Djibouti, officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, the remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east. Djibouti occupies an area of just 23,200 km2. In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt and the Sabean, nearby Zeila was the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. It was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars, a decade later, the Djiboutian people voted for independence. This officially marked the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti, named after its capital city, Djibouti joined the United Nations the same year, on 20 September 1977. In the early 1990s, tensions over government representation led to armed conflict, Djibouti is a multi-ethnic nation with a population of over 846,687 inhabitants. Arabic and French are the two official languages. About 94% of residents adhere to Islam, a religion that has been predominant in the region for more than 1,000 years, the Somali Issa and Afar make up the two largest ethnic groups.
Both speak Afroasiatic languages, which serve as recognized national languages, Djibouti is strategically located near some of the worlds busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. It serves as a key refueling and transshipment center, and is the principal port for imports from. A burgeoning commercial hub, the nation is the site of various military bases. The Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional body has its headquarters in Djibouti City, the Djibouti area has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during this period from the familys proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Pottery predating the mid-2nd millennium has been found at Asa Koma, the sites ware is characterized by punctate and incision geometric designs, which bear a similarity to the Sabir culture phase 1 ceramics from Malayba in Southern Arabia.
Long-horned humpless cattle bones have likewise been discovered at Asa Koma, rock art of what appear to be antelopes and a giraffe are found at Dorra and Balho. Handoga, dated to the fourth millennium BP, has in turn yielded obsidian microliths, between Djibouti City and Loyada are a number of anthropomorphic and phallic stelae. The structures are associated with graves of rectangular shape that are flanked by vertical slabs, the Djibouti-Loyada stelae are of uncertain age, and some of them are adorned with a T-shaped symbol
The Ethiopian Somali Regional State is the easternmost of the nine ethnic divisions of Ethiopia. It is often called Soomaali Galbeed on account of its position within the Greater Somalia matrix. The state borders the Ethiopian regions of Oromia and Dire Dawa to the west, as well as Djibouti to the north, Somalia to the north and south, Jijiga has been the capital of the Somali Regional State since 1994. The capital had been Kebri Dahar until 1992, when it was moved to Gode, on April 1994, the capital was moved to Jijiga on account of political considerations. Other major towns and cities include, Kebri Beyah, Kebri Dahar, Shilavo, Feer-feer, the Somali Region covers much of the traditional territory of Ogaden and it formed a large part of the pre-1995 province of Hararghe. The population is predominantly Somali, and there is pressure to remove Ethiopian rule. There have been attempts to incorporate the area into a Greater Somalia, until its first-ever district elections in February 2004, Zonal and woreda administrators, and village chairmen were appointed by the Regional government.
Senior politicians at the Regional level nominated their clients to the government positions. In the 2004 local elections, each elected a council including a spokesman, vice-spokesman, administrator. These councils have the responsibility of managing budgets and development activities within their respective districts. 02% of the population, with an estimated area of 279,252 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 15.9 people per square kilometer. Ethnic groups include Somalis, Oromo, foreign-born Somalis, Somali was spoken by 96. 82% of the inhabitants. Other major languages included Amharic, and Oromifa,98. 4% of the population is Muslim,0. 6% Orthodox Christian, and 1. 0% are followers of all other religions. There are 8 refugee camps and 1 transit center, housing 212,967 refugees from Somalia, located in Somali Region. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the population was reported to be 3,439,860. The urban residents of the Somali Region numbered 492,710 households, with an average of 6.6 persons per household, the ethnic groups included Somalis, Oromo and Gurages.
