Wiltshire Police known as Wiltshire Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Wiltshire in the south-west of England. In terms of officer numbers, it is the third smallest force in the United Kingdom but has the 20th largest geographic area to police of the 45 territorial police forces of the country. Before 1839, policing in Wiltshire was the responsibility of petty and parish constables, who were supervised by magistrates; this was ineffective as they were unpaid and untrained. Independent and private forces, such as the Devizes Prosecution Society and continued to operate after Wiltshire Police was formed; the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 meant that Salisbury Borough was formed and was required to have an official city force, that would replace the local force: New Sarum Police. The Salisbury City Police was founded in 1836 and was the first modern police force to operate in Wiltshire. In 1839, several groups of labourers rioted in many parts of the county over the price of food and the introduction of new farm equipment, taking their jobs.
In response to the 225 incidents, residents of Wiltshire called for the formation of a police force similar to Robert Peel's Metropolitan Police force, whose'A' division had visited in 1836 to help control riots. When the County Police Act 1839 was introduced, Wiltshire became the first county to form a county-level police force, with Wiltshire Constabulary being established on Wednesday 13 November 1839 at The Bear Hotel, mere hours before the second; the first Chief Constable was Captain Samuel Meredith RN who placed an advertisement in the local paper to recruit 200 constables who were paid 17/6d a week. New constables were given their uniform and an instruction booklet and sent off to work without any training or guidance, it was not until 1843. Wiltshire Constabulary started operating from January 1840 and had filled all its posts by summertime; the Chief Constable spent the first months of his time visiting all the boroughs in Wiltshire, spending all his £400 salary on travel. The first ranks were only Constable and Superintendent, but Sergeant, Inspector and five classes of Constable were introduced.
Notable events for Wiltshire Police include the Rode Hill House murder in 1860, the bomb explosion outside Salisbury Guildhall in September 1884, the Trowbridge Christmas Eve murder in 1925 and escorting Louis Blériot when displaying his famous cross-channel aeroplane. Salisbury continued to have a separate police force to the rest of Wiltshire until World War II, when the two were merged; the merger took effect on 1 April 1943 and was a temporary measure, but became permanent after the war ended. On 6 July 1961, Sir Charles Carter Chitham, a retired policeman of the former British India, laid the foundation stone of the new Wiltshire Police county headquarters at Devizes. Twice in the 1980s, Wiltshire Police officers had to cover for the prison officers of Erlestoke Prison when they went on strike. In 1985, the force was involved in the Battle of the Beanfield, which prevented a convoy of new age travellers, known as the Peace Convoy, from establishing the fourteenth Stonehenge free festival at Stonehenge.
The incident led to accusations of a police riot. The police had to deal with the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp who were protesting against nuclear weapons being kept in Greenham Common, Berkshire. Most the 1980s saw the introduction of the Police National Computer and Control systems and the HOLMES investigation system. A national probationary training programme was introduced in all forces for new recruits. In 2005, Wiltshire Constabulary changed its name to Wiltshire Police. 1839–1870 Captain Samuel Meredith RN 1870–1908 Captain Robert Sterne RN 1908–1943 Colonel Sir Höel Llewellyn DSO, DL 1943–1946 Mr W. T. Brooks 1946–1963 Lt Colonel Harold Golden CBE 1963–1979 Mr George Robert Glendinning OBE, QPM 1979–1983 Mr Kenneth Mayer QPM 1983–1988 Mr Donald Smith OBE, QPM 1988–1997 Mr Walter Girven QPM, LL B, FBIM 1997–2004 Dame Elizabeth Neville DBE, QPM, MA, PhD 2004–2007 Mr Martin Richards QPM 2008–2012 Mr Brian Moore QPM 2012–2013 Mr Patrick Geenty 2013–2015 Mr Patrick Geenty 2015–2018 Mr Mike Veale 2018– Mr Kier Pritchard 2018– Mr Paul Mills The force was under the local oversight of the Wiltshire Police Authority until 2012.
