Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci
Nicole Mary Kidman is an Australian-American actress and producer. She began her acting career in Australia with the 1983 films Bush BMX Bandits, her breakthrough came in 1989 with the thriller Dead Calm and the television miniseries Bangkok Hilton. In 1990, she made her Hollywood debut opposite Tom Cruise, she went on to achieve wider recognition with leading roles in Far and Away, Batman Forever, To Die For, Eyes Wide Shut. She received two consecutive nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actress for playing a courtesan in the musical Moulin Rouge! and the writer Virginia Woolf in the drama film The Hours. Kidman has since starred in such films as The Others, Cold Mountain, Birth, The Paperboy, Paddington, The Beguiled, Boy Erased, Destroyer, she has received two additional nominations for an Academy Award for. In 2012, she received her first Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie for her role in the HBO film Hemingway & Gellhorn and returned to television in 2017, co-producing and starring in the HBO drama series Big Little Lies, winning the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress as well as Outstanding Limited Series.
In 2018, she played Queen Atlanna in the superhero film Aquaman, which emerged as her highest grossing release. Kidman is the recipient of multiple awards, including an Academy Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, five Golden Globe Awards, the Silver Bear for Best Actress, she has been a Goodwill ambassador for UNICEF since 1994 and for UNIFEM since 2006. In 2006, Kidman was appointed Companion of the Order of Australia and was the highest-paid actress in the motion picture industry for that year; as a result of being born to Australian parents in Hawaii, Kidman has dual citizenship of Australia and the United States. Kidman owns the production company Blossom Films. Following her divorce from actor Tom Cruise, Kidman has been married to singer Keith Urban since 2006. Kidman was born 20 June 1967 in Honolulu, while her Australian parents were temporarily in the United States on student visas, her mother, Janelle Ann, is a nursing instructor who edited her husband's books and was a member of the Women's Electoral Lobby.
Her father was Antony Kidman, a biochemist, clinical psychologist and author, who died of a heart attack in Singapore aged 75. Kidman's ancestry includes Irish and English heritage. Being born in Hawaii, she was given the Hawaiian name "Hōkūlani"; the inspiration for the name came from a baby elephant born around the same time at the Honolulu Zoo, but the name is a used Hawaiian name for girls, Hokulani meaning "Heavenly Star". At the time of Kidman's birth, her father was a graduate student at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, he became a visiting fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health of the United States. Opposed to the war in Vietnam, Kidman's parents participated in anti-war protests while living in Washington, D. C; the family returned to Australia when Kidman was four and her mother now lives on Sydney's North Shore. Kidman has Antonia Kidman, a journalist and TV presenter. Kidman attended Lane Cove Public School and North Sydney Girls' High School, she was enrolled in ballet at three and showed her natural talent for acting in her primary and high school years.
She says that she was first inspired to become an actress upon seeing Margaret Hamilton's performance as the Wicked Witch of the West in The Wizard of Oz. Kidman has revealed that she was timid as a child, saying, "I am shy – shy – I had a stutter as a kid, which I got over, but I still regress into that shyness. So I don't like walking into a crowded restaurant by myself. At Philip Street, Kidman studied alongside Naomi Watts, she attended the Australian Theatre for Young People. Here she took up drama and performing in her teens, finding acting to be a refuge. Owing to her fair skin and red hair, the Australian sun forced the young Kidman to rehearse in halls of the theatre. A regular at the Phillip Street Theatre, she received both encouragement and praise to pursue acting full-time. In 1983, aged 16, Kidman made her film debut in a remake of the Australian holiday season favourite Bush Christmas. By the end of 1983, she had a supporting role in the television series Five Mile Creek. In 1984, her mother was diagnosed with breast cancer, which caused Kidman to halt her acting work temporarily while she studied massage so she could help her mother with physical therapy.
She began gaining popularity in the mid-1980s after appearing in several film roles, including BMX Bandits, Watch the Shadows Dance, the romantic comedy Windrider, which earned Kidman attention due to her racy scenes. During the decade, she appeared in several Australian productions, including the soap opera A Country Practice and the 1987 miniseries Vietnam, she made guest appearances on Australian television programs and TV movies. In 1988, Kidman appeared based on the play of the same name; the Australian film earned her an Australian Film Institute award for Best Supporting Actress. Kidman next starred with Sam Neill in Dead Calm as Rae Ingram; the thriller brought Kidman to international recognition.