Somali was the language and is predominantly spoken within the Region. Other major languages included Oromifa and Gurage,98. 7% of the population were Muslim,0. 9% Orthodox Christian, and 0. 3% are followers of other religions. According to the CSA, as of 2004,38. 98% of the population had access to safe drinking water
The Oromo people are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia, who are found in northern Kenya and Somalia. They are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and the wider Horn of Africa, at approximately 34. 5% of Ethiopias population according to the 2007 census, with an estimated total Ethiopian population of over 102 million, the number of Oromo people exceed 35 million in Ethiopia alone. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a tongue, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. They were referred to as Galla through much of the history, the word Oromo appeared for the first time in 1893, slowly became common in the second half of the 20th century. The Oromo people subscribed to their Traditional Religion, had the system of governance in their medieval history which consisted of elections of their leaders. An elected leader by gadaa system stays on power only for 8 years, from 15 to 17 century Oromos were the dominant players in Northern Ethiopian Zemene Mesafinit era politics. The Oromo people became Christians or Muslims over the centuries, while some retained their traditional beliefs and they have been one of the parties to historic migrations, and wars particularly with northern Christians and with southern and eastern Muslims, in the Horn of Africa.
Older and subsequent colonial era documents mention Oromo people as Galla and historians such as Herbert S. Lewis consider these indirect literature as full of distortions and misunderstandings. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people likely originated around the lakes Shamo and they are Cushitic people who have inhabited the East and Northeast Africa from at least the early 1st millennium. The first verifiable record mentioning the Oromo people by a European cartographer is in the map of Italian Fra Mauro in 1460, the map was likely drawn after consultations with Ethiopian monks who visited Italy in 1441. It is a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia. This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written, Fra Mauros term Galla is the most used term, through early 20th century. The earliest primary account of Oromo ethnography, and often cited, is the 16th-century History of Galla by Christian monk Bahrey who comes from the Sidama country of Gammo and he begins his treatise on the Oromo by introducing them with prejudicial terms.
According to an 1861 book by DAbbadie, a French explorer who traveled up to Kaffa by 1843, he was told that the word Galla was derived from a war cry and used by the Gallas themselves. A journal published by International African Institute suggests it is an Oromo word for there is a word galla wandering in their language, the first known use of the word Oromo to refer to this ethnic group is traceable to 1893. The historic term for them has been Galla and this term, stated Juxon Barton in 1924, was in use for these people by Abyssinians and Arabs. The word Galla has been interpreted, such as it means to go home. In Afar language, states Morin, Galli means crowd and carries derogatory connotation ordinary, other societies such as the Anuak people refer all the migrant highlanders consisting of largely Amharas as Galla people while the Tigreans, in the past, refer Amharas as half Galla
Districts of Ethiopia
Districts, or woreda, are the third-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia. They are further subdivided into a number of wards or neighborhood associations, woredas are typically collected together into zones, which form a region, districts which are not part of a zone are designated Special Districts and function as autonomous entities. Districts are governed by a council whose members are directly elected to represent each kebele in the district. There are about 670 rural woreda and about 100 urban woreda, terminology varies, with some people considering the urban units to be woreda, while others consider only the rural units to be woreda, referring to the others as urban or city administrations. Beginning in 2002, more authority was passed to districts by transferring staff and budgets from the regional governments
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the acting on them. In geology, sedimentation is often used as the opposite of erosion, in that sense, it includes the termination of transport by saltation or true bedload transport. Settling is the falling of suspended particles through the liquid, whereas sedimentation is the termination of the settling process, in estuarine environments, settling can be influenced by the presence or absence of vegetation. Trees such as mangroves are crucial to the attenuation of waves or currents, even small molecules supply a sufficiently strong force to produce significant sedimentation. This process is used in the biotech industry to separate cells from the culture media. In a sedimentation experiment, the applied force accelerates the particles to a velocity v t e r m at which the applied force is exactly canceled by an opposing drag force.
For small enough particles, the force varies linearly with the terminal velocity, i. e. F d r a g = f v t e r m where f depends only on the properties of the particle. Thus, measuring s can reveal underlying properties of the particle, in many cases, the motion of the particles is blocked by a hard boundary, the resulting accumulation of particles at the boundary is called a sediment. The concentration of particles at the boundary is opposed by the diffusion of the particles, the sedimentation of a single particle under gravity is described by the Mason–Weaver equation, which has a simple exact solution. The sedimentation coefficient s in this case equals m b / f, the sedimentation of a single particle under centrifugal force is described by the Lamm equation, which likewise has an exact solution. The sedimentation coefficient s equals m b / f, where m b is the buoyant mass, the Lamm equation has extra terms, since it pertains to sector-shaped cells, whereas the Mason–Weaver equation is one-dimensional.
They settle as individual particles and do not flocculate or stick to other during settling, alum or iron coagulation Type 3 sedimentation is known as zone sedimentation. In this process the particles are at a high concentration such that the particles tend to settle as a mass, zone settling occurs in lime-softening, active sludge sedimentation and sludge thickeners. In geology, sedimentation is the deposition of particles carried by a fluid flow, for suspended load, this can be expressed mathematically by the Exner equation, and results in the formation of depositional landforms and the rocks that constitute sedimentary record. An undesired increased transport and sedimentation of suspended material is called siltation, high sedimentation rates can be a result of poor land management and a high frequency of flooding events. If not managed properly, it can be detrimental to fragile ecosystems on the receiving end, climate change affects siltation rates. In chemistry, sedimentation has been used to measure the size of large molecules, where the force of gravity is augmented with centrifugal force in an ultracentrifuge
Lake Abbe, known as Lake Abhe Bad, is a salt lake, lying on the Ethiopia-Djibouti border. It is one of a chain of six connected lakes, which includes lakes Gargori, Gummare, Bario. Lake Abbe is the destination of the waters of the Awash River. It lies at the Afar Triple Junction, the meeting place for the three pieces of the Earths crust, a defining feature of the Afar Depression. Here three pieces of Earth’s crust are each pulling away from that point, though not all at the same speed. On the northwest shore rises Mount Dama Ali, a dormant volcano, besides the Awash, seasonal affluents of Lake Abbe include two wadis, the Oleldere and Abuna Merekes, which enter the lake from the west and south, crossing the salt flats. Although the present area of the open water is 34,000 hectares, recent droughts. By 1984, the area of the lake had decreased to two thirds of what it was in 1940. During this period about 11,500 hectares of saltflats had formed to the southwest of the lake, Lake Abbe is a hypersaline lake, water containing mineral salts flows but there is no outflow, and pure water evaporates from the surface.
It is known as a lake, the water level fluctuating dramatically in response to quite small changes in climate. The Afar people have established a settlement near the lakes shore, Lake Abbe is known for its limestone chimneys, which reach heights of 50 m and from which steam spews forth. Flamingos can be found on the waters, photos of Lake Abbe ILEC database entry for Lake Abbe Recent trip to Lake Abbe with photos
Addis Ababa or Addis Abeba, is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It has a population of 3,384,569 according to the 2007 population census and this number has been increased from the originally published 2,738,248 figure and appears to be still largely underestimated. As a chartered city, Addis Ababa has the status of both a city and a state and it is where the African Union is and its predecessor the OAU was based. It hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as the political capital of Africa for its historical and political significance for the continent. The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia and it is home to Addis Ababa University. The Federation of African Societies of Chemistry and Horn of Africa Press Institute are headquartered in Addis Ababa, Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30 hecatre site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, the site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II.
His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area. However, the area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the Filwoha hot mineral springs, other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wifes house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today. The name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopias capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia, the town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Meneliks contributions that is visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. Following all the engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment practiced elsewhere, the city was liberated by Major Orde Wingates Sudanese and Ethiopian Gideon Force in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassies return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left.
Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963, the OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has its headquarters in Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa was the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965. Ethiopia has often called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy. After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, the research indicated that genetic diversity decreases steadily the farther ones ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Shewa, formerly romanized as Shoa, is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center, Shewa was as defensible as any highland, and its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven, at other times, the towns of Debre Berhan, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times. The monastery of Debre Libanos, founded by Saint Tekle Haymanot, is located in the district of Selale, Shewa first appears in the historical record as a Muslim state, which G. W. B. Huntingford believed was founded in 896, and had its capital at Walalah and it is believed to have been part of the Ethiopian Aksum kingdom for over a millennium before falling to Muslim neighbors. This state was absorbed by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285, three urban centers thought to be part of the Islamic kingdom of Shewa were discovered by a group of French archaeologists.
