Hautecombe Abbey is a former Cistercian monastery a Benedictine monastery, in Saint-Pierre-de-Curtille near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, France. For centuries it was the burial place of the members of the House of Savoy, it is visited by 150,000 tourists yearly. The origins of Hautecombe lie in a religious community, founded about 1101 in a narrow valley near Lake Bourget by hermits from Aulps Abbey, near Lake Geneva. In about 1125 it was transferred to a site on the north-western shore of the lake under Mont du Chat, granted to it by Amadeus III, Count of Savoy, named as the founder; the first abbot was Amadeus de Haute-Rive, afterwards Bishop of Lausanne. Two daughter-houses were founded from Hautecombe at an early date: Fossanova Abbey, in the diocese of Terracina in Italy, in 1135, San Angelo de Petra, close to Constantinople, in 1214, it has sometimes been claimed, but has been disputed, that Pope Celestine IV and Pope Nicholas III were monks at Hautecombe. Hautecombe was for centuries the burial-place of the Dukes of Savoy.
Count Humbert III, known as "Blessed", his wife Anne were interred there in the latter part of the 12th century. Aymon, Count of Savoy financed the expansion of a burial chapel at Hautecombe, constructed from 1331 to 1342; the abbot Anthony of Savoy, a son of Charles Emmanuel I, was buried there in 1673. The abbey was restored by one of the dukes about 1750, but it was secularized and sold in 1792, when the French entered Savoy, was turned into a china-factory. King Charles Felix of Sardinia purchased the ruins in 1824, had the church re-constructed by the Piedmontese architect Ernest Melano in an exuberant Gothic-Romantic style, restored it to the Cistercian Order, he and his queen, Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, are buried in the Belley chapel, which forms a kind of vestibule to the church. Some 300 statues and many frescoes adorn the interior of the church, 66 metres long, with a transept 26 metres wide. Most of the tombs are little more than reproductions of the medieval monuments; the Cistercians resettled the abbey from Turin, but the Italian monks soon left, were replaced by others from Sénanque Abbey, who remained until about 1884.
The premises were taken over by the Benedictines of Marseilles Priory in 1922, but in 1992 the monks left for Ganagobie Abbey in the Alpes de Haute Provence, the buildings are now administered by the Chemin Neuf Community, an ecumenical and charismatic Roman Catholic group. Hautecombe Abbey This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Hautecombe". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat, he was the son of Thomas II of Beatrice Fieschi. Amadeus began life in the service of King Edward I of England, as a household knight, serving in the First Welsh War of 1277. During the Second Welsh War of 1282 he was in command of Edward’s forces at Chester that relieved the siege of Rhuddlan Castle, his childless paternal uncle, Count of Savoy, Philip I died in 1285. Meanwhile earlier, in 1282, his elder brother Thomas III of Piedmont, had accidentally died in 1282. Philip’s will charged his niece Eleanor of Provence and her son King Edward I of England with the inheritance of Savoy. Amadeus was awarded the County of Savoy, in order to diminish family rivalry his younger brother Louis was awarded the new Barony of Vaud becoming Louis I of Vaud. Through his marriage to Sybilla, Countess of Bugey and Bresse, he was able to incorporate these Burgundian districts into his states.
Expansion saw his dominions further increased. On 1 October 1285, Amadeus was declared protector of Geneva after negotiations with the Bishop of Geneva; the hereditary title belonged to Amadeus II, Count of Geneva, in conflict with the Bishop. In 1287 Amadeus besieged the castle of Ile in the Rhône near Geneva, captured it after fourteen weeks. In 1295, Amadeus acquired the fortress at Chambéry from its previous owner Hugh of La Rochette, he brought Georges de Aquila, a student of Giotto to his court. Georges decorated the castle with paintings, carved wood, frescoes, he worked there for the Savoyards until he died in 1348. Among his successes was the Treaty of Annemasse which the Count of Geneva and the Dauphin of Viennois accepted subservient roles to him as his vassals; the treaty was the result of military victories over the both of them. In 1301, Amadeus settled his dispute over control of Valais with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion, his reign, however saw friction between the County of Savoy and the Duchy of Austria.
He pursued an alliance with the Kingdom of France and received Maulévrier in Normandy as a result of initial good relations. The eventual recovery of Lyon by the Kings of France alerted Amadeus to their expansionistic tendencies towards the regions by the Alps, he sought a powerful ally against potential hostility in the German king Henry VII, married to Margaret of Brabant, the sister-in-law of Amadeus. Amadeus accompanied Henry in his Italian campaign of 1310–1313, which culminated in Henry's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor on 29 June 1312; as a reward for his service, AMadeus received the title of Imperial Count, imperial vicar of Lombardy, the lordships of Asti and Ivrea. Henry elevated Aosta and Chablais to duchies, though they remained a part of the realm of Savoy. In 1315, Amadeus assisted the Knights Hospitaller in the defense of Rhodes against the Turks, he first married Sybille de Baugé, daughter of Guy I Damas de Baugé, Baron of Couzan and Dauphine de Lavieu, had eight children by her: Bonne of Savoy, married twice: 1) John I of Viennois, Dauphin of Viennois, 2) Hugh of Burgundy, Lord of Montbauson, the son of Hugh III, Count of Burgundy.
John of Savoy Beatrice of Savoy Edward of Savoy, succeeded his father, married Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy. Eleonor of Savoy, married three times: 1) William of Chalon, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre, 2) Dreux IV of Mello, 3) John I, Count of Forez, her daughter Marguerite de Mello married John II of Chalon-Arlay. Margaret of Savoy, married John I of Montferrat. Agnes of Savoy, married William III of Geneva, their son was Amadeus III of Geneva. Aymon of Savoy, succeeded his brother Edward as Count of Savoy, married Yolande of Montferrat, the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. In 1297, he married, Marie of Brabant, a daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders, her maternal grandparents were his first wife, Matilda of Bethune. They had 4 children: Maria of Savoy, married Hugh, Baron of Faucigny, the son of Humbert I of Viennois. Catherine of Savoy, married Leopold I, Duke of Austria and Styria. Anna of Savoy, married Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Beatrice of Savoy, married, in 1327, Henry VI, Duke of Carinthia. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Jobson, Adrian; the First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury Academic. Taylor, A. J.. "A Letter of Lewis of Savoy to Edward I". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. Vol. 68, No. 266 Jan. His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley; the project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments."
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i
Corbières is a municipality in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. On 1 January 2011 the former municipality of Villarvolard merged into the municipality of Corbières. Corbières is first mentioned around 1115 as Corbere; the municipality was known by its German name Korbers, that name is no longer used. Corbières has an area, as of 2009, of 4.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.2 km2 or 53.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.64 km2 or 39.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.31 km2 or 7.5% is settled and 0.01 km2 or 0.2% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 4.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.9%. Out of the forested land, 35.4% of the total land area is forested and 4.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 1.0% is used for growing crops and 18.3% is pastures and 33.7% is used for alpine pastures. The municipality is located on the right bank of the Saane river, it consists of the village of Corbières on the Fribourg-Bulle road.
The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules, on a Bend Argent a Crow Sable passant. Corbières has a population of 877; as of 2008, 6.2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 18%. Migration accounted for 15.5%, while births and deaths accounted for 4.8%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Italian is the third; as of 2008, the population was 48.3% male and 51.7% female. The population was made up of 176 Swiss men and 13 non-Swiss men. There were 187 Swiss women and 15 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 100 or about 29.3% were born in Corbières and lived there in 2000. There were 162 or 47.5% who were born in the same canton, while 46 or 13.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 22 or 6.5% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 24.6% of the population, while adults make up 62.6% and seniors make up 12.8%.
As of 2000, there were 134 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 166 married individuals, 17 widows or widowers and 24 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 219 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.5 persons per household. There were 34 households that consist of only one person and 10 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 133 apartments were permanently occupied, while 38 apartments were seasonally occupied and 3 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 12 new units per 1000 residents. The historical population is given in the following chart: Baillival Castle is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance; the entire Corbières area is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 31.9% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the CVP and the FDP; the SVP improved their position in Corbières rising to first, from second in 2007 The SPS moved from third in 2007 to second in 2011, the CVP moved from first in 2007 to third and the FDP retained about the same popularity.
A total of 262 votes were cast in this election, of which 2 or 0.8% were invalid. As of 2010, Corbières had an unemployment rate of 2.5%. As of 2008, there were 26 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 11 businesses involved in this sector. 73 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 10 businesses in this sector. 58 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 17 businesses in this sector. There were 189 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 46.0% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 106; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 6, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 59 of which 58 or were in manufacturing and 1 was in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 41. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 42 workers who commuted into the municipality and 146 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 3.5 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering.
Of the working population, 4.7% used public transportation to get to work, 75.6% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 293 or 85.9% were Roman Catholic, while 16 or 4.7% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 8 individuals who belonged to another Christian church. 15 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 13 individuals did not answer the question. In Corbières about 119 or of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, 40 or have completed additional higher education. Of the 40 who completed tertiary schooling, 67.5% were Swiss men, 22.5% were Swiss women. Th
Counts and dukes of Savoy
The following is a list of rulers of Savoy. House of Savoy List of consorts of Savoy County of Savoy Duchy of Savoy Kingdom of Sardinia List of monarchs of Sardinia List of Sardinian consorts Kingdom of Italy King of Italy List of Italian queens Savoy Genealogy
Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 1282 to 1328. Andronikos' reign was marked by the beginning of the decline of the Byzantine Empire. During his reign, the Turks conquered most of the Western Anatolian territories of the Empire and, during the last years of his reign, he had to fight his grandson Andronikos in the First Palaiologan Civil War; the civil war ended in Andronikos II's forced abdication in 1328 after which he retired to a monastery. Andronikos II was born Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos at Nicaea, he was the eldest surviving son of Michael VIII Palaiologos and Theodora Palaiologina, grandniece of John III Doukas Vatatzes. Andronikos was acclaimed co-emperor in 1261, after his father Michael VIII recovered Constantinople from the Latin Empire, but he was not crowned until 1272. Sole emperor from 1282, Andronikos II repudiated his father's unpopular Church union with the Papacy, which he had been forced to support while his father was still alive, but he was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310.
Andronikos II was plagued by economic difficulties. During his reign the value of the Byzantine hyperpyron depreciated precipitously, while the state treasury accumulated less than one seventh the revenue that it had previously. Seeking to increase revenue and reduce expenses, Andronikos II raised taxes, reduced tax exemptions, dismantled the Byzantine fleet in 1285, thereby making the Empire dependent on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa. In 1291, he hired 50–60 Genoese ships, but the Byzantine weakness resulting from the lack of a navy became painfully apparent in the two wars with Venice in 1296–1302 and 1306–10. In 1320, he tried to resurrect the navy by constructing 20 galleys, but failed. Andronikos II Palaiologos sought to resolve some of the problems facing the Byzantine Empire through diplomacy. After the death of his first wife Anne of Hungary, he married Yolanda of Montferrat, putting an end to the Montferrat claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonica. Andronikos II attempted to marry off his son and co-emperor Michael IX Palaiologos to the Latin Empress Catherine I of Courtenay, thus seeking to eliminate Western agitation for a restoration of the Latin Empire.
Another marriage alliance attempted to resolve the potential conflict with Serbia in Macedonia, as Andronikos II married off his five-year-old daughter Simonis to King Stefan Milutin in 1298. In spite of the resolution of problems in Europe, Andronikos II was faced with the collapse of the Byzantine frontier in Asia Minor, despite the successful, but short, governorships of Alexios Philanthropenos and John Tarchaneiotes; the successful military victories in Asia Minor by Alexios Philanthropenos and John Tarchaneiotes against the Turks were dependent on a considerable military contingent of Cretan escapees, or exiles from Venetian-occupied Crete, headed by Hortatzis, whom Michael VIII had repatriated to Byzantium through a treaty agreement with the Venetians ratified in 1277. Andronikos II had resettled those Cretans in the region of Meander river, the southeastern Asia Minor frontier of Byzantium with the Turks. After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor in 1302 and the disastrous Battle of Bapheus, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company of Almogavars led by Roger de Flor to clear Byzantine Asia Minor of the enemy.
In spite of some successes, the Catalans were unable to secure lasting gains. Being more ruthless and savage than the enemy they intended to subdue they quarreled with Michael IX, openly turned on their Byzantine employers after the murder of Roger de Flor in 1305. There they conquered the Duchy of Thebes; the Turks continued to penetrate the Byzantine possessions, Prusa fell in 1326. By the end of Andronikos II's reign, much of Bithynia was in the hands of the Ottoman Turks of Osman I and his son and heir Orhan. Karasids conquered Mysia-region with Paleokastron after 1296, Germiyan conquered Simav in 1328, Saruhan captured Magnesia in 1313, Aydinids captured Smyrna in 1310; the Empire's problems were exploited by Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria, who defeated Michael IX and conquered much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305–07. The conflict ended with yet another dynastic marriage, between Michael IX's daughter Theodora and the Bulgarian emperor; the dissolute behavior of Michael IX's son Andronikos III Palaiologos led to a rift in the family, after Michael IX's death in 1320, Andronikos II disowned his grandson, prompting a civil war that raged, with interruptions, until 1328.
The conflict precipitated Bulgarian involvement, Michael Asen III of Bulgaria attempted to capture Andronikos II under the guise of sending him military support. In 1328 Andronikos III entered Constantinople in triumph and Andronikos II was forced to abdicate. Andronikos II died as a monk at Constantinople in 1332. On 8 November 1273 Andronikos II married as his first wife Anna of Hungary, daughter of Stephen V of Hungary and Elizabeth the Cuman, with whom he had two sons: Michael IX Palaiologos. Constantine Palaiologos, despotes. Constantine was forced to become a monk by his nephew Andronikos III Palaiologos. Anna died in 1281, in 1284 Andronikos married Yolanda, a daughter of William VII of Montferrat, with whom he had: John Palaiologos (c. 1286–13
County of Savoy
The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state. Sapaudia, stretching south of Lake Geneva from the Rhône River to the Western Alps, had been part of Upper Burgundy ruled by the Bosonid duke Hucbert from the mid 9th century. Together with the neighboring Free County of Burgundy it became part of the larger Kingdom of Burgundy under King Rudolph II in 933. Humbert the White-Handed was raised to count by the last King of Burgundy, Rudolph III, in 1003, he backed the inheritance claims of the emperor Henry II and in turn was permitted to usurp the county of Aosta from its bishops at the death of Anselm. Following his support of Conrad II in annexing Arles upon Rudolph's death and suppressing the revolts of Count Odo and Bishop Burchard, he received the county of Maurienne and territories in Chablais and Tarentaise held by its archbishops at Moûtiers.
While the Arelat remained a titular kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire, Humbert's descendants—later known as the House of Savoy—maintained their independence as counts. In 1046, his younger son Otto married Adelaide, daughter of Ulric Manfred II, marquis of Susa; when she inherited her father's lands in preference to other, relatives, he thereby acquired control of the extensive March of Turin. This was united with Savoy upon his inheritance from his elder brother; the counts further enlarged their territory when, in 1218, they inherited the Vaud lands north of the Lake Geneva from the extinct House of Zähringen. In 1220, Count Thomas I occupied the towns of Pinerolo and Chambéry, which afterwards became the Savoy capital. In 1240, his younger son Peter II was invited to England by King Henry III, who had married Peter's niece Eleanor of Provence, he was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Earl of Richmond and had the Savoy Palace erected at London. In 1313, Count Amadeus V the Great gained the status of Imperial immediacy from the hands of Emperor Henry VII of Luxembourg.
What was left of the Kingdom of Burgundy ceased to be under the authority of the Emperor after the Dauphiné had passed to the French crown of prince Charles V of Valois in 1349 and the "Green Count" Amadeus VI of Savoy was appointed Imperial vicar of Arelat by Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg in 1365. The "Red Count" Amadeus VII gained access to the Mediterranean Sea by the acquisition of the County of Nice in 1388, his son Amadeus VIII the Peaceful purchased the County of Geneva in 1401; the extended Savoy lands were raised to a duchy in 1416 by the German king Sigismund of Luxembourg. In 1416 Amadeus VIII was raised to the status of Duke of Savoy. Savoie Haute-Savoie Taylor, A. J. and Lewis is Savoy. "A Letter from Lewis of Savoy to Edward I" The English Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 266, 56–62