Women's basketball is one of the few women's sports that developed in tandem with its men's counterpart. It became popular, spreading from the east coast of the United States to the west coast, in large part via women's colleges. From 1895 until 1970, the term "women's basketball" was used to refer to netball, which evolved in parallel with modern women's basketball, it is popular in America. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. Women's basketball began in the winter of 1892 at Smith College. Senda Berenson, an instructor at Smith, taught basketball to her students, hoping the activity would improve their physical health. Basketball's early adherents were affiliated with YMCAs and colleges throughout the United States, the game spread throughout the country. However, Berenson was taking risks in teaching the game to women.
She worried a little about the women suffering from "nervous fatigue" if games were too strenuous for them. And, in order to keep it "acceptable" for women to play at all, she taught modified rules; these included a court divided into nine players per team. Three players could not cross the line into another area; the ball was moved from section to section by dribbling. Players could hold the ball for three seconds. No snatching or batting the ball away from a player was allowed. A center jump was required after each score. Peach baskets and the soccer ball were the equipment. Uniforms consisted of attire similar to school uniforms, including long baggy shorts. Variations of Berenson's rules spread across the country via colleges; the first intercollegiate women's basketball game was played between teams from Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley, in 1896. The popularity of women's basketball grew around the world for decades. By the 1970s the sport had attracted the notice the International Olympic Committee, which added women's basketball as an official sport of the Olympic Games in 1976, the men debuted in 1936.
Throughout the 1970s, funding for women's basketball began to increase as schools receiving federal funding began to come into compliance with new laws mandating a lack of discrimination based on sex. The sport was gaining attention at the collegiate level, under the auspices of the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women. A major development in women's basketball occurred in 1982 when the National Collegiate Athletic Association began to sponsor the sport.. After several failed attempts at women's professional leagues in the U. S. the NBA founded the WNBA in 1996. The first nationally televised championship game occurred in 1979. Ivy Kirkpatrick of Stephen F. Austin State University coordinated the collaboration between NBC Sports and the AIAW. Only the title game was televised with Old Dominion University defeating Louisiana Tech University. Thereafter the Women’s Final Four would be televised as an annual event. Rules for women's basketball are nearly the same as the rules for men's basketball.
The most noticeable difference is that the circumference of the women's basketball is one inch less than the men's basketball. The smaller ball was introduced for NCAA play in the fall of 1984. In American professional basketball, the women's three-point line is one foot closer to the basket than men's; the regulation WNBA ball is a minimum 28.5 inches in circumference, one inch smaller than the NBA ball. This is a standard size 6 ball; as of 2008, this size is used for all senior-level women's competitions worldwide. The standard court size in U. S. college and WNBA play is 94 by 50 feet, while the FIBA standard court is smaller at 28 by 15 m. For most of its distance, the three-point line is 6.75 m from the middle of the basket under both FIBA and WNBA rules. Near the sidelines, the three-point line runs parallel to the.sideline, at a distance of 3 feet in the WNBA and 0.9 m in FIBA play. Under NCAA rules, the three-point distance is 20 ft 9 in for most of the width of the court, with a minimum distance of 4 ft 3 in from the sidelines.
The WNBA, FIBA, NCAA all use a block/charge arc near each basket, with the WNBA and NCAA distance at 4 ft from the center of the basket and FIBA using a marginally wider radius of 1.25 m. The WNBA shot clock was changed from 30 to 24 seconds, in FIBA play since 2000, has been used by the NBA since the shot clock was first introduced in 1954. Both men's and women's NCAA college basketball use a 30-second shot clock. Most high school games are played with four 8-minute quarters, while NCAA, WNBA, FIBA games are played in four 10 minute quarters. In 2015-2016 the NCAA changed the rules to 10 minute quarters from 20 minute halves. Women's basketball is governed internationally by the International Basketball Federation. Since 1953 FIBA has hosted a world championship tournament for women known as the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup; the event, renamed from "FIBA World Championship for Women" after its 2014 edition, is held in even-numbered non-Summer Olympic years. There has been some concern abou
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara. It is the second most metropolitan area on the Aegean Sea after Greece. In 2017, the city of İzmir had a population of 3,028,323, while İzmir Province had a total population of 4,279,677. İzmir's metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of İzmir and inland to the north across the Gediz River delta. In classical antiquity the city was known as Smyrna, a name which remained in use in English and other foreign languages until the Turkish Postal Service Law of 28 March 1930 came into effect, which sought to make the Turkish name İzmir the internationally recognized name of the city in most languages. However, the historic name Smyrna is still used today in some languages, such as Greek and Spanish. İzmir and Smyrna have more than 3,000 years of recorded urban history, up to 8,500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period.
Lying on an advantageous location at the head of a gulf running down in a deep indentation, midway along the western Anatolian coast, it has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games in 2005. The city of İzmir is composed of several metropolitan districts. Of these, the district of Konak corresponds to historical İzmir, with this district's area having constituted the city's central "İzmir Municipality" until 1984. With the formation of the "Greater İzmir Metropolitan Municipality", the city of İzmir grouped together its ten urban districts, namely Balçova, Bayraklı, Buca, Çiğli, Karabağlar, Karşıyaka and Narlıdere. In an ongoing process, the Mayor of İzmir was vested with authority over additional districts outside the city proper, extending from Bergama in the north to Selçuk in the south, bringing the number of districts considered part of İzmir to thirty – two of these having been only administratively included in İzmir.
İzmir has more than 3000 years of recorded urban history and up to 8500 years of history as a human settlement since the Neolithic period. Set in an advantageous location at the head of a gulf in a deep indentation midway along the western Anatolian coast, the city has been one of the principal mercantile cities of the Mediterranean Sea for much of its history. Modern İzmir incorporates the nearby ancient cities of Ephesus, Pergamon and Klazomenai, centers of international tourism such as Kuşadası, Çeşme, Mordoğan and Foça; when the Ottomans took over İzmir in the 15th century, they did not inherit compelling historical memories, unlike the two other key points of the trade network, namely Istanbul and Aleppo. The emergence of İzmir as a major international port by the 17th century was a result of the attraction it exercised over foreigners, the city's European orientation. Politically, İzmir is considered the Republican People's Party. Izmir's port is Turkey's primary port for exports in terms of the freight handled and its free zone, a Turkish-U.
S. Joint-venture established in 1990, is the leader among the twenty in Turkey; the workforce, its rising class of young professionals, is concentrated either in the city or in its immediate vicinity, as either larger companies or SMEs, affirm their names with an wider global scale and intensity.İzmir hosted the Mediterranean Games in 1971 and the World University Games in 2005. In March 2008, İzmir submitted its bid to the BIE for hosting the Universal Expo 2015, but it was won by Milan, Italy; the modern name "İzmir" is the Turkish rendering of the original Greek name "Smyrna" and "Smyrne", since the city was founded by Greeks. In medieval times, Westerners used forms like Smire, Esmira, rendered as İzmir into Turkish written as ايزمير with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. In ancient Anatolia, the name of a locality called Ti-smurna is mentioned in some of the Level II tablets from the Assyrian colony in Kültepe, with the prefix ti- identifying a proper name, although it is not established with certainty that this name refers to modern-day İzmir.
The region of İzmir was situated on the southern fringes of the Yortan culture in Anatolia's prehistory, knowledge of, entirely drawn from its cemeteries. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, it was in the western end of the extension of the still obscure Arzawa Kingdom, an offshoot and a dependency of the Hittites, who themselves spread their direct rule as far as the coast during their Great Kingdom; that the realm of the 13th century BC local Luwian ruler, depicted in the Kemalpaşa Karabel rock carving at a distance of only 50 km from İzmir was called the Kingdom of Myra may leave grounds for association with the city's name. The latest known rendering in Greek of the city's name is the Aeolic Greek Μύρρα Mýrrha, corresponding to the Ionian and Attic Σμύρνα or Σμύρνη, both descendants of a Proto-Greek form *Smúrnā; some would see in the city's name a reference to the name of an Amazon called Smyrna said to have seduced Theseus, leading him to name the city in her honor. Others link the name to the Myrrha commifera shrub, a plant producing the aromatic resin called myrrh, indig
In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team. The title is honorary, but in some cases the captain may have significant responsibility for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers. In association football and cricket, a captain is known as a skipper. Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules. In many team sports, the captains represent their respective teams when the match official does the coin toss at the beginning of the game. Various sports have differing responsibilities for team captains; some of the greatest captains in history are the ones with the most subtle of traits that are required for success. From Sam Walker in his book "The Captain Class" he states that a captain is "the most important factor for a team's success".
The responsibilities of a captain vary from sport to sport. In sports like cricket or volleyball, the decision for the two teams to be on either defense or offense is determined with a coin toss and a decision made by the captains; this decision is crucial for the captain because they will decide the beginning of the game and quite how it all plays out. A captain is the first one a referee looks to while explaining the results of a play or giving a foul, or flag. Oftentimes a referee will not discuss these matters with any other player than a coach; this is important because the reaction of the captain may or may not determine how the referee will proceed. A captain must stay calm and cool headed when talking with a referee to ensure the most accurate determinants of the game. Manager Captain Captain Captain Captain Captain
Turkish women in sports
Turkish women have an active participation in many sports branches and have several important trophies in athletics, combat sports and basketball. The first Turkish women to take part in the Olympic Games were Halet Çambel and Suat Fetgeri Aşani who participated at the fencing competitions of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Yasemin Ecem Anagöz The Turkish Women's National Basketball Team known as "Periler" by the Turkish fans, is No 13 in FIBA World Rankings. European Women Basketball ChampionshipMediterranean GamesPlayersNevriye Yılmaz, retired national team playerRefereesÖzlem Yalman, FIBA-listed referee since 2011. Funda Teoman, referee Esra Kürkçü, Balkan champion Semra Yetiş, Balkan champion Nurcan Çarkçı, European champion Sümeyra Kaya, European champion Hülya Şahin and European champion Gülsüm Tatar and European champion Şemsi Yaralı, world and European champion Serpil Yassıkaya, European champion Suat Aşani Halet Çambel, 1936 Olympian Özden Ezinler İrem Karamete Women's football in Turkey began with the establishment of the all-women's club Dostlukspor in Istanbul in early 1970s.
Turkey women's national football team was established in 1995. Notable footballers Merve Aladağ Sevgi Çınar Bilgin Defterli Sibel Duman Eylül Elgalp Esra Erol Melahat Eryurt Leyla Güngör Başak İçinözbebek Lale Orta Hatice Bahar Özgüvenç Zeliha Şimşek Ebru Topçu Yağmur Uraz Cansu Yağ Aylin Yaren ManagersÖzlem Araç Necla Güngör Referees Leman Bozacıoğlu İpek Emiroğlu Elif Köroğlu Mürvet Yavuztürk FIFA listed refereesː Derya Can Göçen, world record holder Yasemin Dalkılıç, world record holder Şahika Ercümen, world record holder Birgül Erken The Turkish Women's Handball League was established in 1978. In the Mediterranean Games Turkish national women's ice hockey team was established in 2006. In the Mediterranean Games İlke Özyüksel, first Turkish Olympian Windsurfing Lena Erdil 2018 PWA World Cup Silver Some notable Turkish female tennis players include: Başak Eraydın Çağla Büyükakçay, Olympian tennis player İpek Soylu İpek Şenoğlu Melis Sezer Pemra Özgen The Turkish Women's National Team, is known as "Filenin Sultanları" won gold medal at the European Games in 2015, beating Poland 3–0 at the final.
In the Mediterranean Games Fenerbahçe won the 2011–12 CEV Women's Champions League. Vakıfbank is the 2012 -- 13 CEV Champions League. Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyespor won the 2014–15 CEV Women's Challenge Cup. National team players: Emine Bilgin, European champion Ayşegül Çoban, European champion Aylin Daşdelen, European champion Sibel Özkan, European champion Şule Şahbaz, European champion Sibel Şimşek, European champion Nurcan Taylan, Olympic and European champion Yasemin Adar and European champion ArcheryHandan Biroğlu, para-archer Burcu Dağ, world champion para-archer Gizem Girişmen, Paralympic champion archer Gülbin Su, Paralympian archerAthletics Hamide Kurt, Paralympian sprinter Sümeyye Özcan, Paralympian middle distance runner Zübeyde Süpürgeci, Paralympian sprinterGoalballSevda Altınoluk, Paralympic gold medalist goalball player Buket Atalay, Paralympic gold medalist goalball player Gülşah Düzgün, Paralympic gold medalist goalball player Neşe Mercan, Paralympic gold medalist goalball player Sümeyye Özcan, Paralympic gold medalist goalball player Seda Yıldız, Paralympic gold medalist goalball playerJudoNazan Akın, Paralympic medalist judoka Duygu Çete, Paralympic medalist judoka Mesme Taşbağ, European champion, Paralympic medalist judoka Ecem Taşın, Paralympic medalist judokaPowerliftingÖzlem Becerikli, Paralympic medalist powerlifter Çiğdem Dede, Paralympic medalist powerlifter Nazmiye Muslu and world champion powerlifterShootingÇağla Baş, wheelchair basketball player and Paralympic shooter Aysel Özgan, sport shooter Ayşegül Pehlivanlar, sport shooterSwimmingSümeyye Boyacı, Paralympian Özlem Kaya, Paralympian Sevilay Öztürk, Paralympian Table tennisÜmran Ertiş, Paralympic medalist, European champion table tennis player Neslihan Kavas, Paralympic medalist, European champion table tennis player Kübra Öçsoy, Paralympic medalist, European champion table tennis playerWheelchair tennisBüşra Ün, first Paralympic competitor A Turkish Sports Page
Botaş SK is a sports club based in Adana. The major branch of the club is the women's basketball performing at the Turkish Women's Basketball Super League; the club competes in athletics. Botaş is the first Turkish club to play a final game in European women's basketball; the club was the runner up at the Ronchetti Cup in 2001 and won the Turkish Super League and Cup titles twice. Venue of the basketball team is Menderes Sports Hall. Botaş SK is sponsored by Botaş Petroleum Pipeline Corporation since then. Ronchetti Cup Runners-up: 2000-2001 Quarter Finals: 1999-2000 FIBA EuroCup Eight Finals: 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2009–2010 Turkish Women's Basketball League Winners: 2000-2001, 2002-2003 Runners-up: 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1996-1997 Turkish Cup Winners: 2001-2002, 2002-2003 Turkish President Cup Winners record: 2003, 2004 Runner-up: 1993, 1997 Botaş SK official website Botaş SK at FIBA Europe website Botaş SK at EuroBasket website
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Ceyhun Yıldızoğlu is a Turkish professional basketball coach. He is coaching the Turkish pro side Botaş Spor. 1989-2008 Botaş Spor 2008-2010 Mersin Büyükşehir Belediyesi 2010–2012 Galatasaray Medical Park 2012-2014 Mersin Büyükşehir Belediyesi 2014–present Botaş Spor 2008–present Turkey Turkish Women's Basketball League Winner: 2000-01, 2002–03 Runner-up: 2008-09, 2010–11 Turkish Women's President Cup Winner: 2002-03, 2003–04, 2008–09, 2010–11 Runner-up: 2009-10 Ronchetti Cup Runner-up: 2001 Eurobasket Women Runner-up: Eurobasket 2011 Third place:Eurobasket 2013 Profile on TBF official web-page