SuperStar KZ was a reality television show based on the popular British show Pop Idol, which aired from 2003 to 2007 on the Kazhak television station Perviy Kanal Evrasia. The talent contest determined the best young singers in Kazakhstan by allowing viewers to vote by phone or SMS. A supplementary show SuperStar KZ Dnevnik, shown twice weekly, provided a recap of the previous show and week's events for the contestants. SuperStar KZ was presented in Russian, though Russian and English songs were performed; some contestants such as Ainur Nazarbekova and Zhanara spoke Kazakh on the show. A mix of ethnic groups, typical of the diversity in Kazakhstan, was represented, including Kazakhs, Koreans and Tatars. SuperStar KZ held auditions in sixteen cities to find the best talent anywhere in Kazakhstan, visiting Astana, Aktau, Pavlodar, Shymkent, Taldykorgan, Aralsk, Oskemen and Kokshetau, Aktobe before finishing in Almaty. SuperStar KZ Season 3 premiered on Perviy Kanal Evraziya on November 11, 2005.
Over 12,000 people auditioned for SuperStar KZ Season 3 across nine cities: Almaty: October 7, October 8, November 1, November 2 Aqtau: October 10, October 11 Aktobe: October 13, October 14 Pavlodar: October 15, October 16 Kostanay: October 18, October 19 Karaganda: October 20, October 21 Astana: October 22, October 23 Öskemen: October 24, October 25 Shymkent: October 27, October 28 In November, the Top 148 successful candidates met in Almaty to perform in a three-day theatre round consisting of a chorus, duo & solo performance where eliminations would take place at each stage. During the first and last stage contestants can sing any song, during the duo stage a pre selected song was to be chosen, this included - Could I Have This Kiss Forever? by Whitney Houston & Enrique Iglesias and Махаббат Жалыны by Madina Sadvaqasova. Five groups of eight contestants performed every Sunday night to determine the two best singers of each group to advance to the Top 12. There was a Wildcards show or "Lucky ticket" round as it was known on the sixth week to give a last chance performance from unsuccessful contestants.
Contestants sing a song of their own choice with guitar backing. Adylzhan Umarov - Любить Тебя by Santos & Yuliya Nachalova Ayan Birbayev - Айсулу by Bangor Daniyar Otegen - I Believe I Can Fly by R. Kelly Ekaterina Revanova - Ландыш Серебристый by Marzhan Makisheva - Лебединая Верность by Evgeniy Martanov Meruert Musrali - Nurzhan Kermenbayev - Zarina Eleusizova - All At Once by Whitney Houston Aliya Abilkayirova - Je T'Aime by Lara Fabian Altynay Sapargalieva - The Voice Within by Christina Aguilera Arstan Mirzagereev - Где Же Ты? by K-7 Dauren Orazbekov - Ночь Подруга by A-Studio Gulmira Irzhanova - Underneath Your Clothes by Shakira Gulmira Zakiryanova - Омiр-Өзен by Altinay Zhorabayeva Sarman Tulebayev - Belle Vyacheslav Balashov - Необыкноженные Глаза by Rashid Behbudov Anastasiya Rossoshanskaya - Отпусти Меня by Valeriya Ardak Kenzhesarin - Алатау by Irina Pisareva - Више Облаков by Slivki Karlygash Tastambekova - Marat Orazbayev - Разлука by 101 Meruert Niyazbayeva - I Have Nothing by Whitney Houston Naylya Zaitova - Beautiful by Christina Aguilera Rinat Malzagov - Немного Жаль by Filipp Kirkorov Dariya Akparova - I Will Survive by Gloria Gaynor Dinara Koskeldiyeva - Hero by Mariah Carey Erlan Alimov - Ты Сделана Из Огня by Vadim Uslanov Mnash Zhanbolatova - Стена by Larisa Dolina Timur Kalekperov - Как Ты Красива Сегодня by Valery Meladze Vladimir Kim - Вечная Любовь by Andre Makarskiy Zarina Beysembayeva - Между Нами Зима by Dilnaz Akhmadieva Zhanara Khamitova - Anastasiya Usova - Adagio by Laura Fabian Anton Ivlev - Jamaica by Robertino Loreti Asem Tasbulatova - Жалт Етiп Өткен by Asem Evgeniy Gartung - Тропикана-Женщина by Valery Meladze Irina Kononova - I Feel Good by James Brown Marat Nigmatov - Серенада 2000 by Bravo Timur Akhmetzhanov - Insatiable by Darren Hayes Vera Kan - Герой Не Мойего Романа by Yuliya Nachalova Anastasiya Usova - Бакыт Кушагында by Shamshi Kaldayakov Ayan Birbayev - As Long As You Love Me by Backstreet Boys Daniyar Otegen - Dariya Akparova - Erlan Alimov - Сердце, Скажи by Ivan Breusov Gulmira Irzhanova - Don't Speak by No Doubt Marat Orazbayev - Я-Ето Ты by Murat Nasyrov Marzhan Makisheva - Karma by Alicia Keys Mnash Zhanbolatova - Naylya Zaitova - Sarman Tulebayev - Голос by Aleksandr Panayotov Vera Kan - Иногда by Each week there was a common theme on which the contestants base their song choices: Top 12: Contestant's Choice Top 11: Russian Hits Top 10: Hits From Soviet Era Films Top 9: Latino Hits Top 8: Kazakh Hits Top 7: Eastern Hits Top 6: My Idol Top 5: 70's & 80's Hits Top 4: Hits Of The New Millennium Top 3: Love Songs Top 2: Grand Final The jury members for the third season were: Nagima Eskalieva - Recording artist.
Ludmila Kim - VJ. Kayrat Kulbayev - Vice president of local media firm Shahar Media Group & HiT TV. Igor Sirtsov - TV producer of local channel KTK.and hosts for the third season were: Alan Cherkasov Sabina Sayakova The show has had many hosts throughout the three seasons including: Nuray Mukades Irina Kordyukova Serik A
Jennifer Lynn Lopez is an American singer, actress and producer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on In Living Color, where she remained a regular until she decided to pursue an acting career in 1993. For her first leading role in the 1997 Selena biopic of the same name, Lopez received a Golden Globe nomination and became the first Latin actress to earn over US$1 million for a film, she went on to star in Anaconda and Out of Sight establishing herself as the highest-paid Latin actress in Hollywood. Lopez ventured into the music industry with her debut studio album On the 6, which helped propel the Latin pop movement in American music. With the simultaneous release of her second studio album J. Lo and her romantic comedy The Wedding Planner in 2001, Lopez became the first woman to have a number one album and film in the same week, her 2002 remix album, J to tha L–O! The Remixes, became the first in history to debut at number one on the U. S. Billboard 200; that year, she released her third studio album This Is Me...
And appeared in Maid in Manhattan. After starring in Gigli, a critical and commercial failure, Lopez subsequently starred in the successful romantic comedies Shall We Dance? and Monster-in-Law. Her fifth studio album, Como Ama una Mujer, received the highest first-week sales for a debut Spanish album in the United States. Following an unsuccessful period, she returned to prominence in 2011 with her appearance as a judge on American Idol, released her seventh studio album Love?. In 2016, she began starring in the crime drama series Shades of Blue and commenced a residency show, Jennifer Lopez: All I Have, at Planet Hollywood Las Vegas. Since 2017, Lopez has served as a judge on World of Dance. In 2018, she starred in the film Second Act. With a cumulative film gross of US$3 billion and estimated global sales of 80 million records, Lopez is regarded as the most influential Latin performer in the United States. In 2012, Forbes ranked her as the most powerful celebrity in the world, as well as the 38th most powerful woman in the world.
Time listed her among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018. Her most successful singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 include: "If You Had My Love", "Love Don't Cost a Thing", "I'm Real", "Ain't It Funny", "Jenny from the Block", "All I Have", "On the Floor", one of the best-selling singles of all time. For her contributions to the music industry, Lopez has received a landmark star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, the Billboard Icon Award and the Michael Jackson Video Vanguard Award among other honors, her other ventures include clothing lines, fragrances, a production company, a charitable foundation. Jennifer Lynn Lopez was born on July 24, 1969, in The Bronx borough of New York City, to Puerto Rican parents Guadalupe Rodríguez and David López, she has an older sister, a younger sister, Lynda, a journalist. David worked the night shift at the Guardian Insurance Company before becoming a computer technician at the firm, while Guadalupe was a homemaker; when Lopez was born, the family was living in a small apartment in the Castle Hill neighborhood.
A few years her parents had saved up enough money to be able to purchase a two-story house, considered a big deal for the poor family. At the age of five, Lopez began taking dancing lessons, she toured New York with her school. Her parents stressed the importance of work ethic and being able to speak English, they encouraged their three daughters to put on performances at home—singing and dancing in front of each other and their friends so that they would stay "out of trouble". Lopez spent her entire academic career in Catholic schools. In school, Lopez did gymnastics, ran track on a national level, was a member of the school's softball team, she excelled athletically rather than academically. While attending her final year of high school, Lopez learned about a film casting, seeking several teenage girls for small roles, she auditioned and was cast in My Little Girl, a low-budget film co-written and directed by Connie Kaiserman. Lopez acted as a young woman at a center for troubled girls. After she finished filming her role in the film, Lopez realized that she wanted to become a "famous movie star".
To please her parents, she enrolled in Baruch College, only to drop out after one semester. She told her parents about her dream of becoming a movie star, but they insisted that it was a "really stupid" idea and that "no Latinos did that"; the differences in opinions led Lopez to move out of their family home and into an apartment in Manhattan. During this period, Lopez performed in regional productions of the musicals Jesus Christ Superstar and Oklahoma!. From there, she was hired for the chorus in a Golden Musicals of Broadway, which toured Europe for five months, she was unhappy with the role. She got a job on the show Synchronicity in Japan, where she acted as a dancer and choreographer. Lopez was selected as a backup dancer for the New Kids on the Block in 1991 and performed with them during their performance of "Games" at the 18th Annual American Music Awards. Shortly after, Lopez gained her first regular high-profile job as a Fly Girl dancer on the television program In Living Color, she applied for the job.
Out of 2,000 applicants, Lopez made it to the finals. She was the runner-up but received the role when the winner was unable to accept the job, she moved to Los Angeles to film the series and remained a r
Aktobe is a city on the Ilek River in Kazakhstan. It is the administrative center of Aktobe Region. In 2013, it had a population of 371,546 people; the name "Aktobe" comes from Kazakh "ақ" and "төбе". Until 1999 it was known as Aktyubinsk; the former name is still used in the Russian language, by Russians in Kazakhstan. The territory of modern-day Aktobe Region has seen the rise and fall of many Central Asian cultures and empires; the region figured prominently in the history of the Kazakh "Little Horde". The Kazakh warlord, his mausoleum is located 35 kilometres to the south of Aktobe city. Abulkhair Khan was based in this region. In March 1869, a Russian military fort with a garrison of 300 was built at the confluence of the Kargala and Ilek Rivers, along the Orenburg - Kazalinsk caravan route. From that period onward, Slavic settlers began to migrate to the region in order to farm, soon, neighbourhoods were built around the fort. In 1874 the fort was expanded in size, streets were laid out to and from the fort's gate.
In 1891 the settlement was labelled a district city, named Aktyubinsk. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the settlement expanded in size. While the 1889 population was listed as 2,600, by 1909 the population had increased more than four times to 10,716 official residents; the physical characteristics of the city had developed as well, by the turn of the century the city had two churches, a seminary, a Tatar mosque, a Russian-Kyrgyz boys' school and girls' school, a clinic, a bank, a post office, a city park, a cinema and two mills. The Trans-Aral Railway was extended through the city in 1901. In the years leading up to World War I, industry began to develop in the town, including the construction of an electric factory, a brick factory and the establishment of an annual trade fair; the city was affected by the Russian Revolution of 1905, strikes and riots took place between 1905 and 1907. Bolshevik revolutionaries were active in the city, according to official Soviet histories. On January 8, 1918, the Bolsheviks moved to seize control of the local Soviet and by January 21, 1918, the Bolsheviks had secured the city under their control.
With its location on the Trans-Aral Railway, Aktyubinsk was a strategic point, much contested between the Red Army and their White opponents during the Russian Civil War. Kazakh and Russian inhabitants of Aktyubinsk and its environs supported both sides in the conflict. In mid-1918, elements of the Bolshevik First Orenburg and Twenty-eighth Regiments, commanded by Georgy Zinoviev, were besieged in Aktyubinsk by forces commanded by Ataman Dutov. Dutov, commanding 10,000 rifles, 5,000 sabres, 500 jigits of the Alash Orda movement's newly formed Second Kazakh Mounted Regiment, attacked the city in October, 1918; the attack only reached as far as the village of Ak Bulak. In the autumn of 1918, Mikhail Frunze's Fifth Army and Mikhail Tukhachevsky's First Army were ordered to break through and clear the railway, in order to allow Red Army forces to link up with Bolsheviks along the Syr Darya. White pressure on Aktyubinsk was relieved by Frunze's capture of Uralsk and Orsk in early 1919, but by April Dutov and Admiral Kolchak were able to launch a combined counteroffensive.
Aktyubinsk fell to the Whites on April 18, 1919, once again severing Bolshevik rail links to Central Asia. In this offensive, the Whites managed to capture and execute Amangeldy Imanov, a Kazakh military leader, operating in the Aktyubinsk region with the support of Bolsheviks in Moscow. By June 1919, Frunze had moved back on to the offensive. On September 10, Aktyubinsk was secured by the Fifth Army after an eight-day battle. 20,000 of Kolchak's troops were captured, along with the easternmost part of the city. From this point, Bolshevik forces were able to control the railway to Tashkent. An All-Kazakhstan Conference of Soviet Workers was held in the city on March 13, 1920; this was the first of a series of regional organizing conferences held by the Bolsheviks that led to the creation of the Kirgiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic - the entity that would develop into the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan. In 1932, Aktyubinsk was named capital city of Aktyubinsk Region; the city developed extensively during World War II as a result of the evacuation and reconstruction of factories from Ukraine and from Moscow, including a worker's cooperative, a ferroalloy factory, an X-ray factory.
Chromium began to be mined and processed in the region. In the 1960s, an extensive expansion of the city was undertaken by Soviet authorities, resulting in the construction of a city center and a sports stadium; the city's society and economy have changed since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991. Older heavy industries have been replaced in importance with the energy sector; the city has continued to expand with new construction and with many Kazakh immigrants moving to the city from the surrounding countryside. In 1999, the official name was changed from Aktyubinsk to Aktobe by presidential decree, as part of a nationwide effort to support the Kazakh language. On May 17, 2011 Aktobe was the site of one of Kazakhstan's first terrorist attacks, when a suicide bomber blew himself up in the headquarters of the local national security services; some analysts have interpreted this as a sign of increasing instability in the oil-rich, but unequal, region
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or "the King". Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis, with his family when he was 13 years old, his music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.
His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years with some of his most commercially successful work, he held few concerts however, guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse compromised his health, he died in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.
Presley is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music. He was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country and gospel, he won three competitive Grammys, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Elvis Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love Presley in the two-room shotgun house built by his father, Vernon Elvis Presley, in preparation for the birth. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered 35 minutes before stillborn. Presley became close to both parents and formed an close bond with his mother; the family attended an Assembly of God church. On his mother's side Presley's ancestry was Scots-Irish, with some French Norman. Gladys and the rest of the family believed that her great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was Cherokee. Vernon's forebears were of Scottish origin. Gladys was regarded by friends as the dominant member of the small family.
Vernon moved from one odd job to the evincing little ambition. The family relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of altering a check written by his landowner and sometime employer, he was jailed for eight months, while Elvis moved in with relatives. In September 1941, Presley entered first grade at East Tupelo Consolidated, where his teachers regarded him as "average", he was encouraged to enter a singing contest after impressing his schoolteacher with a rendition of Red Foley's country song "Old Shep" during morning prayers. The contest, held at the Mississippi–Alabama Fair and Dairy Show on October 3, 1945, was his first public performance; the ten-year-old Presley was dressed as a cowboy. He recalled placing fifth. A few months Presley received his first guitar for his birthday. Over the following year, he received basic guitar lessons from two of his uncles and the new pastor at the family's church. Presley recalled, "I took the guitar, I watched people, I learned to play a little bit.
But I would never sing in public. I was shy about it."In September 1946, Presley entered a new school, for sixth grade. The following year, he began bringing his guitar to school on a daily basis, he played and sang during lunchtime, was teased as a "trashy" kid who played hillbilly music. By the family was living in a Black neighborhood. Presley was a devotee of Mississippi Slim's show on the Tupelo radio station WELO, he was described as "crazy about music" by Slim's younger brother, one of Presley's classmates and took him into the station. Slim supplemented Presley's guitar tuition by demonstrating chord techniques; when his protégé was twelve years old, Slim scheduled him for two on-air performances. Presley was succeeded in performing the following week. In November 1948, the family moved to Tennessee. After residing for nearly a year in rooming houses, they were granted a two-bedroom apartment in the public housing complex known as the Lauderdale Courts. Enrolled at L. C. Humes Hig