Greenbelt (Ayala Center)
Greenbelt is a shopping mall located at Ayala Center, Metro Manila, Philippines, just near Glorietta and SM Makati. It is owned by Ayala Malls, a real-estate subsidiary of Ayala Land, an affiliate of Ayala Corporation, it is one of Ayala Corporation's flagship projects. The mall offers a mix of high-end retail shops, amenities and entertainment; the mall has five sections: two enclosed areas, two buildings with open-air shopping areas, Greenbelt 5, which opened in 2007. Built around a 250,000-square-metre retail complex, the mall, which merged the previous small arcades and shops, was first opened to the public in 1990, it was renovated in 2001, as the complex grew, Greenbelt 2 and 3 were opened in 2002, with 4 and 5 opening in 2004 and 2007 on the basis of other pioneer shops in the area. Greenbelt 1 features appliance and supply stores. Greenbelt 3 features a mix of international brands. Greenbelt 4 features high-end boutiques. Greenbelt 5 has boutiques of high-end department store Adora and boutiques.
Restaurants can be found in Greenbelt 1, 2, 3, 5, with Greenbelt 1 being concentrated more on fast-food, while Greenbelt 2, 3, 5 feature sit-down restaurants. Santo Niño de Paz Chapel is a Roman Catholic place of worship in the park at the complex's centre. Built as an open-air, concrete dome in the middle of a pond, the chapel holds Masses and other religious services every day for mall patrons and office workers, it celebrates its titular feast day every third Sunday of January. Armed thieves overpowered the mall's security guards and broke into a Rolex watch shop in Greenbelt 5; the thieves were wearing Bomb Squad uniforms hammered the glass cases containing Rolex watches. A suspected robber was killed by two police escorts of a city mayor who chanced upon the heist while the other gunmen escaped carting away an undetermined worth of expensive watches; the robbery occurred around 11:45 a.m. and finished around 1 p.m. on October 18, 2009. List of largest shopping malls List of largest shopping malls in the Philippines List of shopping malls in Metro Manila
A photograph is an image created by light falling on a photosensitive surface photographic film or an electronic image sensor, such as a CCD or a CMOS chip. Most photographs are created using a camera, which uses a lens to focus the scene's visible wavelengths of light into a reproduction of what the human eye would see; the process and practice of creating such images is called photography. The word photograph was coined in 1839 by Sir John Herschel and is based on the Greek φῶς, meaning "light," and γραφή, meaning "drawing, writing," together meaning "drawing with light." The first permanent photograph, a contact-exposed copy of an engraving, was made in 1822 using the bitumen-based "heliography" process developed by Nicéphore Niépce. The first photographs of a real-world scene, made using a camera obscura, followed a few years but Niépce's process was not sensitive enough to be practical for that application: a camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required. In 1829 Niépce entered into a partnership with Louis Daguerre and the two collaborated to work out a similar but more sensitive and otherwise improved process.
After Niépce's death in 1833 Daguerre concentrated on silver halide-based alternatives. He exposed a silver-plated copper sheet to iodine vapor, creating a layer of light-sensitive silver iodide, he named this first practical process for making photographs with a camera the daguerreotype, after himself. Its existence was announced to the world on 7 January 1839 but working details were not made public until 19 August. Other inventors soon made improvements which reduced the required exposure time from a few minutes to a few seconds, making portrait photography practical and popular; the daguerreotype had shortcomings, notably the fragility of the mirror-like image surface and the particular viewing conditions required to see the image properly. Each was a unique opaque positive. Inventors set about working out improved processes. By the end of the 1850s the daguerreotype had been replaced by the less expensive and more viewed ambrotype and tintype, which made use of the introduced collodion process.
Glass plate collodion negatives used to make prints on albumen paper soon became the preferred photographic method and held that position for many years after the introduction of the more convenient gelatin process in 1871. Refinements of the gelatin process have remained the primary black-and-white photographic process to this day, differing in the sensitivity of the emulsion and the support material used, glass a variety of flexible plastic films, along with various types of paper for the final prints. Color photography is as old as black-and-white, with early experiments including John Herschel's Anthotype prints in 1842, the pioneering work of Louis Ducos du Hauron in the 1860s, the Lippmann process unveiled in 1891, but for many years color photography remained little more than a laboratory curiosity, it first became a widespread commercial reality with the introduction of Autochrome plates in 1907, but the plates were expensive and not suitable for casual snapshot-taking with hand-held cameras.
The mid-1930s saw the introduction of Kodachrome and Agfacolor Neu, the first easy-to-use color films of the modern multi-layer chromogenic type. These early processes produced transparencies for use in slide projectors and viewing devices, but color prints became popular after the introduction of chromogenic color print paper in the 1940s; the needs of the motion picture industry generated a number of special processes and systems the best-known being the now-obsolete three-strip Technicolor process. Non-digital photographs are produced with a two-step chemical process. In the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image. To produce a positive image, the negative is most transferred onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image; such positive images are mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition.
Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film. All photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become available until the 1940s or 1950s, so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. Panoramic format images can be taken with cameras like the Hasselblad Xpan on standard film. Since the 1990s, panoramic photos have been available on the Advanced Photo System film. APS was developed by several of the major film manufacturers to provide a film with different formats and computerized options available, though APS panoramas were created using a mask in panorama-capable cameras, far less desirable than a true panoramic camera, which achieves its effect through a wider film format. APS has been discontinued; the advent of the microcomputer and d
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue referred to by its acronym EDSA, is a limited-access circumferential highway around Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is the main thoroughfare in Metro Manila passing through 6 of the capital region's 17 local government units, from north to south, Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong and Pasay. Named after academic Epifanio de los Santos, the road links the North Luzon Expressway at the Balintawak Interchange in the north to the South Luzon Expressway at the Magallanes Interchange in the south, as well as the major financial districts of Makati Central Business District, Ortigas Center and Araneta Center, it is the most congested highway in the metropolis, stretching some 23.8 kilometers. The avenue is a component of Circumferential Road 4 of Manila's arterial road network, National Route 1 of the Philippine highway network and Asian Highway 26 of the Asian highway network; the locations around the avenue were marked with great economic and industrial growth, proven by the fact that all but 2 industrial centers in the Metropolis are directly accessible from the thoroughfare.
The decent economic growth of the areas around the avenue adds a significant volume of traffic on the avenue, in recent estimates, an average of 2.34 million vehicles go through it every day. The avenue is a divided carriageway consisting of 12 lanes, 6 in either direction, with the elevated railroad Manila Metro Rail Transit System serving as its median. Although it is not an expressway, traffic rules and speed limits are implemented to the vehicles that pass along it, it is operated by the Metro Manila Development Authority and is maintained and being repaired by the Department of Public Works and Highways. EDSA starts from the Bonifacio Monument Roundabout in Gracepark, adjacent to the Apolonio Samson Road, the western side of the C-4 Road; the roundabout is the marker of the 1896 Revolution by Andres Bonifacio. The 1.7 kilometers of the road are in Caloocan. The Avenue will enter Quezon City through the Balintawak District, after an intersection with the North Luzon Expressway in the Balintawak Interchange.
EDSA crosses much of the northern part of Quezon City, passing through the Project 6 and Muñoz districts. It curves southwards after crossing the North Avenue-West Avenue Intersection in the Triangle Business Park. On the north side of EDSA is the SM City North EDSA. In front of it is the Eton Centris or Centris Walk. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center and its transmitter can be seen from EDSA and continues southwards turning westwards until it leaves the Triangle Park after crossing the East Avenue-Timog Avenue Intersection, where the GMA Network Center is located, it continues through the district of Cubao, entering the Araneta Center after crossing the Aurora Boulevard Tunnel. In Cubao, several malls and offices are located, most notably the Smart Araneta Coliseum, the biggest coliseum in Southeast Asia; the Avenue curves southwards and enters the Santolan and Socorro districts, where the twin military bases of Camp Rafael Crame and Camp Aguinaldo, are located. The Greenhills Shopping Center and the Eastwood City are located nearby.
EDSA continues on its route and serves as the boundary of the cities of San Juan and Quezon City. The People Power Monument can be seen on the north side of EDSA in the White Plains Avenue junction. After the 11 kilometers of EDSA in Quezon City, the Avenue will leave the city and enter the City of Mandaluyong. EDSA enters Mandaluyong after crossing the borders of the Ortigas Center. In the Ortigas Center, some notable buildings around the area are the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration building, Robinsons Galleria, SM Megamall, Forum Robinsons, the bronze EDSA Shrine, a memorial church to the 1986 Revolution, it curves smoothly westwards after it crosses the Pioneer Street, crosses the Pasig River via the Guadalupe Bridge and leaving the City of Mandaluyong. It enters the city of Makati after crossing the Pasig River, passing through the districts of Guadalupe and Magallanes. In Guadalupe, EDSA provides access to the Rockwell Center, a major mixed-use business park in Makati; the highway provides quick access to the city of Taguig and the Bonifacio Global City nearby.
After crossing Buendia Avenue, the highway enters the Ayala Center, an important commercial district in the Philippines, where the Greenbelt and Glorietta shopping centers are located. The road curves eastwards, continues on a straight route to the city of Pasay, passing the South Luzon Expressway through Magallanes Interchange. EDSA enters Pasay shortly after crossing SLEX in Makati. In Pasay, the highway provides access to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport via a flyover. EDSA will pass to Pasay Rotonda and continues on a straight route until it crosses to Roxas Boulevard. After crossing Roxas Boulevard, it enters to Bay City reclamation area, where the large SM Mall of Asia is located. EDSA's terminus is at a rotunda in front of the Globe of the SM Mall of Asia; the lead agency that manages the flow of traffic along EDSA is the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, a government agency under the Office of the President of the Philippines and is advised by the Metro Manila Mayors League.
One of the MMDA's traffic management schemes, in effect on EDSA, among other major thoroughfares in the metropolis, is the Uniform Vehicular Volume Reduction Program. Many have observed that the cause of many traffic jams on EDSA are erring jeepneys. Subsequently, buses have been the target of other traffic management pro
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid, transparent and has widespread practical and decorative uses in, for example, window panes and optoelectronics. The most familiar, the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica, the primary constituent of sand; the term glass, in popular usage, is used to refer only to this type of material, familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of 75% silicon dioxide, sodium oxide from sodium carbonate, calcium oxide called lime, several minor additives. Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit and refract light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, can be painted and printed with vitreous enamels; these qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows.
Although brittle, silicate glass is durable, many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or moulded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, bottles and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms it has been used for paperweights and beads; when extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermal insulating material, when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects were so made of silicate glass that they are called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and eyeglasses. Scientifically, the term "glass" is defined in a broader sense, encompassing every solid that possesses a non-crystalline structure at the atomic scale and that exhibits a glass transition when heated towards the liquid state. Porcelains and many polymer thermoplastics familiar from everyday use are glasses.
These sorts of glasses can be made of quite different kinds of materials than silica: metallic alloys, ionic melts, aqueous solutions, molecular liquids, polymers. For many applications, like glass bottles or eyewear, polymer glasses are a lighter alternative than traditional glass. Silicon dioxide is a common fundamental constituent of glass. In nature, vitrification of quartz occurs when lightning strikes sand, forming hollow, branching rootlike structures called fulgurites. Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica, it has excellent resistance to thermal shock, being able to survive immersion in water while red hot. However, its high melting temperature and viscosity make it difficult to work with. Other substances are added to simplify processing. One is sodium carbonate; the soda makes the glass water-soluble, undesirable, so lime, some magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide are added to provide for a better chemical durability. The resulting glass is called a soda-lime glass. Soda-lime glasses account for about 90% of manufactured glass.
Most common glass contains other ingredients to change its properties. Lead glass or flint glass is more "brilliant" because the increased refractive index causes noticeably more specular reflection and increased optical dispersion. Adding barium increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses. Iron can be incorporated into glass to absorb infrared radiation, for example in heat-absorbing filters for movie projectors, while cerium oxide can be used for glass that absorbs ultraviolet wavelengths; the following is a list of the more common types of silicate glasses and their ingredients and applications: Fused quartz called fused-silica glass, vitreous-silica glass: silica in vitreous, or glass, form. It has low thermal expansion, is hard, resists high temperatures, it is the most resistant against weathering. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc.
Soda-lime-silica glass, window glass: silica + sodium oxide + lime + magnesia + alumina. Is transparent formed and most suitable for window glass, it has a high thermal expansion and poor resistance to heat. It is used for windows, some low-temperature incandescent light bulbs, tableware. Container glass is a soda-lime glass, a slight variation on flat glass, which uses more alumina and calcium, less sodium and magnesium, which are more water-soluble; this makes it less susceptible to water erosion. Sodium borosilicate glass, Pyrex: silica + boron trioxide + soda + alumina. Stan
Pompeu Fabra University
Pompeu Fabra University is a public university in Barcelona, Spain. It was created by the Autonomous Government of Catalonia in 1990, was named after the linguist Pompeu Fabra, an expert on the Catalan language, it was designated as an “International Excellence Campus” by the Spanish Ministry of Education in 2010. UPF has been rated as the top Spanish university by the Times Higher Education Supplement. Academically, it is the only Spanish and Catalan university along with the Autonomous University of Barcelona among the top 150 best in the world according to Times Higher Education academic classification of universities and it is one of the 7 fastest-rising young universities in the world, according to the same ranking, it ranks first in the national ranking of scientific productivity since 2009. Its studies on the Economics field have been ranked among the top 50 worldwide, 23rd for Economics and Econometrics in the QS World University Rankings by Subject and 40th for Business & Economics in the Times Higher Education Rankings.
The university's Faculty of Economics and Business Sciences is the first and only faculty in Spain to be awarded the Certificate for Quality in Internationalization granted by a consortium of 14 European accreditation agencies. In 2010, the university was awarded as Campus of International Excellence; the university offers its studies around three areas of knowledge, each one developed in a different campus: the social sciences and humanities the health and life sciences the ICT and communication sciences Specifically, teaching is organized in seven colleges and one engineering school: Humanities Health and Life Sciences Economics and Business Political and Social Science Communication Law Translation and Languange Sciences Engineering School Finally, the University has five higher education affiliated centers: UPF Barcelona School of Management International Trade Business School -ESCI- Elisava School of Design Tecnocampus Mar University School of Nursing -ESIM- The University model is based on a policy of being an institution, open to the world, incorporating prominent national and international researchers.
This commitment is reflected in excellent indicators in research, such as the volume of funds coming from Europe or indicators of scientific production. Research is organized in eight departments: Economics and Business Law Political and Social Science Humanities Experimental Sciences and Health ICT Communication Translation & Language SciencesMoreover, in order to promote research and transfer activities undertaken by university researchers and provide them with greater international visibility, the University is developing the UPF Research Park in the fields of social sciences, humanities and information technologies; the UPF Research Park, which develops its activity at Ciutadella and Poblenou campuses, coordinates its activities in the fields of health and life sciences with the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, located at Mar campus. Institut Barcelona d'Estudis Internacionals Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute Centre for Genomic Regulation Barcelona Graduate School of Economics Barcelona Institute for Global Health Institute of Evolutionary Biology Research Centre for International Economics Institute for Political Economy and Governance BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center Phonos Foundation The Research Centre for International Economics is a research institute sponsored by the government of Catalonia and the UPF led by the economist Jordi Galí.
Its headquarters is on the campus of UPF in Barcelona, near the Department of Economics and Business at UPF, which collaborates in many research and teaching fields. The research activities are focused on international macroeconomics, it tries to emphasize these fields of studies in the European dimension. Enric Argullol served as rector from the founding until June 2001, followed by M. Rosa Virós i Galtier and Josep Joan Moreso; the current rector, Jaume Casals, was reelected for a second term in April 2017. The UPF is located in three separate campuses, each associated to its own area of knowledge: Social Sciences and Humanities ITC and communication sciences Health and Life Sciences The position of UPF is presented in the following international rankings: Times Higher Education, Quacquarelli Symonds, the one published by Shanghai University, U-Multirank, the Leiden ranking, focused on research. More information on rankings can be found at UPF website. Pol Antràs, economist and professor at Harvard Gloria Aura Bortolini.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta