Ethylene-vinyl acetate known as poly, is the copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate. The weight percent vinyl acetate varies from 10 to 40%, with the remainder being ethylene. Broadly speaking, there are three different types of EVA copolymer, which differ in the vinyl acetate content and the way the materials are used; the EVA copolymer, based on a low proportion of VA may be referred to as vinyl acetate modified polyethylene. It is a copolymer and is processed as a thermoplastics material – just like low density polyethylene, it has some of the properties of a low density polyethylene but increased gloss and flexibility. The material is considered as non-toxic; the EVA copolymer, based on a medium proportion of VA is referred to as thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and is a thermoplastic elastomer material. It is not vulcanized but has some of the properties of a rubber or of plasticized polyvinyl chloride at the higher end of the range. Both filled and unfilled EVA materials have good low temperature properties and are tough.
The materials with 11% VA are used as hot melt adhesives. The EVA copolymer, based on a high proportion of VA is referred to as ethylene-vinyl acetate rubber. EVA is an elastomeric polymer that produces materials which are "rubber-like" in softness and flexibility; the material has good clarity and gloss, low-temperature toughness, stress-crack resistance, hot-melt adhesive waterproof properties, resistance to UV radiation. EVA has a distinctive vinegar-like odor and is competitive with rubber and vinyl polymer products in many electrical applications. Hot melt adhesives and top-of-the line soccer cleats are made from EVA with additives like wax and resin. EVA is used as a clinginess-enhancing additive in plastic wraps. Craft-foam sheets are popularly used for children's foam stickers. EVA is used in biomedical engineering applications as a drug-delivery device; the polymer is dissolved in an organic solvent. Powdered drug and filler are added to the liquid solution and mixed to obtain a homogeneous mixture.
The drug-filler-polymer mixture is cast into a mold at −80 °C and freeze-dried until solid. These devices are used in drug delivery research to release a compound; the polymer does not biodegrade within the body, but is quite inert and causes little or no reaction following implantation. EVA is one of the materials popularly known as expanded foam rubber. EVA foam is used as padding in equipment for various sports such as ski boots, bicycle saddles, hockey pads and mixed-martial-arts gloves and helmets, wakeboard boots, waterski boots, fishing rods and fishing-reel handles, it is used as a shock absorber in sports shoes, for example. It is used for the manufacture of floats for commercial fishing gear such as purse seine and gillnets. In addition, because of its buoyancy, EVA has made its way into non-traditional products such as floating eyewear, it is used in the photovoltaics industry as an encapsulation material for crystalline silicon solar cells in the manufacture of photovoltaic modules.
EVA slippers and sandals are popular, being lightweight, easy to form, odorless and cheaper compared to natural rubber. In fishing rods, EVA is used to construct handles on the rod-butt end. EVA can be used as a substitute for cork in many applications. PVAc copolymers are adhesives used in packaging, bookbinding for bonding plastic films, metal surfaces, coated paper and as redispersible powders in plasters and cement renders. Flower-making foam is a thin sheet made of EVA, flexible, is used to make artificial flowers; these foams are presented as raw sheets and they can be cut into the desired petal shape and can be formed by ironing to assemble artificial flowers by putting these petals together. EVA is used in coatings formulation of good-quality interior water-borne paints at 53% primary dispersant. Hydrolysis of EVA gives ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer; some objects made of EVA EVA is used in orthotics, cigarettes and skimboard traction pads, for the manufacturing of some artificial flowers.
It is used as a separator in HEPA filters. EVA can be cut from sheets and molded to shape, it is used to make thermoplastic mouthguards that soften in boiling water for a user-specific fit. It is used for conditioning and waterproofing leather. EVA finds application in the making of nicotine transdermal patches, since the copolymer binds well with other agents to form gel-like substances. EVA is sometimes used as a material for some plastic model kit parts. List of EVA tradenames Acetic acid, ethenyl ester, polymer with ethene in the ChemIDplus database
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Some additives have been used for centuries. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Food additives include substances that may be introduced to food indirectly in the manufacturing process, through packaging, or during storage or transport. To regulate these additives, inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "E numbers", used in Europe for all approved additives; this numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use. E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is known as additive 260 in some countries.
Additive 103, alkannin, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods; each food additive has to be numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix "E"; the United States Food and Drug Administration lists these items as "generally recognized as safe". See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap because some additives exert more than one effect. For example, salt is both a preservative as well as a flavor. Acidulents Acidulents confer sour or acid taste. Common acidulents include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid. Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used for controlling the pH of foods for stability or to affect activity of enzymes. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from sticking.
Antifoaming and foaming agents Antifoaming agents prevent foaming in foods. Foaming agents do the reverse. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C are preservatives by inhibiting the degradation of food by oxygen. Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its taste. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation or to make food look more attractive. Fortifying agents Vitamins and dietary supplements to increase the nutritional value Color retention agents In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, homogenized milk. Flavors Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially. Flavor enhancers Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. A popular example is monosodium glutamate.
Some flavor enhancers have their own flavors. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life. Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi and other microorganisms. Stabilizers Stabilizers and gelling agents, like agar or pectin give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy low, or because they have beneficial effects regarding diabetes mellitus, tooth decay, or diarrhea. Thickeners Thickening agents are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without modifying its other properties.
Packaging Bisphenols and perfluoroalkyl chemicals are indirect additives used in manufacturing or packaging. In July 2018 the American Academy of Pediatrics called for more careful study of those three substances, along with nitrates and food coloring, as they might harm children during development. With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, food additives are more used. Many countries regulate their use. For example, boric acid was used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s, but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity, as demonstrated in animal and human studies. During World War II, the urgent need for cheap, available food preservatives led to it being used again, but it was banned in the 1950s; such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives, an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. In the United States, this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause, an amendment to the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act of 1938, stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives.
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Wendy's is an American international fast food restaurant chain founded by Dave Thomas on November 15, 1969, in Columbus, Ohio. The company moved its headquarters to Dublin, Ohio, on January 29, 2006; as of December 31, 2018, Wendy's was the world's third largest hamburger fast food chain with 6,711 locations, following Burger King and McDonald's. On April 24, 2008, the company announced a merger with Triarc Companies Inc. a publicly traded company and the parent company of Arby's. Despite the new ownership, Wendy's headquarters remained in Dublin. Wendy's had rejected more than two buyout offers from Triarc. Following the merger, Triarc became known as Wendy's/Arby's Group, as The Wendy's Company; as of December 31, 2018, there were a total of 6,711 locations, including 353 that are company-owned. 6,358 restaurants are franchised, 92% of the system-wide restaurants are located in North America. While Wendy's sets standards for exterior store appearance, food quality, menu, individual owners have control over hours of operations, interior decor, staff uniforms, wages.
The chain is known for its square hamburgers, sea salt fries, their signature Frosty, a form of soft serve ice cream mixed with frozen starches. Wendy's menu consists of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches, French fries, beverages such as the Frosty. Since phasing out their famous "Big Classic", the company does not have a signature sandwich, such as the Burger King Whopper or the McDonald's Big Mac - although, by default, the "signature sandwich" spot seems to have been filled by Dave's 1/4 lb Single, a square-pattied burger made with fresh ground beef rather than round frozen patties. Wendy's uses square hamburger patties – which hang over the edge of a circular bun – as its signature item; the idea for Wendy's "old fashioned" hamburgers was inspired by Dave Thomas's trips to Kewpee Hamburgers in his home town of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Kewpee sold square hamburgers and thick malt shakes, much like the well-known restaurant that Thomas founded in Columbus, Ohio, in 1969. Square patties had corners that stuck out so that customers could see the quality of the meat.
The Columbus location added a Tim Hortons and was closed on March 2, 2007, after 38 years of business due to declining sales. Thomas named the restaurant after his fourth child Melinda Lou "Wendy" Thomas. Photographs of her were on display at the original Wendy's restaurant. In August 1972, the first Wendy's franchisee, L. S. Hartzog, signed an agreement for Indianapolis, Indiana. In 1972, Wendy's aired its first TV commercials that were only broadcast locally in Ohio; this series of commercials was titled "C'mon to Wendy's" because they stressed Wendy's superiority through the "Quality Is Our Recipe" slogan and featured an animated Wendy similar to the one from the corporate logo along with dancing hamburgers. The first Canadian restaurant opened in Hamilton, Ontario in 1976. In December 1976, Wendy's opened its 500th restaurant, located in Ontario. In March 1978, Wendy's opened its 1000th restaurant in Tennessee. Wendy's founded the fried chicken chain Sisters Chicken in 1978 and sold it to its largest franchiser in 1987.
In 1979, the first European Wendy's opened in Munich. The same year, Wendy's became the first fast-food chain to introduce the salad bar. Wendy's entered the Asian market by opening its first restaurants in Japan in 1980, in Hong Kong in 1982, in the Philippines and Singapore in 1983. In 1984, Wendy's opened its first restaurant in South Korea. In response to a 1986 slowdown in the chain's performance, Wendy's restructured its cleanliness standards and other operational details to ensure that stores met the goals and standards of the parent company so that its franchises were competitive in the market. Wendy's closed all its outlets in Singapore in the following year. From 1988 to 1990, Wendy's expanded operations globally to Mexico, New Zealand, Greece, Guatemala, as well as the U. S. Naval Base in Naples, Italy. In 1988, Wendy's expanded its bar to a full-blown buffet called the Superbar for $2.99. The Superbar had various stations: "Mexican Fiesta", the Italian "Pasta Pasta," and the "Garden Spot", salad and fruit.
The Superbar was popular but difficult to maintain and thus was discontinued in 1998. In 1989, Wendy's opened its first restaurant in Greece at Syntagma Square being the first foreign fast-food chain in the country. After opening 12 restaurants in 3 cities, the company abandoned the Greek market in 2002. In 1996, the chain expanded in Argentina by opening 18 local restaurants. However, all of them closed only four years due to the economic crisis in the country. In 1998, Wendy's pulled out of South Korea by closing all its 15 restaurants and in 2000 exited from the UK, Hong Kong. Garden Sensations salads were added in 2002. Wendy's signed a franchise agreement to re-enter the Singapore market in 2009 though that agreement was short-lived. In 2011, Wendy's returned to Japan and Argentina announcing a development agreement for 50 restaurants in the country, it entered the Russian market for the first time with plans to open 180 restaurants over a 10-year period. However, only three years in 2014, Wendy's closed all its restaurants in the country.
In 2013, Wendy's opened the first restaurant in Georgia and made a deal to open 25 restaurants in Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. In September 2014, several pork based products were introduced to be on sale until early November; these included a stand
European Chemicals Agency
The European Chemicals Agency is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals. ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern, it is located in Finland. The agency headed by Executive Director Bjorn Hansen, started working on 1 June 2007; the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most used substances have been registered; the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment.
This gives European consumers the right to ask retailers whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU; this worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals and how to use products safely because the labels on products are now the same throughout the world. Companies need to notify ECHA of the labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100 000 substances; the information is available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products. Biocidal products include, for example, insect disinfectants used in hospitals; the Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is enough information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation; the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the import of hazardous chemicals.
Through this mechanism, countries due to receive hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have serious effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1; these are substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment and do not break down. Other substances considered. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0,1% weight of the article, have legal obligations, they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy. Once a substance has been identified in the EU as being of high concern, it will be added to a list; this list is available on ECHA's website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs.
Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list. This means that, after a given date, companies will not be allowed to place the substance on the market or to use it, unless they have been given prior authorisation to do so by ECHA. One of the main aims of this listing process is to phase out SVHCs where possible. In its 2018 substance evaluation progress report, ECHA said chemical companies failed to provide “important safety information” in nearly three quarters of cases checked that year. "The numbers show a similar picture to previous years" the report said. The agency noted that member states need to develop risk management measures to control unsafe commercial use of chemicals in 71% of the substances checked. Executive Director Bjorn Hansen called non-compliance with REACH a "worry". Industry group CEFIC acknowledged the problem; the European Environmental Bureau called for faster enforcement to minimise chemical exposure. European Chemicals Bureau Official website
Safety data sheet
A safety data sheet, material safety data sheet, or product safety data sheet is a document that lists information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. A SDS for a substance is not intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols; the same product can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals contains a standard specification for safety data sheets. The SDS follows a 16 section format, internationally agreed and for substances the SDS should be followed with an Annex which contains the exposure scenarios of this particular substance; the 16 sections are: SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. Product identifier 1.2. Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against 1.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet 1.4. Emergency telephone number SECTION 2: Hazards identification 2.1. Classification of the substance or mixture 2.2. Label elements 2.3. Other hazards SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients 3.1. Substances 3.2. Mixtures SECTION 4: First aid measures 4.1. Description of first aid measures 4.2. Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed 4.3. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed SECTION 5: Firefighting measures 5.1.
Extinguishing media 5.2. Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture 5.3. Advice for firefighters SECTION 6: Accidental release measure 6.1. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures 6.2. Environmental precautions 6.3. Methods and material for containment and cleaning up 6.4. Reference to other sections SECTION 7: Handling and storage 7.1. Precautions for safe handling 7.2. Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities 7.3. Specific end use SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection 8.1. Control parameters 8.2. Exposure controls SECTION 9: Physical and chemical properties 9.1. Information on basic physical and chemical properties 9.2. Other information SECTION 10: Stability and reactivity 10.1. Reactivity 10.2. Chemical stability 10.3. Possibility of hazardous reactions 10.4. Conditions to avoid 10.5. Incompatible materials 10.6. Hazardous decomposition products SECTION 11: Toxicological information 11.1. Information on toxicological effects SECTION 12: Ecological information 12.1.
Toxicity 12.2. Persistence and degradability 12.3. Bioaccumulative potential 12.4. Mobility in soil 12.5. Results of PBT and vPvB assessment 12.6. Other adverse effects SECTION 13: Disposal considerations 13.1. Waste treatment methods SECTION 14: Transport information 14.1. UN number 14.2. UN proper shipping name 14.3. Transport hazard class 14.4. Packing group 14.5. Environmental hazards 14.6. Special precautions for user 14.7. Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code SECTION 15: Regulatory information 15.1. Safety and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture 15.2. Chemical safety assessment SECTION 16: Other information 16.2. Date of the latest revision of the SDS In Canada, the program known as the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System establishes the requirements for SDSs in workplaces and is administered federally by Health Canada under the Hazardous Products Act, Part II, the Controlled Products Regulations. Safety data sheets have been made an integral part of the system of Regulation No 1907/2006.
The original requirements of REACH for SDSs have been further adapted to take into account the rules for safety data sheets of the Global Harmonised System and the implementation of other elements of the GHS into EU legislation that were introduced by Regulation No 1272/2008 via an update to Annex II of REACH. The SDS must be supplied in an official language of the Member State where the substance or mixture is placed on the market, unless the Member State concerned provide otherwise; the European Chemicals Agency has published a guidance document on the compilation of safety data sheets. The German Federal Water Management Act requires that substances be evaluated for negative influence on the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water; these are classified into numeric water hazard classes. WGK nwg: Non-water polluting substance WGK 1: Slightly water polluting substance WGK 2: Water polluting substance WGK 3: Highly water polluting substance This section contributes to a better understanding of the regulations governing SDS within the South African framework.
As regulations may change, it is the responsibility of the reader to verify the validity of the regulations mentioned in text. As globalisation increased and countries engaged in cross-border trade, the quantity of hazardous material crossing international borders a
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1