Yekuno Amlak based his uprising against the Zagwe dynasty from an enclave in Shewa that was settled by Amhara Christians. He claimed Solomonic forebears, direct descendants of the pre-Zagwe Axumite emperors and this claim is supported by the Kebra Nagast, a book written under one of the descendants of Yekuno Amlak, which mentions Shewa as part of the realm of Menelik I. Aksum and its predecessor Dmt were mostly limited to Northern Ethiopia, Shewa eventually became a part of the Amhara-Abyssinian empire upon the rise of the Amhara Solomonic dynasty as well as the Adal empire. In the 16th century, which was still an Islamic moiety, and the rest of Christian Abyssinia were conquered by the forces of Ahmed Al-Ghazi of Adal, and Shewa came under Muslim Adal rule. The region came under pressure from the Oromo expansion, who succeeded during the first decades of the century in settling the areas around Shewa. Presently, the Oromos of Wollo and Arsi in particular are predominantly Muslim, little is known about the details of the history of Shewa until almost 1800, Emperor Lebna Dengel and some of his sons used Shewa as their safe haven when threatened by invaders.
The Amhara Shewan ruling family was founded in the late 17th century by Negassie, thus the ruling family of Shewa were considered the junior branch of the Solomonic dynasty after the senior Gondar branch. Negassies son, Sebestyanos assumed the title of Meridazmach, which was unique to Shewa and his descendants continued to bear this title until Sahle Selassie of Shewa was declared king of Shewa in the 1830s. His grandson, Sahle Maryam, eventually would succeed as Emperor of all Ethiopia at the end of the century under name Menelik II, the title of King of Shewa was subsumed into the imperial title of Emperor of Ethiopia when Menelik became Emperor. Shewan kings spread their control towards the south and east, through lowland and desert, the kingdom of Shewa that Menelik II brought into the Ethiopian realm had been somewhat expanded, and thus added significantly to the total area of the empire. The northern migration of Oromos into Shewa since the 1500s changed its demography, having already influenced Gondar in the 1700s, Oromos in Shewa gained power in the 1800s, particularly the Tulama.
Ras Gobana was notable for forming alliances and militarily extending Shoan domain to the south, Ethiopia reached further frontiers through expansion to the east and south, resulting in the Shewan region as the physical center of the modern country
Great Rift Valley, Ethiopia
The Great Rift Valley of Ethiopia, is a branch of the East African Rift that runs through Ethiopia in a southwest direction from the Afar Triple Junction. In the past, it was seen as part of a Great Rift Valley that ran from Mozambique to Syria, the Great Rift Valley lies between the Ethiopian Plateau to the north and the Somalia Plateau to the south. The rift developed as the Nubian and Somalian plates began to separate during the Miocene Period along the East African rift system, the rift is extending in an ESE-WNW direction at about 5-7 millimetres annually. These faults are now thought to be inactive at the rift valley termination. The rift floor is cut by a series of en echelon, right-stepping. These basins are about 20 kilometres wide and 60 kilometres long, in the northern part of the rift, extension within the valley is now thought to be mainly along these faulted and magmatically active segments. These segments are considered to be developing mid ocean ridge spreading centers, the Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes are the northernmost of the African Rift Valley Lakes.
The Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes occupy the floor of the valley between the two highlands. Most of the Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes do not have an outlet, the major ones are Lake Abaya, the largest Ethiopian Rift Valley lake Lake Chamo Lake Zway Lake Shala, the deepest Ethiopian Rift Valley lake Lake Koka Lake Langano Lake Abijatta Lake Awasa
Awash National Park
Awash National Park is one of the national parks of Ethiopia. The Addis Ababa - Dire Dawa highway passes through this park, in the south of the park the Awash River gorge has amazing waterfalls. In the upper Kudu Valley at Filwoha are hot springs amid groves of palm trees, the Awash National Park was established in 1966, although the act authorizing its existence was not completely passed for another three years. Wildlife in this include the East African oryx, Soemmerrings gazelle, dik-dik, the lesser and greater kudus. Anubis baboons and hamadryas baboons are present, as well as over 453 species of birds like the North African ostriches. Previously there were packs of the African wild dog, but this species may now be locally extirpated, The Bradt Travel Guide, 3rd edition, pp. 335f C. Michael Hogan. Painted Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher. com, ed. N. Stromberg Official site