Alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties, some synthetic compounds of similar structure are termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon and nitrogen, alkaloids may contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other such as chlorine, bromine. Alkaloids are produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria, plants. They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction, many have found use in traditional or modern medicine, or as starting points for drug discovery. Other alkaloids possess psychotropic and stimulant activities, and have used in entheogenic rituals or as recreational drugs. Although alkaloids act on a diversity of systems in humans and other animals. The boundary between alkaloids and other nitrogen-containing natural compounds is not clear-cut, Compounds like amino acid peptides, nucleotides, nucleic acid and antibiotics are usually not called alkaloids.
Natural compounds containing nitrogen in the position are usually classified as amines rather than as alkaloids. Some authors, consider alkaloids a special case of amines, the name alkaloids was introduced in 1819 by the German chemist Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meißner, and is derived from late Latin root Latin and the suffix Greek, -οειδής – like. However, the term came into use only after the publication of a review article by Oscar Jacobsen in the chemical dictionary of Albert Ladenburg in the 1880s. There is no method of naming alkaloids. Many individual names are formed by adding the suffix ine to the species or genus name, for example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna, strychnine is obtained from the seed of Strychnine tree. If several alkaloids are extracted from one plant their names often contain suffixes idine, aline, inine etc. There are at least 86 alkaloids whose names contain the root vin because they are extracted from plants such as Vinca rosea. Alkaloid-containing plants have been used by humans since ancient times for therapeutic, for example, medicinal plants have been known in the Mesopotamia at least around 2000 BC.
The Odyssey of Homer referred to a given to Helen by the Egyptian queen. It is believed that the gift was an opium-containing drug, a Chinese book on houseplants written in 1st–3rd centuries BC mentioned a medical use of Ephedra and opium poppies
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon, and thus are group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one atom has been removed are functional groups. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons, the classifications for hydrocarbons, defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry are as follows, Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen, the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2, where r is the number of rings and those with exactly one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property, hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers.
As given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms and those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n and those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2, aromatic hydrocarbons, known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers, in terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, and thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system, lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturns largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations.
The predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt, mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however easily liquefied, and exists in propane bottles mostly as a liquid, butane is so easily liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters
An alicyclic compound is an organic compound that is both aliphatic and cyclic. They contain one or more all-carbon rings which may be saturated or unsaturated. Alicyclic compounds may have one or more aliphatic side chains attached, the simplest alicyclic compounds are the monocyclic cycloalkanes, cyclobutane, cyclohexane, cyclooctane, and so on. Bicyclic alkanes include bicycloundecane and housane, polycyclic alkanes include cubane and tetrahedrane. Spiro compounds have two or more rings that are connected through only one carbon atom, the mode of ring-closing in the formation of many alicyclic compounds can be predicted by Baldwins rules. Otto Wallach, a German chemist, received the 1910 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on alicyclic compounds, monocyclic cycloalkenes are cyclopropene, cyclopentene, cycloheptene, and so on. Bicyclic alkenes include norbornene and norbornadiene, isotoluenes are a prominent class of compounds with exocyclic double bonds. The placement of bonds in many alicyclic compounds can be predicted with Bredts rule
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the alcohol ethanol, the predominant alcohol in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names typically indicates that the substance includes a functional group and, so. But many substances, particularly sugars contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix, an important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members is the saturated straight chain alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. The word alcohol is from the Arabic kohl, a used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English, alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb 2S3, hence the essence or spirit of this substance. It was used as an antiseptic and cosmetic, the meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and narrowed to ethanol, when spirits as a synonym for hard liquor.
Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, Vigo wrote, the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or alcofoll, for moost fine poudre. The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium, by extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including alcohol of wine, the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia refers to vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum, Johnson glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat. The words meaning became restricted to spirit of wine in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as alcohols in modern chemistry after 1850, the term ethanol was invented 1892, based on combining the word ethane with ol the last part of alcohol. In the IUPAC system, in naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds ol, e. g. as in methanol and ethanol.
When necessary, the position of the group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the ol, propan-1-ol for CH 3CH 2CH 2OH, propan-2-ol for CH 3CHCH3. If a higher priority group is present, the prefix hydroxy is used, in other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word alcohol, e. g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, Alcohols are classified into primary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH, the simplest primary alcohol is methanol, for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RRCHOH, the simplest of which is 2-propanol, for the tertiary alcohols the general form is RRRCOH
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single. Alkanes have the chemical formula CnH2n+2. The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane, CH4 where n =1, in an alkane, each carbon atom has 4 bonds, and each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms. The longest series of linked carbon atoms in a molecule is known as its skeleton or carbon backbone. The number of atoms may be thought of as the size of the alkane. One group of the alkanes are waxes, solids at standard ambient temperature and pressure. They can be viewed as molecular trees upon which can be hung the more functional groups of biological molecules. The alkanes have two main sources and natural gas. Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons having only single covalent bonds between their carbons, according to the definition by IUPAC, the former two are alkanes, whereas the third group is called cycloalkanes.
Saturated hydrocarbons can combine any of the linear and branching structures, the formula is CnH 2n−2k+2. Alkanes are the ones, corresponding to k =0. Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in different ways, forming structural isomers. The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches. This isomer is called the n-isomer. However the chain of atoms may be branched at one or more points. The number of possible isomers increases rapidly with the number of carbon atoms, for example, 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues are chiral due to their stereogenic center at carbon atom number 3. In addition to the alkane isomers, the chain of atoms may form one or more loops
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen, at standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This is an important part of the atmosphere and diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20. 8% of the Earths atmosphere, additionally, as oxides the element makes up almost half of the Earths crust. Most of the mass of living organisms is oxygen as a component of water, oxygen is continuously replenished by photosynthesis, which uses the energy of sunlight to produce oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is too reactive to remain a free element in air without being continuously replenished by the photosynthetic action of living organisms. Another form of oxygen, strongly absorbs ultraviolet UVB radiation, but ozone is a pollutant near the surface where it is a by-product of smog.
At low earth orbit altitudes, sufficient atomic oxygen is present to cause corrosion of spacecraft, the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion. One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In his work Pneumatica, Philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle, Philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass. Many centuries Leonardo da Vinci built on Philos work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration, Oxygen was discovered by the Polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion, English chemist John Mayow refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus.
From this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion, Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it. Accounts of these and other experiments and ideas were published in 1668 in his work Tractatus duo in the tract De respiratione. Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. This may have been in part due to the prevalence of the philosophy of combustion and corrosion called the phlogiston theory, which was the favored explanation of those processes. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. J. Becher, one part, called phlogiston, was given off when the substance containing it was burned, while the dephlogisticated part was thought to be its true form, or calx. The fact that a substance like wood gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the combustion products
In chemistry, a radical is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron. Most radicals are reasonably stable only at low concentrations in inert media or in a vacuum. A notable example of a radical is the hydroxyl radical. Two other examples are triplet oxygen and triplet carbene which have two unpaired electrons, free radicals may be created in a number of ways, including synthesis with very dilute or rarefied reagents, reactions at very low temperatures, or breakup of larger molecules. The latter can be affected by any process that puts energy into the parent molecule, such as ionizing radiation, electrical discharges, electrolysis. Radicals are intermediate stages in many chemical reactions, free radicals play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, plasma chemistry and many other chemical processes. In living organisms, the free radicals superoxide and nitric oxide and their reaction products regulate many processes, such as control of vascular tone and they play a key role in the intermediary metabolism of various biological compounds.
Such radicals can even be messengers in a process dubbed redox signaling, a radical may be trapped within a solvent cage or be otherwise bound. The qualifier free was needed to specify the unbound case, following recent nomenclature revisions, a part of a larger molecule is now called a functional group or substituent, and radical now implies free. However, the old nomenclature may still appear in some books, the term radical was already in use when the now obsolete radical theory was developed. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau introduced the phrase radical in 1785 and the phrase was employed by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789 in his Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, a radical was identified as the root base of certain acids. Historically, the radical in radical theory was used for bound parts of the molecule. These are now called functional groups, for example, methyl alcohol was described as consisting of a methyl radical and a hydroxyl radical. In a modern context the first organic free radical identified was triphenylmethyl radical and this species was discovered by Moses Gomberg in 1900 at the University of Michigan USA.
In 1933 Morris Kharash and Frank Mayo proposed that free radicals were responsible for anti-Markovnikov addition of hydrogen bromide to allyl bromide. It should be noted that the electron of the breaking bond moves to pair up with the attacking radical electron. Free radicals take part in addition and radical substitution as reactive intermediates. Chain reactions involving free radicals can usually be divided into three distinct processes and these are initiation and termination
Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds, three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity, Carbon is the 15th most abundant element in the Earths crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen and oxygen. It is the second most abundant element in the body by mass after oxygen. The atoms of carbon can bond together in different ways, termed allotropes of carbon, the best known are graphite and amorphous carbon. The physical properties of carbon vary widely with the allotropic form, for example, graphite is opaque and black while diamond is highly transparent. Graphite is soft enough to form a streak on paper, while diamond is the hardest naturally occurring material known, graphite is a good electrical conductor while diamond has a low electrical conductivity.