The police authority had nine councillor members, who were appointed from Wiltshire Council and Swindon Borough Council, eight independent members, one of whom was a justice of the peace. The responsible government department is the Home Office. On 15 November 2012, the Crime Commissioner elections took place in England and Wales. In Wiltshire, Angus Macpherson was elected Crime Commissioner; the police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Wiltshire Police and Crime Panel, made up of elected councillors from the local authorities in the police area. Wiltshire Police is not divided into divisions; the county was divided into Divisions A, B, C and D. This was changed to D and E division; this has changed to just one division called'W' meaning that Wiltshire Police does not have divisions, just one Basic Command Unit. Instead the organisation is divided into command sectors headed by Inspectors; each sector has a'hub' where all officers are based, who travel to their patrol area returning only to the'hub' when necessary.
NPT officers are stationed at local police stations and do not follow
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Wiltshire Council is a council for the unitary authority of Wiltshire in South West England, created in 2009. It is the successor authority to Wiltshire County Council and the four district councils of Kennet, North Wiltshire and West Wiltshire, all of which were created in 1974 and abolished in 2009; the ceremonial county of Wiltshire consists of two unitary authority areas and Swindon, administered by Wiltshire Council and Swindon Borough Council. Before 2009, Wiltshire was administered as a non-metropolitan county by Wiltshire County Council, with four districts, North Wiltshire and West Wiltshire. Swindon, in the north of the county, had been a separate unitary authority since 1997, on 5 December 2007 the Government announced that the rest of Wiltshire would move to unitary status; this was put into effect by a statutory instrument as part of the 2009 structural changes to local government in England. With the abolition of the District of Salisbury, a new Salisbury City Council was created at the same time to carry out several citywide functions and to hold the City's charter.
The unitary authority provides local government services to 435,000 Wiltshire residents and is the biggest employer in Wiltshire, being responsible for schools, social services, rubbish collection and disposal, county roads and leisure services. Most executive decisions are taken by the authority's cabinet, each member of which has a particular area of responsibility. Development control is undertaken by five planning committees, the powers of which cannot be exercised by the cabinet. Members of the authority are appointed to a wide range of outside bodies, providing them with some element of democratic accountability, such as the Kennet and Avon Canal Trust, the Wiltshire Victoria County History, the Wiltshire Historic Buildings Trust; as a result of the first elections to the new authority, plus two by-elections held in September 2009 and December 2010, an Independent joining UKIP while remaining in the Independent group, a defection in May 2012 by a Liberal Democrat councillor to the Conservatives, in November 2012 by another Lib Dem and a Conservative to the Independents, by the beginning of 2013 Wiltshire Council consisted of 61 Conservatives, 22 Liberal Democrats, ten Independents including one UKIP member, three Devizes Guardians, two Labour members.
The elections of 2013 produced an unexpected swing to the Liberal Democrats, who made a net gain of five seats, while all three Devizes Guardians lost their seats to the Conservatives and the Labour group increased from two to four. The overall result was 58 Conservatives, 27 Liberals, eight Independents, four Labour, one UKIP member. However, during the following year four Liberal Democrats defected from their political group: one to the Conservatives and three to the Independents. In a by-election in May 2015 at Chippenham Hardenhuish the Conservatives gained a seat from the Liberal Democrats, in November they gained another at Salisbury St Edmund at a by-election in May 2016 the Liberal Democrats gained Amesbury East from the Conservatives; the 2017 election resulted in the Conservatives increasing their share of seats at the expense of the Liberal Democrats, Labour and UKIP. Wiltshire Council operates from the same Trowbridge base as the old Wiltshire County Council. In 2012 the County Hall building was developed at a cost of about £ 24 million.
The remodelled New County Hall includes benefits services and housing advice, the Trowbridge library, the town's Register Office, a cafe. List of civil parishes in Wiltshire List of places in Wiltshire Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre Wiltshire Library and Information Service Official website Wiltshire census statistics at statistics.gov.uk Wiltshire Joint Strategic Assessments Wiltshire Council official tourism website
Swindon is a large town in Wiltshire, South West England, situated between Bristol, 35 miles to its west, Reading, the same distance to its east. The town is 71 miles west of London. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 182,441; the Town Development Act 1952 led to a major increase in its population. Swindon railway station is on the line from London Paddington to Bristol. Swindon Borough Council is a unitary authority, independent of Wiltshire Council since 1997. Residents of Swindon are known as Swindonians. Swindon is home to the Bodleian Library's book depository, the English Heritage National Monument Record Centre, the headquarters of the National Trust, on the site of the former Great Western Railway works, the Nationwide Building Society, a Honda car manufacturing plant; the original Anglo-Saxon settlement of Swindon sat in a defensible position atop a limestone hill. It is referred to in the Domesday Book as Suindune, believed to be derived from the Old English words "swine" and "dun" meaning "pig hill" or Sweyn's hill, Sweyn being derived from the German word „Schwein“, meaning pig.
Before the Battle of Hastings the Swindon estate was owned by an Anglo-Saxon thane called Leofgeat. After the Norman Conquest Swindon was given to Wadard, a knight in the service of Odo of Bayeux, brother of the king; the Goddard family were lord of the manor for many generations, living at the manor house, sometimes known as The Lawn. Swindon was a small market town for barter trade, until 1848; this original market area is on top of the hill in central Swindon, now known as Old Town. The Industrial Revolution was responsible for an acceleration of Swindon's growth, it started with the construction of the Wilts and Berks Canal in 1810 and the North Wilts Canal in 1819. The canals brought trade to the area and Swindon's population started to grow. Between 1841 and 1842, Isambard Kingdom Brunel's Swindon Works was built for the repair and maintenance of locomotives on the Great Western Railway; the GWR built a small railway village to house some of its workers. The Steam Railway Museum and English Heritage, including the English Heritage Archive, now occupy part of the old works.
In the village were the GWR Medical Fund Clinic at Park House and its hospital, both on Faringdon Road, the 1892 health centre in Milton Road, which housed clinics, a pharmacy, baths, Turkish baths and swimming pools, was opposite. From 1871, GWR workers had a small amount deducted from their weekly pay and put into a healthcare fund. In 1878 the fund began providing artificial limbs made by craftsmen from the carriage and wagon works, nine years opened its first dental surgery. In his first few months in post the dentist extracted more than 2,000 teeth. From the opening in 1892 of the health centre, a doctor could prescribe a haircut or a bath; the cradle-to-grave extent of this service was used as a blueprint for the NHS. The Mechanics' Institute, formed in 1844, moved into a building that looked rather like a church and included a covered market, on 1 May 1855; the New Swindon Improvement Company, a co-operative, raised the funds for this programme of self-improvement and paid the GWR £40 a year for its new home on a site at the heart of the railway village.
It was a groundbreaking organisation that transformed the railway's workforce into some of the country's best-educated manual workers. The Mechanics' Institute had the UK's first lending library, a range of improving lectures, access to a theatre and various other activities, such as ambulance classes and xylophone lessons. A former institute secretary formed the New Swindon Co-operative Society in 1853 which, after a schism in the society's membership, spawned the New Swindon Industrial Society, which ran a retail business from a stall in the market at the institute; the institute nurtured pioneering trades unionists and encouraged local democracy. When tuberculosis hit the new town, the Mechanics' Institute persuaded the industrial pioneers of North Wiltshire to agree that the railway's former employees should continue to receive medical attention from the doctors of the GWR Medical Society Fund, which the institute had played a role in establishing and funding. Swindon's'other' railway, the Swindon and Andover Railway, merged with the Swindon and Cheltenham Extension Railway to form the Midland & South Western Junction Railway, which set out to join the London & South Western Railway with the Midland Railway at Cheltenham.
The Swindon, Marlborough & Andover had planned to tunnel under the hill on which Swindon's Old Town stands but the money ran out and the railway ran into Swindon Town railway station, off Devizes Road in the Old Town, skirting the new town to the west, intersecting with the GWR at Rushey Platt and heading north for Cirencester and the LMS, whose'Midland Red' livery the M&SWJR adopted. During the second half of the 19th century, Swindon New Town grew around the main line between London and Bristol. In 1900, the original market town, Old Swindon, merged with its new neighbour at the bottom of the hill to become a single town. On 1 July 1923, the GWR took over the single-track M&SWJR and the line northwards from Swindon Town was diverted to Swindon Junction station, leaving the Town station with only the line south to Andover and Salisbury; the last passenger trains on what had been the SM&A ran on 10 September 1961, 80 years after the railway's first stretch opened. During the first half of the 20th century, the railway works was the town's largest employer and one of the biggest in the country, employing more than 14,500 workers.
Alfred Williams wrote about his
Marlborough is a market town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road, the old main road from London to Bath. It boasts the second-widest high street in Britain, after Stockton-on-Tees; the town is on the River Kennet, 24 miles north of Salisbury and 10 miles south-southeast of Swindon. The earliest sign of human habitation is a 62-foot-high prehistoric tumulus in the grounds of Marlborough College. Recent radiocarbon dating has found it to date from about 2400 BC, it is of similar age to the larger Silbury Hill about 5 miles west of the town. Legend has it that the Mound is the burial site of Merlin and that the name of the town comes from Merlin's Barrow. More plausibly, the town's name derives from the medieval term for chalky ground "marl"—thus, "town on chalk"; however more recent research, from geographer John Everett-Heath, identifies the original Anglo-Saxon place name as Merleberge, with a derivation from either the personal name of Mærle combined with beorg, or meargealla beorg: hill where gentian grows.
On John Speed's map of Wiltshire, the town's name is recorded as Marlinges boroe. The town's motto is Ubi nunc sapientis ossa Merlini. Further evidence of human occupation comes from the discovery in St Margaret's Mead of the Marlborough Bucket, an Iron Age burial bucket made of fir wood with three iron hoops, a top bar and two handles. Roman remains and the large Mildenhall Hoard of coins have been found two miles to the east of Marlborough, at Mildenhall. A Saxon settlement grew up around The Green and two early river crossings were made at Isbury Lane and Stonebridge Lane. In 1067 William the Conqueror assumed control of the Marlborough area and set about building a wooden motte-and-bailey castle, sited on the prehistoric mound; this was completed in around 1100. Stone was used to strengthen the castle in around 1175; the first written record of Marlborough dates from the Domesday Book in 1087. William established a mint in Marlborough, which coined the William I and the early William II silver pennies.
The coins display the name of the town as Maerleber. He established the neighbouring Savernake Forest as a favourite royal hunting ground and Marlborough castle became a Royal residence. Henry I observed Easter here in 1110. Henry II stayed at Marlborough castle in talks with the King of Scotland, his son, Richard I gave the castle to his brother John, in 1186. King John was spent time in Marlborough, where he established a Treasury. In 1204 King John granted Charter to the Borough which permitted an annual eight-day fair, commencing on 14 August, the vigil of the Feast of the Assumption of Our Lady, in which "all might enjoy the liberties and quittances customary in the fair at Winchester", he established that weekly markets may be held on Wednesdays and Saturdays. These continue to this day. Henry III was married here. Henry III held Parliament here, in 1267; this seven-hundred-year-old law states that no-one shall seize his neighbour's goods for alleged wrong without permission of the Court. Apart from Charters, it is the oldest statute in English law.
The castle remained Crown property. Edward VI passed it to the Seymour family, his mother's relatives. In 1498 Thomas Wolsey was ordained priest in St Peter's church, he rose to become a cardinal and Lord Chancellor. In 1642 Marlborough's peace was shattered by the English Civil War; the Seymours held the Castle for the King but the town was for Parliament. With his headquarters in nearby Oxford, King Charles had to deal with Marlborough. "A Town the most notoriously disaffected of all that Country, saving the obstinacy and malice of the inhabitants, in the situation of it unfit for a garrison... this place the King saw would prove an ill neighbour to him, not only as it was in the heart of a rich County, so would straighten him, infest his quarters." The King sent Lord Digby to take the town who left Oxford, the head of four hundred horses, 24 November 1642. When he arrived, he chose to parley first, thus giving the inhabitants a chance to prepare defences and to recruit troops, they mustered about seven hundred poorly armed men.
At this point, the town issued a reply to Digby: "The King's Majesty, providing he were attended in Royal and not in war like wise, should be as welcome to that town as was Prince to People. After some early skirmishes, Royalist troops infiltrated the town down its small alleyways; the town was captured and looted and many buildings were set ablaze. One hundred and twenty prisoners were marched in chains to Oxford; the town was abandoned by the King and took no further part in the war. On 28 April 1653 the Great Fire of Marlborough started in a tanner's yard and spread eventually after four hours burning the Guildhall, St Mary's Church, the County Armoury, 244 houses to the ground. During the rebuilding of the town after the Great Fire, the high street was widened and is claimed to be the widest in England though the actual widest is in Stockton-on-Tees; this wide street allows ample space for the local market. Fire swept through the Town again in 1679 and ag
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi