The office formed the basis for the Buyid control over the Abbasid caliphs and Iraq after 946. The title continued in use by Muslim states in the Middle East and it was used in Norman Sicily for a few of the kings chief ministers. The first person to be titled amir al-umara was the commander Harun ibn Gharib and he was followed soon after by his rival, the eunuch Munis al-Muzaffar, who served as commander-in-chief of the caliphal army and the power behind the throne for most of al-Muqtadirs reign. Munis himself was executed by al-Qahir in 933, but in 934 another palace coup deposed al-Qahir, the frequent coups and violent struggle for control of the Caliphate greatly enfeebled the central government in Baghdad. Even in Iraq itself, the authority of the government was challenged. Thus in the south, around Basra, Abu Abdallah al-Baridi established his own domain, often refusing to send tax revenues to Baghdad and establishing contacts with the Buyids of nearby Fars. The historian Ali ibn al-Athir asserted that after the death of Munis, the post of amir al-umara fell to Tarif al-Subkari, the authority granted to Ibn Raiq and his successors was sweeping.
He was granted a banner and robes of office, as well as the privileges of being addressed by his kunya, in effect, writes Miskawayh, the caliph resigned to him the government of the kingdom. Henceforth, effective power in military and civil administrations passed from the caliph to the amir al-umara and his secretary. Ibn Raiq took care to deprive the caliph of his last support base by disbanding the old household bodyguard, replacing them as the core of the army with his own Turks. He was deposed on 16 September by Ibn Raiq, who within a few days re-assumed his old position, Ibn Raiqs restoration provoked the reaction of al-Baridi, whose forces occupied Baghdad, forcing Ibn Raiq and al-Muttaqi to flee to the Hamdanid ruler al-Hasan in Mosul. The latter helped the Caliph recover Baghdad, had Ibn Raiq assassinated on 13 February 942, Tuzun became the new amir al-umara on 1 June. Al-Muttaqi tried to regain his independence by remaining at Raqqa instead of Baghdad and contacting the Ikhshidids, in the end, al-Muttaqi refused and returned to Baghdad, where Tuzun deposed and blinded him, raising al-Mustakfi to the throne.
Tuzuns tenure lasted until his death in August/September 945, but was overshadowed by the power of the Buyids. In 944 Muizz al-Dawla tried to take Baghdad but was beaten back, after Tuzuns death, his secretary and successor, Muhammad ibn Shirzad, held only feeble authority and tried to fend off the Buyid threat by allying himself with Nasir al-Dawla. His efforts were in vain, and on 17 January 946 and this began the Buyid era in Baghdad and Iraq, which lasted until the Seljuq conquest in the mid-11th century. After his death in 949 he was succeeded by the eldest surviving brother, Rukn al-Dawla, ruler of Rey, until his death in 976. It appears, that Ahmad, who continued to rule over Iraq, retained the title for himself, and gave it in addition to his son Izz al-Dawla when he declared him his heir in 955
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Nawabs of the Carnatic ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801. The Carnatic was a dependency of Hyderabad Deccan, and was under the purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad. They initially had their capital at Arcot in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the old province known as the Carnatic, in which Madras was situated, extended from the Krishna river to the Kaveri river, and was bounded on the West by Mysore kingdom and Dindigul. The Northern portion was known as the Mughal Carnatic, the Southern the Maratha Carnatic with the Maratha fortresses of Gingee, the Nawabs of the Carnatic trace their origin back to second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab. With the Vijayanagara Empire in serious decline, the Nawabdom of the Carnatic controlled a vast territory south of the Krishna river, the Nawab Saadatullah Khan I moved his court from Gingee to Arcot. His successor Dost Ali conquered and annexed Madurai in 1736, in 1740, the Maratha forces descended on Arcot. They attacked the Nawab, Dost Ali Khan, in the pass of Damalcherry, in the war that followed, Dost Ali, one of his sons Hasan Ali, and a number of prominent persons lost their lives.
This initial success at once enhanced Maratha prestige in the south, from Damalcherry the Marathas proceeded to Arcot, which surrendered to them without much resistance. Chanda Saheb and his son were arrested and sent to Nagpur, Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah became the ruler in 1765. The growing influences of the English and the French and their colonial wars had a impact on the Carnatic. Wallajah supported the English against the French and Hyder Ali, placing him heavily in debt, as a result he had to surrender much of his territory to the East India Company. Wikipedia Paul Benfield The thirteenth Nawab, Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan, died without issue, Ghouse Khans uncle Azim Jah was created the first Prince of Arcot in 1867 by Queen Victoria, and was given a tax free-pension in perpetuity. This privilege continues to be honoured by the Government of India, even after the 26th Amendment withdrew recognition for titles and this status is protected by the Indian Constitution, and the family continues to retain its privileges and titles.
The current Prince of Arcot, Abdul Ali, inherited the title in July 1994. uq. net. au The House of Arcot
Tiruchirappalli, called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state, located 322 kilometres south of Chennai and 379 kilometres north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. Occupying 167.23 square kilometres, the city was home to 916,857 people in 2011, tiruchirappallis recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has ruled by the Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a role in the Carnatic Wars between the British and the French East India companies.
Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Golden Rock Railway Workshop, the presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India. Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, a major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by an international airport which operates flights to Southeast Asia and the Middle East. According to the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli was listed as the third-cleanest city in India in 2016. According to Hindu Mythology, the word Tiruchirappalli is derived from Tiru which is to address someone with respect, Chirapalli is a compound of siram - head, palli - to sleep. It is a reference to the deity Sriranganathaswamy who is depicted at rest with his head in an elevated position in the Srirangam Temple. Telugu scholar C. P. Brown has proposed that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word Chiruta-palli meaning little town, other scholars have suggested that the name Tiruchirappalli is a rewording of Tiru-chinna-palli, meaning holy little town.
The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruććināppalli or the village of the shina plant. Historically, Tiruchirappalli was commonly referred to in English as Trichinopoly, Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu, its earliest settlements date back to the second millennium BC. Uraiyur, the capital of the Early Cholas for 600 years from the 3rd century BC onwards, is a suburb of present-day Tiruchirappalli, the city is referred to as Orthoura by the historian Ptolemy in his 2nd-century work Geography. The worlds oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai about 18 kilometres from Uraiyur, was built across the Kaveri River by Karikala Chola in the 2nd century AD. Following the downfall of the Pallavas in the 8th century, the city was conquered by the Medieval Cholas, who ruled until the 13th century. After the decline of the Cholas, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas, who ruled from 1216 until their defeat in 1311 by Malik Kafur, the victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the region
Nawab or nawaab is an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. Nawab usually refers to males, the equivalent is begum or nawab begum. The primary duty of a nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal emperor along with the administration of a certain province, in some cases, these titles were accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. During the British Raj, some of the chiefs or Sardars of large or important tribes were given the title. The term nawab was originally used for the subahdar or viceroy of a subah or region of the Mughal empire. It is a Hindustani term, used in Urdu, Hindi and many other North-Indian languages, borrowed via Persian from the Arabic, being the plural of naib. In some areas, especially Bengal, the term is pronounced nobab and this variation has entered English and other foreign languages. The term nawbab is often used to refer to any Muslim ruler in north or south India while the term nizam is preferred for a senior official—it literally means governor of region.
The Nizam of Hyderabad had several nawabs under him, Nawabs of Cuddapah, Rajahmundry, Chicacole, Nizam was his personal title, awarded by the Mughal Government and based on the term Nazim as meaning senior officer. Nazim is still used for a collector in many parts of India. The term nawab is still technically imprecise, as the title was awarded to Hindus and Sikhs, as well. With the decline of empire, the title, and the powers that went with it. Other former rulers bearing the title, such as the nawabs of Bengal, some princes became Nawab by promotion, e. g. the ruler of Palanpur was diwan until 1910, nawab sahib. Other nawabs were promoted are restyled to another style, or to and back. The style for a queen is begum. Most of the dynasties were male primogenitures, although several ruling Begums of Bhopal were a notable exception. Before the incorporation of the Subcontinent into the British Empire, nawabs ruled the kingdoms of Awadh, Bengal and Bhopal. The title nawab was awarded as a distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Chennai /ˈtʃɛnnaɪ/, formerly known as Madras /məˈdrɑːs/ or /-ˈdræs/) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is one of the biggest cultural, according to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth-largest city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists. It was ranked 43rd most visited city in the world for year 2015, the Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists. As such, it is termed Indias health capital, as a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai has the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009,82,790 in 2011, tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015.
Chennai is ranked as a city in the Global Cities Index and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the hottest city by the BBC, National Geographic ranked Chennais food as second best in the world, it was the only Indian city to feature in the list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet, the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest city economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed The Detroit of India, with more than one-third of Indias automobile industry being based in the city, in January 2015, it was ranked third in terms of per capita GDP. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. The name Madras originated even before the British presence was established in India, the name Madras is said to have originated from a Portuguese phrase mae de Deus which means mother of god, due to Portuguese influence on the port city.
According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a north of Fort St George. However, it is whether the name was in use before the arrival of Europeans. The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally Mundir-raj or Mundiraj, Madras might have been derived from the word Madhuras meaning juice of honey or sugarcane in Sanskrit. The nativity of name Chennai, being of Telugu origin is clearly proved by the historians. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a deed, dated 8 August 1639
East India Company
The company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the Companys shares. Initially the government owned no shares and had only indirect control, during its first century of operation the focus of the Company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own armies, exercising military power. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, the official government machinery of British India had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean, one of them, Edward Bonventure, sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula and returned to England in 1594. In 1596, three ships sailed east, these were all lost at sea.
Two days later, on 24 September, the Adventurers reconvened and resolved to apply to the Queen for support of the project, the Adventurers convened again a year later. For a period of fifteen years the charter awarded the newly formed company a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan. Anybody who traded in breach of the charter without a licence from the Company was liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo, the governance of the company was in the hands of one governor and 24 directors or committees, who made up the Court of Directors. They, in turn, reported to the Court of Proprietors, ten committees reported to the Court of Directors. According to tradition, business was transacted at the Nags Head Inn, opposite St Botolphs church in Bishopsgate. Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601, in March 1604 Sir Henry Middleton commanded the second voyage. Early in 1608 Alexander Sharpeigh was appointed captain of the Companys Ascension, thereafter two ships and Union sailed from Woolwich on 14 March 1607–8.
Initially, the company struggled in the trade because of the competition from the already well-established Dutch East India Company. The company opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage, the factory in Bantam was closed in 1683. During this time belonging to the company arriving in India docked at Surat. In the next two years, the company established its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal
Ghulam Husain Ali Khan aka Ghulam Hussainy or Umdat ul-Umra, was the Nawab of the Carnatic state in the Mughal Empire from 1795 to 1801. He was actually named by his grandfather, Anwaruddin Khan, as Abdul Wali, but he was subsequently renamed as Umdat ul-Umara, after the name of the court of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. Umdat ul-Umara was the son of Muhammad Ali Khan Walahjah, an ally of the British East India Company. He was appointed Naib Subah of Nattharnagar, and Subah of Arcot and he succeeded on the death of his father 13th and installed on the musnaid 16 October 1795. Umdat ul-Umara ruled from 1795 to 1801, during his reign, the British East India Company demanded pieces of land as gifts. Many members of the British East India Company believed that Umdat ul-Umara, on the fall of Tipu Sultan in 1799, the British accused the Nawab of collaborating with Tipu Sultan and, demanded the entire administration of the kingdom as indemnity. Umdat ul-Umara vehemently resisted the demands of the British East India Company, Umdat ul-Umara, died, perhaps poisoned by the Company, soon afterwards.
The British takeover of Umdat ul-Umaras domain occurred during the reign of his nephew and successor and this document provided that Azim-ud-Daula ceded all his lands to British rule, including the territory of the Polygars. Nawabs of the Carnatic Ghulam Husainy Umdat ul-Umara