limited to two data types, with more data types to follow later. The first new type, was deployed on 6 March, the ability of the various language editions of Wikipedia to access data added to Wikidata as part of phase two was rolled out progressively between 27 March and 25 April 2013. On 16 September 2015, Wikidata began allowing so-called arbitrary access, for example, in the past the article about Berlin you could not access data about Germany, but with arbitrary access it could.
On 27 April 2016 arbitrary access was activated on Wikimedia Commons, phase 3 will involve database querying and the creation of lists based on data stored on Wikidata. As of October 2016 two tools for querying Wikidata were available, AutoList and PetScan, additionally to a public SPARQL endpoint, there is concern that the project is being influenced by lobbying companies, PR professionals and search engine optimizers. As of December 2015, according to Wikimedia statistics, half of the information in Wikidata is unsourced, another 30% is labeled as having come from Wikipedia, but with no indication as to which article
A monumental plaque or tablet commemorating a deceased person or persons, can be a simple form of church monument. A plaquette is a plaque, but in English, unlike many European languages. The Benin Empire, which flourished in present-day Nigeria between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries, had a rich sculptural tradition. One of the kingdom’s chief sites of production was the elaborate ceremonial court of the Oba at the palace in Benin. Among the wide range of artistic forms produced at the court were rectangular brass or bronze plaques, surviving in great numbers, they were manufactured from sheet brass or latten, very occasionally coloured with enamels, and tend to depict highly conventional figures with brief inscriptions. In England, the London blue plaques scheme, which is administered by English Heritage, has been running for over 140 years and is thought to be the oldest of its kind in the world, Plaques are attached to buildings to commemorate their association with important occupants or events. A range of other commemorative plaque schemes, which are run by local councils and charitable bodies.
These tend to use their own criteria for determining the eligibility to put up a plaque, a list of schemes currently operating in England is available on the English Heritage website. After the First World War, the families of British and British Empire service men and women killed during the conflict were presented with bronze Memorial Plaques, the plaques, of about 125 millimetres in diameter, were designed by the eminent sculptor and medallist, Edward Carter Preston. In the United States, various governments have commemorative plaque schemes usually using the name historical markers. The National Trust for Historic Preservation or the U. S. Government, through the National Register of Historic Places, state programmes, such as the California Register of Historical Resources allows designated sites to place their own markers. As the price of metal has increased plaques have been the target of metal thieves wishing to resell the metal for cash. Plaques or, more often, are given as awards instead of trophies or ribbons.
Such plaques usually bear text describing the reason for the award and, blue plaque Hartog Plate Parting stone Stolperstein
The field studies the medals accessories, such as ribbon bars, and award certificates. It studies the historical and art history dimensions and it defines the study of badges and pins created for civilian usage. The term defines a field of collecting, although established as a scientific sub-discipline of history, phaleristics usually studies orders and decorations detached from their bodies. King George VI of England loved the study of phaleristics, going to the extent of personally overseeing his uniform designs and he is known to have designed a few British military decorations for the Royal Navy. The Russian phalerist Julius Iversen studied orders and medals in the 19th century
An award pin is a small object, usually made from metal or plastic, with a pin on the back, presented as an award of achievement or a mark of appreciation. They are worn on such as jackets, shirts or hats. Award pins usually have an image or words, or both, depicting the reason for the award, an award pin series that is offered by the U. S. Government to all eligible civilians is the Pilot Proficiency Award Program. Award pins are commonly given to participants of youth sports as a method to reinforce excellent play, there are many companies that provide Sports Award Pins. Award pins can usually be plated on Gold, Nickel, during the manufacturing process pins can be filled with enamel colors and covered with a thin coat of epoxy to protect these colors
A ribbon is an award made from ribbon and presented to mark an achievement. Such ribbons usually have a pin, brooch or bridle clip as a fastener with which the award can be attached to clothing, walls, or other surfaces. Award ribbons can be simply a piece of ribbon, a flat-folded ribbon, or fancier manipulations of the ribbon material. A rosette consists of ribbon that is pleated or gathered and arranged in a circle so that it resembles a rose, ribbons are usually imprinted with information about the award, such as the name of the event, the sponsoring organization, the placement, and the date. More sophisticated awards include the name of the recipient, special motifs, ribbon rosette awards come in many sizes from 1 Tier up to super sized rosettes of 20 Tiers. They can be glued together or sewn, however the centre disks always need to be stuck on with glue, a ribbon rosette is made up with card backing disks to attach the pleated ribbon onto thus make the tiers of the rosette. Star points and loops can be added, chosen fastener, celebration Rosettes are given to mark Birthdays, Valentines Day, Easter, Halloween or other special occasions like Weddings and even Funerals.
They can come with a ribbon attachment allowing the rosettes to be hung up to both sides, as some rosettes are produced back to back, creating two sides. Rosettes are produced in different shapes other than a circle, like ovals, diamonds, ribbon awards come in different varieties like, medals and banners all of which can be personalised at many bespoke and wholesale companies from around the world. Flower rosettes are seem to be new to the market since 2012, where particular flowers are stylised into a rosette
The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlᵻtsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each receives a certificate. The winner in the service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal. The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties, each year,102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories, one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations, the board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote.
The board can vote to issue no award, the board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work, the jurors in letters and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500. Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant, the jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were submitted, but not nominated as finalists. For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc, Dedman wrote, To call that submission a Pulitzer nomination is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters Thats My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars dont work that way—the studios dont pick the nominees and its just a way of slipping Academy Awards into a bio. The Pulitzers dont work that way, but fewer people know that, newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize.
It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships and he specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4,1917, many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928. Four prizes Robert Frost, Poetry Eugene ONeill, Drama Robert E, in rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs, Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts and fiction
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895, the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold, between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organisations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, the prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a medal, a diploma. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, physics, chemistry and economics. The prize is not awarded posthumously, however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.
Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden and he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill and this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite, Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, as it was Alfreds brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered and this inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets,31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes.
Because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobels will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobels fortune, Nobels instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established and these were Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and, in 1900, in 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved