Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture; the pre-Columbian codices do not in fact use the codex form and are, or were, long folded sheets. These sheets were made from stretched deerskin or from the fibers of the agave plant, they differ from European books in that they consist of images and pictograms. Important colonial-era codices that are published with scholarly English translations are Codex Mendoza, the Florentine Codex, the works by Diego Durán. Codex Mendoza is a mixed alphabetic Spanish manuscript. Of supreme importance is the Florentine Codex, a project directed by Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún, who drew on indigenous informants' knowledge of Aztec religion, social structure, natural history, includes a history of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire from the Mexica viewpoint; the project resulted in twelve books, bound into three volumes, of bilingual Nahuatl/Spanish alphabetic text, with illustrations by native artists.
Important are the works of Dominican Diego Durán, who drew on indigenous pictorials and living informants to create illustrated texts on history and religion. The colonial-era codices contain Aztec pictograms or other pictorial elements; some are written in alphabetic text in Classical Nahuatl or Spanish, Latin. Some are in Nahuatl without pictorial content. Although there are few surviving prehispanic codices, the tlacuilo tradition endured the transition to colonial culture. Doubtless a large number of prehispanic and colonial indigenous texts have disappeared over time. There has been considerable scholarly work on individual codices as well as the daunting task of classification and description. A major publication project by scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory was brought to fruition in the 1970s, of which a large portion of the material is related to central Mexico; the four-volume Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Handbook of Middle American Indians has two volumes focusing on pictorial manuscripts, including a reproduction of many images of pictorials.
In the two volumes on pictorials, a general survey outlines the origins of Mesomerican manuscripts, classifies them, situates them in a regional survey. The types of information in manuscripts falls into several categories: calendrical, genealogical, economic/tribute, economic/census and cadastral, economic/property plans. A census of 434 pictorial manuscripts of all of Mesoamerica gives information on the title, location, publication status, regional classification, physical description, description of the work itself, a bibliographical essay, list of copies, a bibliography. Indigenous texts known as Techialoyan manuscripts are written on native paper are surveyed, they follow a standard format written in alphabetic Nahuatl with pictorial content concerning a meeting of a given indigenous pueblo's leadership and their marking out the boundaries of the municipality. A type of colonial-era pictorial religious texts are catechisms called Testerian manuscripts, they contain mnemonic devices. An interesting type of pictorial codex are ones deliberately falsified.
John B. Glass published a catalog of such manuscripts that were published without the forgeries being known at the time; some prose manuscripts in the indigenous tradition sometimes have pictorial content, such as the Florentine Codex, Codex Mendoza, the works of Durán, but others are alphabetic in Spanish or Nahuatl. Charles Gibson has written an overview of such manuscripts, with John B. Glass compiled a census, they list 130 manuscripts for Central Mexico. A large section at the end has reproductions of pictorials, many from central Mexico. Another mixed alphabetic and pictorial source for Mesoamerican ethnohistory is the late sixteenth-century Relaciones geográficas, with information on individual indigenous settlements in colonial Mexico, created on the orders of the Spanish crown; each relación was ideally to include a pictorial of the town done by an indigenous resident connected with town government. Although these manuscripts were created for Spanish administrative purposes, they contain important information about the history and geography of indigenous polities.
Colonial-era local-level Nahuatl language documentation is the foundational texts of the New Philology, which utilizes these texts to create scholarly works from the indigenous viewpoint. These are are sometimes found as a single, documentary corpus, while such documentation can be found scattered in legal documentation in individual lawsuits. There are a variety of documents, include censuses such as The Book of Tributes. Colonial-era indigenous elites kept documentation of their properties and privileges, as part of their cacicazgos. Anales de Tlatelolco, an early colonial era set of ann
Dato’ Dr. Amir bin Abbas is a Malaysian medical doctor and the current Chancellor of the International Medical University, he was Pro-Chancellor 2011–2013 and became Chancellor in 2014. He obtained his medical degree from the University of Malaya, Singapore in 1961, he received the MRCP in 1969 and became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1983. He was head of the Health Research Department at the Institute of Medical Research and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at the National University of Malaysia, a member of the University Council 1987–1998 and a member of the council of the University of Malaya 1981–1987, he was a board member at the UM University Hospital. He is Managing Director of Meditek Equipment Sdn. Bhd, he has served as Chairman of the Malaysian Medical Association of Selangor and President of the College of Physicians of Malaysia. He was a member of the National Council for Scientific Development. Malaysian university leaders
Daniel Klajner is a Swiss conductor. Born in Bülach, Klajner studied conducting and musical composition in Vienna, he completed his musical training with Moshe Atzmon and Leonard Bernstein. He was assistant to the latter at the Vienna State Opera and to Claudio Abbado at the Berlin Philharmonic and the Salzburg Festival. Klajner has won several international competitions, he began his career as first Kapellmeister in Bienne before being appointed Generalmusikdirektor in Stralsund in Western Pomerania at the age of 26 and from 1996 to 1998, he held the same position in Hof, Bavaria and, from 2000 to 2005 in Würzburg where he was artistic director of the Mozart Festival. At the same time, he is pursuing an international career: as a permanent guest conductor at Dortmund and the Bern Opera, he conducted the Stuttgarter Kammerorchester on a tour of Spain, the Vienna Chamber Orchestra on a tour of Austria and performs in Japan and the United States, he made his debut at the Paris Opera in 2002 with Rolf Liebermann's Freispruch für Medea, at La Scala of Milan in 2004 and at the Glyndebourne Festival Opera in 2005.
In concert, he has conducted, among other things, the Orchestre de Paris, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse, the Orchestre National Bordeaux Aquitaine, the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie, the Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra, the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich, the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Orchestre national des Pays de la Loire, the Orchestre philharmonique de Marseille. In the pit, he directed Der fliegende Holländer, La Bohème in Paris, Bluebeard's Castle, Turandot in Marseille, Don Giovanni in Toulouse, Madama Butterfly at the Komische Oper Berlin, Der fliegende Holländer, The Magic Flute, Tannhäuser at the Deutsche Oper Berlin, Rigoletto in Düsseldorf, Die tote Stadt in Nancy, Don Carlos in Innsbruck, Aribert Reimann's Troades, Freispruch für Medea de Liebermann, Cendrillon in Bern, Parsifal in Darmstadt. At the Opéra national du Rhin, half of whose performances are given by the Orchestre symphonique de Mulhouse, he conducted the French premiere of Thomas Adès' The Tempest, The Nightingale and Œdipus Rex, Elektra, Frühlings Erwachen, Richard III, Ariadne auf Naxos, the ballets Romeo and Juliet and La Sylphide.
From 2005 to 2011, he was music and artistic director of the Orchestre symphonique de Mulhouse and since the 2010-2011 season, he has been principal Guest Conductor of the Hofer Symphoniker. He has been teaching orchestral conducting at the Vienna Conservatory as a guest professor since 2002. With the Orchestre symphonique de Mulhouse, he has recorded two albums: one dedicated to the French and Italian lyrical repertoire with Maria-Riccarda Wesseling, the other in homage to Norbert Glanzberg. Daniel Klajner Boris Orlob Management Website of the Orchestre symphonique de Mulhouse klassik.com. "klassik.com: Daniel Klajner macht Karriere bei Theater Nordhausen". Retrieved 12 October 2018. Versprisch mir eins... conductor: Daniel Klajner