Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
A corn exchange is a building where merchants traded corn. Such trade was common in towns and cities across England until the 19th century, but as the trade became centralised in the 20th century many such buildings were used for other purposes. Several have since become historical landmarks. For the history of corn exchanges, see: Corn Exchanges in England grain trade Commodity market and Commodities exchange Corn Exchange, Sydney Winnipeg Grain Exchange The Corn Exchange, Dublin, a Commedia dell'arte theatre company founded in 1995 in Dublin; the Corn Exchange, Kildare, now a court house. See also: Corn Exchanges in England The Exchange, Bristol Bishop's Stortford Corn Exchange Bury St Edmund’s Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Bedford Corn Exchange, Blandford Forum. See The Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Brighton. See Brighton Dome Corn Exchange, Camborne Cambridge Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Chichester Cimla Corn Exchange, Neath Dalkeith Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Devizes Corn Exchange, Exeter Doncaster Corn Exchange Edinburgh Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Haverhill Corn Exchange, Hitchin Corn Exchange, Ipswich Palace Theatre opened as a Corn Exchange in 1863 Corn Exchange, King's Lynn Corn Exchange, Kirkcaldy Leeds Corn Exchange Leicester Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Lewes Corn Exchange, Lichfield Lincoln Corn Exchange Liverpool Corn Exchange London Corn Exchange on Mark Lane, the UK's primary agricultural exchange, which became part of Liffe.
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An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. Auditoria can be found in entertainment venues, community halls, theaters, may be used for rehearsal, performing arts productions, or as a learning space; the term is taken from Latin. The audience in a modern theatre are separated from the performers by the proscenium arch, although other types of stage are common; the price charged for seats in each part of the auditorium varies according to the quality of the view of the stage. The seating areas can include some or all of the following: Stalls, orchestra or arena: the lower flat area below or at the same level as the stage. Balconies or galleries: one or more raised seating platforms towards the rear of the auditorium. In larger theatres, multiple levels are stacked vertically behind the stalls; the first level is called the dress circle or grand circle.
The highest platform, or upper circle is sometimes known as the gods in large opera houses, where the seats can be high and a long distance from the stage. Boxes: placed to the front and above the level of the stage, they are separate rooms with an open viewing area which seat only a handful of people. These seats are considered the most prestigious of the house. A state box or royal box is sometimes provided for dignitaries. Seating arrangement: Seating arrangements in an auditorium seating layout will either be identified as “multiple-aisle” or “continental.” These terms are found in design standards manuals, building codes, similar architectural reference documents. Each size is unique, with specific guidelines governing row size, row spacing, exit ways. A multiple-aisle arrangement will have a maximum of 14–16 chairs per row with access to an aisle-way at both ends. In a continental arrangement, all seats are located in a central section. Here the maximum quantity of chairs per row can exceed the limits established in a multiple-aisle arrangement.
In order to compensate for the greater length of rows allowed, building codes will require wider row spacing, wider aisles, strategically located exit doors. Although it would seem like more space is called for, a continental seating plan is not any less efficient than a multiple-aisle arrangement. In fact, if it is planned, a continental arrangement can accommodate more seating within the same space. Sports venues such as stadiums and racetracks have royal boxes or enclosures, for example at the All England Club and Ascot Racecourse, where access is limited to royal families or other distinguished personalities. In other countries, sports venues have luxury boxes, where access is open to anyone who can afford tickets. Auditorium Building List of concert halls Music venue Noise mitigation Performing arts center Smoking ban Concert hall acoustics on-line exhibition
A showroom is a large space used to display products or show entertainment. A showroom is a large space used to display products for sale, such as automobiles, appliances, carpet or apparel, it is a retail store of a company in which products are on sale in a space created by their brand or company. A showroom can be a space for wholesale buyers to view fashion merchandise for sale in their retail stores; the world's most famous locations for a showroom in the form of a cluster, are the Champs Elysees in Paris or Merchandise Mart in Chicago,One of the world's largest showrooms is the 35,000 square metres BMW showroom in Abu Dhabi. The biggest collection of showrooms is a 216,000-square-metre car showroom in Istanbul called Autopia Europia. A showroom is a permanent enclosed space used to present a performance. Sometimes it is customized for a particular show; some showrooms are used daily. In some cases, a showroom is leased to a performer, who retains all income rather than being paid by the showroom owner.
In fashion capitals such as New York City, Milan or London one can find temporary showrooms. These places can be rented on a weekly basis; some temporary showrooms are managed with the help of event management agencies. Temporary showrooms can be pop-up stores, which are short-term sales spaces. Automobile manufacturer Ferrari has introduced augmented reality technology into their showrooms, to provide customers with a more hands-on approach when purchasing a vehicle. Showrooming List of auto dealership and repair shop buildings
La Vanguardia is a Spanish daily newspaper, founded in 1881. It is printed in Spanish and, since 3 May 2011 in Catalan, it is Catalonia's leading newspaper. La Vanguardia, despite being distributed in Catalonia, has Spain's fourth-highest circulation among general-interest newspapers, trailing only the three main Madrid dailies – El País, El Mundo and ABC, all of which are national newspapers with offices and local editions throughout the country, its editorial line leans to the centre of politics and is moderate in its opinions, although under Franco it followed Francoist ideology and to this day has Catholic sensibilities and strong ties to the Spanish nobility through the Godó family. La Vanguardia's newspaper history began in Barcelona on 1 February 1881 when two businessmen from Igualada and Bartolomé Godó, first published the paper, it was defined as a Diario político de avisos y notícias, intended as a means of communication for a faction of the Liberal Party that wanted to gain control over the Barcelona city council.
On 31 December 1887, the paper published its last edition as a party organ, the next day, 1 January 1888, the first day of the Universal Exposition of Barcelona, it presented a new, politically independent format with morning and afternoon editions. It is one of the oldest papers in Spain, is the only Catalan newspaper that has survived all the Spanish regime changes, from the restoration of Alfonso XII to the 21st century. La Vanguardia is part of the Grupo Godó. Carlos Godó Valls took over the business in 1931, his death was one year after the death of his wife, Montserrat Muntañola Trinxet, succeeding as President his son Javier Godó Muntañola in 1987. From 1939 to 1978 its title included the word Española in order to better accommodate the new state ideology; the paper was one of two major dailies in Spain during the Franco regime together with ABC. In the late 1970s and 1980s La Vanguardia had close connections with Union alliance. In 1987 La Vanguardia received the second largest amount of state aid.
La Vanguardia was published in berliner format until 2 October 2007 when it began to use tabloid format. The daily was awarded the World's Best Designed Newspaper for 1994 by the Society for News Design; the circulation of La Vanguardia was 221,451 copies in February 1970 and 218,390 copies in February 1975. Five years the circulation of the paper was 188,555 copies in February 1980. In 1993 La Vanguardia had a circulation of 208,029 copies, making it the fifth best selling newspaper in Spain. In 1994 it was the fourth best selling newspaper in the country with a circulation of 207,112 copies. La Vanguardia had a circulation of 205,000 copies in 2001, its circulation was 203,000 copies in 2003. Between June 2006 and July 2007 the daily had a circulation of 209,735 copies; the 2008 circulation of the paper was 213,413 copies. It was 196,824 copies in 2011; the newspaper prints daily in two parallel editions, one in Spanish and, since 3 May 2011, another one in Catalan. The Spanish name La Vanguardia is used for both editions.
Before the birth of the Catalan edition, letters to the editor submitted in Catalan were always left untranslated. John Carlin Julià Guillamon Quim Monzó Fernando Krahn Pedro Madueño Sergi Pàmies Pilar Rahola Xavier Sala-i-Martin Gaziel Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers pp 334–37 La Vanguardia newspaper website
The Basques are an indigenous ethnic group characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are indigenous to and inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country, a region, located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France; the English word Basque may be pronounced or and derives from the French Basque, derived from Gascon Basco, cognate with Spanish Vasco. These, in turn, come from plural Vascones; the Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity. Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes; the place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones.
Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". In Basque, people call themselves singular euskaldun, formed from euskal - and - dun. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" and the suffix -ara, thus euskara would mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, he records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.
In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko. On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi is still used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Since the Basque language is unrelated to Indo-European, it has long been thought to represent the people or culture that occupied Europe before the spread of Indo-European languages there. A comprehensive analysis of Basque genetic patterns has shown that Basque genetic uniqueness predates the arrival of agriculture in the Iberian Peninsula, about 7,000 years ago, it is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, others.
There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and they spoke old varieties of the Basque language. In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries; the Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories, leaving the kingdom landlocked.
The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies. However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620; the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution and the Carlist Wars, when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment, sometimes by acts