Under normal conditions, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have the highest thermal conductivities of all known materials, all carbon allotropes are solids under normal conditions, with graphite being the most thermodynamically stable form. They are chemically resistant and require high temperature to react even with oxygen, the most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes. The largest sources of carbon are limestones and carbon dioxide, but significant quantities occur in organic deposits of coal, oil. For this reason, carbon has often referred to as the king of the elements. The allotropes of carbon graphite, one of the softest known substances, and diamond. It bonds readily with other small atoms including other carbon atoms, Carbon is known to form almost ten million different compounds, a large majority of all chemical compounds. Carbon has the highest sublimation point of all elements, although thermodynamically prone to oxidation, carbon resists oxidation more effectively than elements such as iron and copper that are weaker reducing agents at room temperature.
Carbon is the element, with a ground-state electron configuration of 1s22s22p2. Its first four ionisation energies,1086.5,2352.6,4620.5 and 6222.7 kJ/mol, are higher than those of the heavier group 14 elements. Carbons covalent radii are normally taken as 77.2 pm,66.7 pm and 60.3 pm, although these may vary depending on coordination number, in general, covalent radius decreases with lower coordination number and higher bond order. Carbon compounds form the basis of all life on Earth
A carboxylic acid /ˌkɑːrbɒkˈsɪlɪk/ is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group. The general formula of an acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the rest of the molecule. Carboxylic acids occur widely and include the amino acids and acetic acid and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates. When a carboxyl group is deprotonated, its conjugate base forms a carboxylate anion, carboxylate ions are resonance-stabilized, and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols. Carboxylic acids can be seen as reduced or alkylated forms of the Lewis acid carbon dioxide, carboxylic acids are commonly identified using their trivial names, and usually have the suffix -ic acid. IUPAC-recommended names exist, in system, carboxylic acids have an -oic acid suffix. For example, butyric acid is butanoic acid by IUPAC guidelines, the -oic acid nomenclature detail is based on the name of the previously-known chemical benzoic acid. Alternately, it can be named as a carboxy or carboxylic acid substituent on another parent structure, for example, 2-carboxyfuran.
The carboxylate anion of an acid is usually named with the suffix -ate, in keeping with the general pattern of -ic acid and -ate for a conjugate acid and its conjugate base. For example, the base of acetic acid is acetate. The radical •COOH has only a fleeting existence. The acid dissociation constant of •COOH has been measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, the carboxyl group tends to dimerise to form oxalic acid. Because they are both hydrogen-bond acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors, they participate in hydrogen bonding. Together the hydroxyl and carbonyl group forms the functional group carboxyl, carboxylic acids usually exist as dimeric pairs in nonpolar media due to their tendency to self-associate. Smaller carboxylic acids are soluble in water, whereas higher carboxylic acids are less due to the increasing hydrophobic nature of the alkyl chain. These longer chain acids tend to be soluble in less-polar solvents such as ethers. Carboxylic acids tend to have higher boiling points than water, not only because of their surface area.
Carboxylic acids tend to evaporate or boil as these dimers, for boiling to occur, either the dimer bonds must be broken or the entire dimer arrangement must be vaporised, both of which increase the enthalpy of vaporization requirements significantly
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
It is published in the Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which a structural formula can be created. There is an IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, otherwise the common or trivial name may be used, often derived from the source of the compound. In addition, very long names may be less concise than structural formulae, in chemistry, a number of prefixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound. The steps for naming an organic compound are, Identification of the parent hydrocarbon chain and this chain must obey the following rules, in order of precedence, It should have the maximum number of substituents of the suffix functional group. By suffix, it is meant that the parent functional group should have a suffix, if more than one functional group is present, the one with highest precedence should be used. It should have the number of multiple bonds It should have the maximum number of single bonds.
It should have the maximum length, Identification of the parent functional group, if any, with the highest order of precedence. Side chains are the chains that are not in the parent chain. Identification of the functional groups, if any, and naming them by their ionic prefixes. Different side-chains and functional groups will be grouped together in alphabetical order, when both side chains and secondary functional groups are present, they should be written mixed together in one group rather than in two separate groups. Locants are the numbers on the carbons to which the substituent is directly attached, has the lowest-numbered locants for multiple bonds. Has the lowest-numbered locants for prefixes, numbering of the various substituents and bonds with their locants. If there are two side-chains with the alpha carbon, the number will be written twice. If there are double bonds and triple bonds, en is written before yne. When the main group is a terminal functional group, there is no need to number it.
Wherever it says with numbers, it is understood that between the word and the numbers, the prefix is used. Adding of punctuation, Commas are put between numbers Hyphens are put between a number and a letter Successive words are merged into one word Note, IUPAC uses one-word names throughout and this is why all parts are connected
In chemistry, the suffix -yne is used to denote the presence of a triple bond. The suffix follows IUPAC nomenclature, and is used in organic chemistry. The position of unsaturation is indicated by a numerical locant immediately preceding the -yne suffix, locants are chosen to be as low as possible. -yne is used as an infix to name substituent groups that are bound to the parent compound. This suffix arose as a form of the end of the word acetylene. The final -e disappears if it is followed by another suffix that starts with a vowel