Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan; the provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia's main tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy, it is renowned for its developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world's top destination in its Traveller's Choice award. Bali is part of the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species.
In this area alone, over 500 reef-building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about seven times as many as in the entire Caribbean. Most Bali was the host of the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. Bali is the home of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom; the royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia. Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and Oceania. Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi and Ganapatya.
Each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 do not mention a king, until 914, they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously. Mpu Sindok's great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989, giving birth to Airlangga around 1001; this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Princess Sakalendukirana appeared in 1098. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150. Jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and Hindu culture, beginning around the 1st century AD; the name Bali dwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation.
Some religious and cultural traditions still practiced. The Hindu Majapahit Empire on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343; the uncle of Hayam Wuruk is mentioned in the charters of 1384–86. A mass Javanese immigration to Bali occurred in the next century when the Majapahit Empire fell in 1520. Bali's government became an independent collection of Hindu kingdoms which led to a Balinese national identity and major enhancements in culture and economy; the nation with various kingdoms became independent for up to 386 years until 1906, when the Dutch subjugated and repulsed the natives for economic control and took it over. The first known European contact with Bali is thought to have been made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sighted its northern shores, it was the first expedition of a series of bi-annual fleets to the Moluccas, that throughout the 16th century traveled along the coasts of the Sunda Islands. Bali was mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues, aboard the expedition.
In 1585, a ship foundered off the Bukit Peninsula and left a few Portuguese in the service of Dewa Agung. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived at Bali, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602; the Dutch government expanded its control across the Indonesian archipelago during the second half of the 19th century. Dutch political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island's north coast, when the Dutch pitted various competing Balinese realms against each other. In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island's south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. In June 1860, the famous Welsh naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, travelled to Bali from Singapore, landing at Buleleng on the north coast of the island. Wallace's trip to Bali was instrumental in helping him devise his Wallace Line theory; the Wallace Line is a faunal boundary that runs through the strait between Lombok. It has been found to be a boundary between species.
In his travel memoir The Malay Archipelago, Wallace wrote of his experience in Bali, of which has strong mention of the unique Balinese irrigation methods: I was both astonished and delighted.
Sanur is a coastal stretch of beach east of Denpasar in southeast Bali, which has grown into a little town in its own right. A 5.1 km area of Sanur's coastline, from Matahari Terbit Beach to Mertasari Beach, was reclaimed in 2008. In 1906 the northern part of Sanur Beach was used as the landing site for the Dutch invasion troops during the intervention in Bali. During World War II, Sanur was again the entry point through which the Japanese forces landed to occupy the island of Bali. Bali Beach Hotel in Sanur was built by Indonesian President Sukarno in 1963, boosted tourism in Bali. Before the construction of the Bali Beach Hotel, only three significant hotels existed on the island. Construction of hotels and restaurants began to spread throughout Bali. Today Sanur contains a number of hotel resorts such as the Fairmont Sanur Beach Bali Hyatt. Sanur is home to a growing number of popular villa resorts. Traditional fishing boats can be seen on the beach of Sanur offering a scenic view of the island Nusa Penida.
Adrien Jean Le Mayeur de Merpes, a Belgian painter, lived in Sanur from 1932–1958. His house was transformed into a museum, Museum Le Mayeur, where about 80 of his most important paintings are exhibited. Bali Orchid Garden, a park about 3 km north of Sanur, is worth a visit as well. Another interesting sight can be visited in the south of Sanur in Jalan Danau Poso Street beside Pura Blanjong, a small Hindu temple. A stone column measuring 1.77 metres can be seen under a roof at the end of a small and short blind alley. This is the oldest human-made object on Bali; the column bears inscriptions dating from the 9th century written in Sanskrit and in a old form of Balinese. Various objects made of stone dating from the same period are exhibited as well; the Bali International School is located in Sanur. The Sanur Independence School is located in Sanur Rumah Kecil is a playgroup for children between 1–6 years old. Ayung River Sanur travel guide from Wikivoyage
Kintamani is a village on the western edge of the larger caldera wall of Gunung Batur in Bali, Indonesia. It is on the same north-south road as Penelokan and has been used as a stopping place to view the Gunung Batur region. Kintamani is known for Pura Tuluk Biyu's 1,000-year-old "Rites of Peace" stone tablets and the Kintamani dog, it is situated next to Mount Batur. Media related to Kintamani, Bali at Wikimedia Commons
Denpasar is the capital of Bali and the main gateway to the island. The city is a hub for other cities in the Lesser Sunda Islands. With the rapid growth of the tourism industry in Bali, Denpasar has encouraged and promoted business activities and ventures, contributing to it having the highest growth rate in Bali Province; the population of Denpasar was 897,300 in 2017, up from 788,445 at the 2010 Census. The surrounding metropolitan area has 2 million residents; the name Denpasar – from the Balinese words "den", meaning north, "pasar", meaning market – indicates the city's origins as a market-town, on the site of what is now Kumbasari Market, in the northern part of the modern city. In the 18th and 19th century, Denpasar functioned as the capital of the Hindu Majapahit Kingdom of Badung. Thus, the city was called Badung; the royal palace was looted and razed during the Dutch intervention in 1906. A statue in Taman Puputan commemorates the 1906 Puputan, in which as many as a thousand Balinese, including the King and his court, committed mass suicide in front of invading Dutch troops, rather than surrender to them.
In 1958 Denpasar became the seat of government for the Province of Bali. It remained the City of Denpasar. Both Denpasar and Badung Regency have experienced rapid physical, economic and cultural growth. Denpasar has become not only the seat of government, but the centre of commerce, education and tourism. Average population growth of 4.05% per annum, accompanied by rapid development, led to a variety of urban problems. It was resolved that meeting the needs and demands of the burgeoning urban community would best be addressed by giving Denpasar administrative independence from Badung Regency. Agreement was reached to raise the status of Denpasar to that of an autonomous city, on 15 January 1992, Act No. 1 of 1992 established the City of Denpasar. It was inaugurated by the minister of home affairs on 27 February 1992. On 16 November 2009, in a further administrative realignment, Regulation Number 67 shifted the capital of Badung Regency from Denpasar to Mangupura. Denpasar is located at a height of 0–75 mdpl.
While the total area of 127.78 km² or 2.18% of the total area of Bali Province. From the use of land, 2,768 hectares of land are paddy, 10,001 hectares are dry land, while the remaining land area is 9 hectares. Badung River divides Denpasar. Denpasar, located just south of the equator, has a tropical wet and dry climate, with hot and humid weather year-round. Due to this there is little temperature change throughout the year, with temperatures averaging about 28 degrees Celsius; the year is divided into two seasons: dry. The wet season lasts from November to April, while the dry season lasts from May to October; the temperatures are not extreme, but combined with the oppressive humidity and copious precipitation, the heat can be uncomfortable at times. The city's population was counted as 788,445 in 2010, up from 533,252 in the previous decade; the provincial website lists the December 2017 population at 897,300. Denpasar's population grew about 4% per year in the period from 2000 to 2010, Denpasar grew much faster from 2005 to 2010 than in the previous five years.
The lingering effects of the 2002 Bali bombings had a major depressive effect on tourism and immigration from other islands. However, if current trends continue, Denpasar is expected to surpass a million residents by the next census. There are about 4.57% more men than women in Denpasar. The 2015 intercensal survey reported a population of 879,098 people for the city. 65.95% of the population are Hindus, while Islam is the largest minority religion, followed by Christianity and Confucianism. Administratively, the city government consists of four districts, subdivided into 43 sub-districts with 209 villages. Denpasar has developed numerous measures to improve public services. Denpasar is divided into four districts, listed below with their 2010 Census populations: Denpasar Selatan 244,851 Denpasar Timur 138,404 Denpasar Barat 229,435 Denpasar Utara 175,899 Greater Denpasar spills out into the tourist regions, including Kuta and Ubud; the continuous built-up area includes nearly all of Badung Regency, most of Gianyar Regency, is known as Sarbagita, from Denpa"Sar"+"BA"dung+"GI"anyar+"TA"banan, a name made official by Presidential Regulation Number 45 of 2011, despite Tabanan just beginning to succumb to urban sprawl.
See List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia. The development of tourism and structural changes in the economy have had a strong impact on Denpasar. Trade and restaurants dominate the city's gross regional domestic product. Boosting the economy of Denpasar is the production of craft items such as souvenir carvings and sculpture; the craft industry, however, is experiencing pressure due to the impact of the global financial crises and competition from other Asian developing countries such as Vietnam, India and China. These competitor countries maximize the scale of production by utilizing industrial technology, while at Denpasar the craft industry remains focused on traditional skills and hand-made goods, limiting the quantity of production; the real Bali was known for its mud walls and thatched gates. However, gated residential developments and shop houses now characterize urban Bali. During the late
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman