click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane. It differs from orbital inclination. At an obliquity of 0 degrees, the two axes point in the same direction. Earth's obliquity oscillates between 24.5 degrees on a 41,000-year cycle. Over the course of an orbital period, the obliquity does not change and the orientation of the axis remains the same relative to the background of stars; this causes one pole to be directed more toward the Sun on one side of the orbit, the other pole on the other side—the cause of the seasons on Earth. There are two standard methods of specifying tilt; the International Astronomical Union defines the north pole of a planet as that which lies on Earth's north side of the invariable plane of the Solar System. The IAU uses the right-hand rule to define a positive pole for the purpose of determining orientation. Using this convention, Venus is tilted 177°.

Earth's orbital plane is known as the ecliptic plane, Earth's tilt is known to astronomers as the obliquity of the ecliptic, being the angle between the ecliptic and the celestial equator on the celestial sphere. It is denoted by the Greek letter ε. Earth has an axial tilt of about 23.44°. This value remains about the same relative to a stationary orbital plane throughout the cycles of axial precession, but the ecliptic moves due to planetary perturbations, the obliquity of the ecliptic is not a fixed quantity. At present, it is decreasing at a rate of about 47″ per century. Earth's obliquity may have been reasonably measured as early as 1100 BC in India and China; the ancient Greeks had good measurements of the obliquity since about 350 BC, when Pytheas of Marseilles measured the shadow of a gnomon at the summer solstice. About 830 AD, the Caliph Al-Mamun of Baghdad directed his astronomers to measure the obliquity, the result was used in the Arab world for many years. In 1437, Ulugh Beg determined the Earth's axial tilt as 23°30′17″.

It was believed, during the Middle Ages, that both precession and Earth's obliquity oscillated around a mean value, with a period of 672 years, an idea known as trepidation of the equinoxes. The first to realize this was incorrect was Ibn al-Shatir in the fourteenth century and the first to realize that the obliquity is decreasing at a constant rate was Fracastoro in 1538; the first accurate, western observations of the obliquity were those of Tycho Brahe from Denmark, about 1584, although observations by several others, including al-Ma'mun, al-Tusi, Purbach and Walther, could have provided similar information. Earth's axis remains tilted in the same direction with reference to the background stars throughout a year; this means that one pole will be directed away from the Sun at one side of the orbit, half an orbit this pole will be directed towards the Sun. This is the cause of Earth's seasons. Summer occurs in the Northern hemisphere. Variations in Earth's axial tilt can influence the seasons and is a factor in long-term climatic change.

The exact angular value of the obliquity is found by observation of the motions of Earth and planets over many years. Astronomers produce new fundamental ephemerides as the accuracy of observation improves and as the understanding of the dynamics increases, from these ephemerides various astronomical values, including the obliquity, are derived. Annual almanacs are published listing the methods of use; until 1983, the Astronomical Almanac's angular value of the mean obliquity for any date was calculated based on the work of Newcomb, who analyzed positions of the planets until about 1895: ε = 23° 27′ 8.26″ − 46.845″ T − 0.0059″ T2 + 0.00181″ T3where ε is the obliquity and T is tropical centuries from B1900.0 to the date in question. From 1984, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DE series of computer-generated ephemerides took over as the fundamental ephemeris of the Astronomical Almanac. Obliquity based on DE200, which analyzed observations from 1911 to 1979, was calculated: ε = 23° 26′ 21.448″ − 46.8150″ T − 0.00059″ T2 + 0.001813″ T3where hereafter T is Julian centuries from J2000.0.

JPL's fundamental ephemerides have been continually updated. For instance, the Astronomical Almanac for 2010 specifies: ε = 23° 26′ 21.406″ − 46.836769″ T − 0.0001831″ T2 + 0.00200340″ T3 − 5.76″ × 10−7 T4 − 4.34″ × 10−8 T5These expressions for the obliquity are intended for high precision over a short time span ± several centuries. J. Laskar computed an expression to order T10 good to 0.02″ over 1000 years and several arcseconds over 10,000 years. Ε = 23° 26′ 21.448″ − 4680.93″ t − 1.55″ t2 + 1999.25″ t3 − 51.38″ t4 − 249.67″ t5 − 39.05″ t6 + 7.12″ t7 + 27.87″ t8 + 5.79″ t9 + 2.45″ t10where here t is multiples of 10,000 Julian years from J2000.0. These expressions are for the so-called mean obliquity, that is, the obliquity free from short-term variations. Periodic motions of the Moon and of Earth in its orbit cause much smaller short-period oscillations of the rotation axis of Earth, known as nutation, which add a periodic component to Earth's obliquity; the true or insta

Arctostaphylos klamathensis

Arctostaphylos klamathensis, with the common name Klamath manzanita, is a species of manzanita. It is endemic to the Klamath Mountains of far northern California, where it was first described during an ecological survey in Cedar Basin near the border between Siskiyou and Trinity Counties in 1982; the Arctostaphylos klamathensis is a low-lying, matted shrub forming tangles and mounds no taller than one half meter. Its foliage and twigs are coated with glandular bristles; the leaves are dull, up to 3.5 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a rounded cluster of manzanita flowers, it bears spherical drupes with seeds fused into a single hard body. Arctostaphylos klamathensis is a resident of open areas in the forest and the local mountain chaparral plant community, where it is the dominant shrub in some spots. Jepson Manual Treatment - Arctostaphylos klamathensis USDA Plants Profile.

2016–17 I liga

The 2016–17 I liga was the 9th season of the Polish I liga under its current title, the 69th season of the second highest division in the Polish football league system since its establishment in 1949. The league is operated by the Polish Football Association; the league is contested by 18 teams. The regular season was played in a round-robin tournament; the season began on 29 July 2016, concluded on 4 June 2017. After the 19th matchday the league will be on winter break between 28 November 2016 and 2 March 2017. According to the competition rules, all clubs are required to field at least one youth player in every game; the following teams have changed division since the 2015–16 season. ^ Upgrading to 31,871. The 15th place team from the regular season will compete in a play-off with the 4th place team from II liga. Matches will be played on 11 and 18 June 2017; the winner will compete in the 2017–18 I liga season. Bytovia stayed in I liga for next season. 2016–17 Ekstraklasa

Takeshi Miyazawa

Takeshi Miyazawa is a comic book artist, born in Canada and attended Queen's University in Ontario to study art. His art style incorporates a manga sensibility. Incomplete comic book checklist: Empowered Special: Nine Beers with Ninjette Lost Planet Bound Raven #1–2 Mary Jane #1–4 Mary Jane: Homecoming "Mastermind Excello" in Amazing Fantasy #15 Mech Cadet Yu #1-12 Ms. Marvel #3, 8, 10-12, 14-17 Robotech: Invasion #1–5 Runaways #11–12 Runaways #7–8 Runaways #7-9 Secret Invasion: Young Avengers/Runaways #1-3 Sidekicks #1–3, Sidekicks published by Oni Press and the story set in the same universe "Crash Course" in the series Love and Tights #1, published by Slave Labor Graphics Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane #1–15 Spider-Man Unlimited #1 Ultimate Comics: Spider-Man #7-8 Uncanny X-Men #434 X-Men Unlimited #42 ’’Spider-Gwen:Ghost-Spider’’#5-10 ’’Ghost-Spider’’#1- Incomplete trade paperback checklist: Mary Jane Vol. 1: Circle Of Friends Mary Jane Vol. 2: Homecoming Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane Vol. 1: Super Crush Spider-Gwen:Ghost-Spider Vol.2:The impossible year Factory 9ine, Miyazawa's official website Interview by Chris Arrant for TOKYOPOP.com at the Wayback Machine Takeshi Miyazawa on marvel.com Interview on Where Monsters Dwell https://www.darkhorse.com/Comics/23-899/Empowered-Special-Nine-Beers-with-Ninjette

Magic Woman M

Magic Woman M, known in Japan as Magical Girl Meruru, is a two episode hentai anime OVA series. It is based on a manga by Nekoshita Pong, serialized in Monthly Fantazine, it was licensed by Central Park Media, who released the OVA on DVD under their Anime 18 label. It is licensed by Critical Mass. A newly trained young sorceress named Meruru gets lost in the forest in the middle of training, has numerous lurid encounters with unsavory characters and lustful beasts; when aroused, Meruru attains the state of ultimate ecstasy and unleashes an explosive power from within. Meruru "Meru" Sheckle: series, she is not yet much of a sorceress, she is voiced in the English dub by Holly Bobbit. Sharuru: Meruru's mentor teacher; when Meruru is about to be—or is being—violated, he appears onscreen and says things like, "Oh, Meruru has to learn about patience!" He is voiced in the English dub by Lee Bowery. Luna: A young warrior, not-so good at becoming a great warrior, she becomes her companion. Luna is trying to save her older sister from the Ogre and tries to search for Meruru.

She is the voiced in the English dub by Lynna Dunham. Frenieple "Freni" Slaipny Sen: A sorceress, a leader of her team and was rescued by Meruru from fish-like monsters and becomes her companion, she is voiced in the English dub by Lynna Dunham. Ogre: The main villain of episode one; the Ogre is terrorizing a village by killing people, raping young women with its humongous flagpole-sized organ, eating them when its done. It is voiced in the English dub by Kay Pooh. Tia: A warrior who tries to save the village from the ogre but ends up being raped by it, she is voiced in the English dub by Wendy Talker. Liao: An ninja, with Freni's Team, she is voiced in the English dub by Wendy Talker. The TepiTepies: ("Sahagin"・サハギン)Creatures who appear in the second episode, they kidnapped Meruru and Freni when they try to cross the river, but subsequently rape both of the girls. They are voiced in the English dub by Barry Banner. Beveridge, Chris. "Magic Woman M". Mania. Demand Media. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011.

Beveridge, Chris. "Magic Woman M". Mania. Demand Media. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. McNeil, Sheena. "Magic Woman M". Sequential Tart. Luther, Katherine. "Your Complete Guide for Magic Woman M". About.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Magic Woman M at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Mahou Shoujo Meruru ~Kamigami no Shihou o Motomete~ at The Visual Novel Database

Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism

The Ringing Cedars or Anastasianism is a new religious movement that started in central Russia in 1997 and has since spread across the world. The term "anastasianism" itself is informal, as is not registered as religious movement, although is being considered as one. Anastasianism does not have any official spiritual leaders nor formal institutional structure, though there are organisations connected to the movement. There is no written credo for the movement, so there is no obligatory rituals or dogmas as such, it is based on the series of ten books entitled The Ringing Cedars of Russia written by Vladimir Megre. At the 2018 Frankfurt Book Fair, where the author drew a large crowd, it was claimed the books have sold 20 million copies worldwide and have been translated in 20 languages. Family and environmentalism are core values for the Anastasians; the knowledge contained in the books is attributed to a woman named Anastasia who dwells in the Siberian Taiga. Ringing Cedars' Anastasians are sometimes categorisable as Rodnovers, as many of them are proponents of the return to a Slavic Native Faith or other indigenous religion.

Other scholars do not categorise them as Rodnovers, but as a distinct modern Pagan movement. The books that the movement relies upon offer a holistic worldview teaching about humanity's relationship with nature and the universe, the creation of the world, the power of thought in modelling the future, cyclical eschatology, relationships between men and women, education; the name "Ringing Cedars" comes from Anastasians' beliefs about spiritual qualities of the Siberian "cedar". Anastasianism has been classified as part of the broad spectrum of self-described "Vedic" religions arising in post-Soviet Russia. Anastasians propose a whole new model of social organisation, that of the "kinship homestead" or settlement; the Ringing Cedars have become popular in Russia, the movement has spread to other Slavic countries, broader Eastern Europe, communities have been established in the West. In Russia, Anastasians face the hostility of the Russian Orthodox Church; the two names of the movement are explainable as follows: "Ringing Cedars" refers to the movement's beliefs about the spiritual qualities of the Siberian cedar, a kind of pine.

The theme of the "singing tree" appears across various Indo-European-originated cultures. The Ringing Cedars may be described as a nature religion, since Anastasian spirituality emphasises the sacredness of nature or generation, conceived as a source of divinity and the mean of communication with God. Scholar Rasa Pranskevičiūtė characterises this vision as pantheistic, notes how it is a fundamental influence in Anastasians' social project, they stress the importance of harmony, to say giving and receiving love and respect, appropriate reciprocal cultivation, to be put into practice among individual persons and between the community of individuals and the divinity of all nature. A Lithuanian Anastasian has defined God as follows: God is Nature – a twitter of birds, the wind, a rustle of trees... everything, in Nature is the living book of sensual information, much more: He touches us through Nature. Anastasians believe that nature is the "materialised thoughts of God". All living things are believed to be thoughts of God, therefore by communicating with them humanity may communicate with God.

The Ringing Cedars believe in the interconnectedness of all being, therefore they emphasise the moral responsibility of individuals and humanity towards the surrounding world. They believe that human thoughts and feelings magically influence the surrounding world, having the power to affirm or disrupt natural harmony. Pranskevičiūtė reports the following excerpt from Megre's doctrine: When a man is full of love, he is radiant; that energy of radiance reflects into the planets above him in a short particle of a second, comes back to earth again and gives life to everything, alive... If a man is ful of anger, his disseminating radiance is dark. After striking deep into the bowels, it comes back and manifests itself as a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, war. In order to be respectful towards other forms of life, Anastasians try to eschew any form of killing, therefore they adopt vegetarian and raw food diets, wear clothes made of natural materials. According to Megre, when a man lives in harmony with his own kin within a homestead of at least a hectare in size, a "love space" is established.

A "love space" is where God is present and constitutes a "Heaven on earth", where kindred people grow together with the surrounding world. The concept of "love space" is not geographic, but includes anything good which an individual may create. A kinship homestead is a web of natural relationship, between kindred people. In other words, the kinship homestead mirrors the modality o