Åhléns is a chain of Swedish department stores. With locations in every city in the country, including 18 in Stockholm alone as of March 2007, it is the fourth largest group of fashion stores in Sweden. Åhléns began as a mail order business. It was created in 1899 by Johan Petter Åhlén and Erik Holm, in the little town of Insjön in the province of Dalarna; the name of the company was first “Åhlén och Holm”. The first item sold by the company was a print of the royal family. Over 100,000 copies were sold, it was successful. Åhlén and Holm continued to grow over the years. After only 10 years, JP Åhlén had a company with a worth of 1.5 million 255 employees. In 1915, the company moved to Stockholm with half its employees. Before he moved the company, JP Åhlén secured a seven-floor storage building. In 1932, Åhlén decided that he wanted to expand the business and create a retail trade store with low prices, he opened it on Östermalmstorg in Stockholm. Åhlén died in 1939. On the 50th anniversary of the establishment of Åhléns and Holm, the company boasted a worth of 87 million SEK, with a force of more than 2700 workers.
The mail order business was shut down in the 1960s, a store called Åhléns City was opened in 1964 in the heart of Stockholm. In 1985, all the Tempo department stores re-branded as Åhléns. In 1988, Åhléns City was sold to Axel Johnson AB, owned by Antonia Ax:son Johnson. Åhléns stores have now been converted into department stores and moved upmarket, now concentrate on four business areas: Fashion, Beauty and Media. Åhléns' loyalty card is called the Åhléns Club. In 2009, Åhléns City's sales totalled 6202 million SEK in stores, the profit was 216 million SEK. In 2017, a truck crashed into the Åhléns City in a terrorist attack. Five died, at least 15 pedestrians were injured, 9 of whom suffered severe injuries. Official website Axel Johnson official website
Axfood AB is a Swedish company that operates in Sweden. It was formed in May 2000 through a merger between the Swedish grocery store chains Hemköp, D&D Dagligvaror, Spar Sverige, Spar Inn Snabbgross; the Group's retail operations are conducted through the Willys, Hemköp, Axfood Snabbgross chains, comprising 300 group-owned stores in all. In addition, Axfood collaborates with a large number of proprietor-run stores that are tied to Axfood through agreements; these include stores within the Hemköp chain as well as stores run under the Handlar'n, Direkten and Tempo profiles. In all, Axfood collaborates with some 840 proprietor-run stores. Wholesale business is conducted via Axfood Närlivs. Axfood is listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm AB's Large Cap list. Axel Johnson AB is the principal owner with 50.1 percent of the shares. Axfood's private labels consist of Willys, Hemköp, Axfood Snabbgross, Eldorado, Såklart, Prime patrol, Falkenberg Seafood and Fixa. Axfood is a member of the European Marketing Distribution, a European purchasing organization for grocery stores, United Nordic.
1958 The grocer “Spik-Olle” opened the first Hemköp store. 1975 Willys’ predecessor, LL:s Livs started. 1986 Willy Schlees opened his first discount grocery store in Kungsbacka. 2000 Axfood was formed through the combination of Dagab and D-gruppen. 2008 The private label Garant was launched. 2014 Part owner of Urban Deli. 2016 Acquisition of Eurocash, 51%. 2017 Axfood acquired Middagsfrid. Axfood has a 20 % market share in Sweden; the company's main competitors include ICA, Coop Forum, City Gross and Netto. Axfood's sustainability and CSR work is based on its Code of Conduct; the company has numerous sustainability goals. The six central work areas are sustainable products and energy, transports, responsible suppliers, corporate social responsibility and influence. Axfood publishes a sustainability report every year, it includes information about the Group’s work towards achieving leadership in sustainable development, including targets and results. List of Swedish companies Axfood - Official site
Nordstjernan is a Swedish investment company. Nordstjernan is a fourth-generation family company controlled by the Axel and Margaret Ax:son Johnson Foundation; the origin is the shipping company Nordstjernan, founded in 1890. The founder, Axel Johnson, was a businessman of his time and built up capital through knowledgeable share-trading. In 1890, he formed the Nordstjernan shipping company, his business acumen, combined with personal contacts among the economic elite, meant that there were prerequisites for the development of the business concept in combination with a favourable level of financing. By the start of the twentieth century, Axel Johnson was a leading shipowner in Sweden and a pioneer of regular traffic to South America, with the La Plata route, it was Axel Johnson's final business transaction. He managed to break the international coffee monopoly, "the coffee conference", a controlled pricing cartel for the transportation of coffee to Europe. Axel Johnson built, thanks to his talent and ambition, combined with favourable external factors, the company, to form the basis of the Johnson Group, and, developed by his son, Axel Ax:son Johnson.
Axel Ax:son Johnson, or the Consul-General as he called himself, took over from his father in 1910, aged 34. New technology was introduced and old technology was sold before anyone else understood that it had become out-dated, such as the sale of steam vessels and the purchase of diesel-driven ships. More than 20 years in 1936, the Johnson Group was an exponent of modern Sweden; the Consul-General, described as "a collector of synergies," had three major industrial deeds behind him by that time. At the start of the 1920s, Nordstjernan had the world's first diesel-driven ocean-going fleet and the head-start on competitors meant the ability to open new routes the Pacific Lines to the west coasts of North and South America via the Panama Canal. In 1924, he launched stainless steel in Sweden and, in 1928, he had Sweden's first oil refinery built in Nynäshamn; the diversification and expansion of the Johnson Group was guided by the integration principle. The aim was to make the Group self-sufficient in services.
The trading house took care of the sales and purchases for Avesta Jernverk, the shipping company was formed to take care of the trading house's transport requirements, the oil refinery supplied the vessels of the shipping company with oil and the Swedish roads with asphalt. The investments formed the core of the empire, which comprised a hundred companies at the time of his death; the Consul-General left behind him Sweden's largest individually controlled group of companies. The Consul-General's oldest son, Mining Engineer Axel Ax:son Johnson, took over the reins and the further development of the Group. Nordstjernan became a pioneer in container transport. In this, the Mining Engineer was following the traditional Johnson principle, self-sufficiency through integration. Fruit companies were purchased becoming SABA in cooperation with Saléns, in order to fill the space in newly built refrigerated vessels. Under the leadership of the Mining Engineer, the computer company Datema was started and connections with the Soviet Union were developed and increased.
In 1918, Johnson had become the first foreign company to sign a trade agreement with the new communist government. The Johnson Group became one of the Soviet Union's largest single trading partners. At the beginning of the 1960s, Nordstjernan was expanded and internationalized, like the rest of Swedish industry; this was a consequence of the head-start achieved because Sweden was not involved in World War II. New markets opened up and trade was liberalized. Nordstjernan evolved into a vast conglomerate; the crisis experienced by Sweden in the 1970s was reflected in all of Nordstjernan's sectors. Long-term structural changes and economic cycles caused major losses in most of the businesses operated by the Group - shipping, engineering and steel; the 1970s crisis forced Nordstjernan to break with the sacred principle of complete independence and the listing of the company began to be discussed with the aim of gaining access to external venture capital. In 1981, Bo Ax:son Johnson took over his brother's earlier assignments and functions in the Johnson Group, with the exception of those taken over by Axel's daughter Antonia Ax:son Johnson, A. Johnson & Co and A. Johnson & Co Inc.
Bo Ax:son Johnson began what is called a "cultural revolution" and implemented major changes in Nordstjernan's operations. This meant investment in one core business, the construction sector, which constituted about 30 percent of Nordstjernan's sales in 1985, was a sector in which the Group had long had an interest in the form of wholly owned companies, including Strå Kalkbruk, Nya Asfalt and Svenska Väg; the structural transformation and concentration into one core operation is something of a record in Swedish industry. Some 180 companies and legal entities were sold in the ensuing years. No fewer than five companies were listed on the stock market in the process, including Avesta Jernverk, Silja Line, NK and Linjebuss; this streamlining process created the opportunities for NCC, the construction and real estate company, to expand. This company was listed as Nordstjernan, but changed its name to NCC following the acquisition of ABV in 1988. In the 1980s, Nordstjernan was transformed from a closed family company and industrial conglomerate to become a listed Nordic const
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
NCC AB is a Swedish construction company, the second largest in the Nordic region with annual revenues of 54,6 billion SEK and about 17 762 employees. NCC develops and builds residential and commercial properties, industrial facilities and public buildings, civil engineering structures and other types of infrastructure. NCC offers input materials used in construction, such as aggregates and asphalt, conducts paving and road services. NCC conducts operations in the Nordic region; the origins of NCC Construction go back to 1890 when Axel Johnson, a Swedish businessman, established "Nordstjernan" - the North Star. This company became one of the leading Nordic shipping companies. In late 1987, Nordstjernan AB began acquiring shares in the listed construction company Armerad Betong Vägförbättringar. At the time, Nordstjernan had its own construction company called Johnson Construction Company. In spring 1988, Nordstjernan increased its shareholding in the company and, by May 21, 1988, ABV was considered a Nordstjernan subsidiary.
At the company's Annual General Meeting on June 8 President of JCC, Torsten Eriksson, was appointed President of ABV. On June 9, 1988, the President sent a letter containing information about the merger and upcoming integration to the company's 20,000 employees and to 30,000 business contacts. Work on the new organization was completed by September 8, when 475 managers were appointed and a Group structure was established. Company President Torsten Eriksson settled the question concerning the location of the head office of Nordic Construction Company, as the joint company was to be called, when he selected ABV's head office on Vallgatan in Solna. Four days Nordstjernan was listed on the stock exchange. On September 20, 1988, Nordstjernan acquired all of the shares in NCC from JCC, upon which the construction operations of JCC and ABV were transferred to NCC. Following the acquisition, JCC became a subsidiary of NCC and changed its name to NCC Bygg AB. Although the NCC Group was formed on January 1, 1989, JCC and ABV have been assembled under a single roof and a shared logo since October 15, 1988, when a joint graphic profile was launched.
NCC's Construction units construct residential and office properties, other buildings, industrial facilities, civil-engineering structures and other types of infrastructure. The core business is conducted in the Baltic countries and Germany. NCC Housing develops and sells housing in selected markets in the Nordic region, the Baltic countries and Germany; the business area became operational on January 1, 2009. Up to the end of 2008, these operations were included in NCC's Construction units. NCC Roads supplies services used in and around roads; the business area's range of operations extends across the entire value chain, from the production of aggregates and asphalt products to paving work and road service. The products and methods used by NCC Roads are developed with the aim of reducing the environmental impact from operations. New energy-saving paving technologies, recycling of asphalt and alternative fuels are a few examples of these efforts. Through various initiatives, NCC Roads aims to contribute to more sustainable urban development.
NCC Roads produces six million tons of asphalt and 25 million tons of stone materials and aggregates each year. This makes us the Nordic region's largest player in the asphalt and aggregates industry; the main market for NCC Roads is the Nordic region, where Sweden constitutes the single largest market. NCC Roads has operations in St. Petersburg. In addition, aggregate products are exported to countries around the Baltic Sea. NCC Property Development develops and sells commercial properties in defined growth markets in the Nordic countries and the Baltic region. Turning Torso is located by the sea, within walking distance from the beach and the heart of downtown Malmö; when it opened its doors for occupancy in the spring of 2005, the spectacular building stood at a height of 190 meters, with a total of 54 stories. The building contains 147 rental apartments, it houses 4,200 square meters of office space. Other facilities include overnight rooms and exercise facilities, an observation gallery, party facilities, a wine cellar and office modules.
The property is equipped with district heating and cooling, featuring individual consumption measurement. Four years after the building start and 362 years after the Vasa Ship sank, the Vasa Museum was inaugurated on the June 15, 1990; the Vasa Museum is today Scandinavia's most visited museum. Surrounding the ship are several permanent exhibitions, cinemas, a shop and a restaurant; the museum was designed by Månsson Dahlbäck Arkitektkontor and built by NCC. More about the project Kista Science Tower in Kista, Stockholm is the second tallest building in Sweden, at a height of 117.2 metres. Kista Science Tower was completed in 2003; the Öresund link, 16 kilometers long, is one of Scandinavia's most important infrastructural achievements to date. It consists of three sections: a tunnel, a bridge and a manmade island that links together the tunnel and the bridge in the middle of the Öresund Strait; the bridge starts in the tunnel in Denmark. NCC led the Øresund Tunnel Contractors, the international consortium that built the 3.7-kilometer-long Öresund Tunnel.
More about the project Official website