Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
History of writing
The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and the studies and descriptions of these developments. In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a development, it is distinguished from proto-writing, which avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform, it is agreed that true writing of language was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and more. The two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient Sumer, between 3400 and 3300 BC, much in Mesoamerica because no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions.
Several Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the Zapotec of Mexico. Writing systems arose in Egypt around 3100 BC and in China around 1200 BC in Shang dynasty, but historians debate whether these writing systems were developed independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by Sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion; that is, it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing, though not the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions. Ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the Near East, because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography and phonetic representation. Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia.
In 1999, Archaeology Magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 BC, which "challenge the held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia."Similar debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilization, the Rongorongo script of Easter Island, the Vinča symbols dated around 5,500 BCE. All are undeciphered, so it is unknown if they represent true writing, proto-writing, or something else. Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems, such as information signs, painting and mathematics do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language; every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However the development of writing systems, their partial supplantation of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow.
Once established, writing systems on the whole change more than their spoken counterparts and preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language. The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well by spoken word. Writing allows societies to share knowledge. An ancient Mesopotamian poem gives the first known story of the invention of writing: Because the messager's mouth was heavy and he couldn't repeat, the Lord of Kulaba pattes some clay and put words on it, like a tablet; until there had been no putting words on clay. Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing." The definition is subjective. Writing, in its most general terms, is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes, which may in turn be composed of glyphs.
The emergence of writing in a given area is followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions. Historians mark the "historicity" of a culture by the presence of coherent texts in the culture's writing system; the invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols first for cultic purposes. A conventional "proto-writing to true writing" system follows a general series of developmental stages: Picture writing system: glyphs directly represent objects and concepts. In connection with this, the following substages may be distinguished: Mnemonic: glyphs as a reminder. Pictographic: glyphs directly represent an object or a concept such as chronological, communications, totems and names, customs and biographical. Ideographic: graphemes are abstract symbols that directly represent an idea or concept. Transitional system: graphemes refer not only to the obje
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521; the Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious factions in a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan became dominant militarily. By the time the Spanish arrived in 1519, the lands of the Alliance were ruled from Tenochtitlan, while the other partners in the alliance had taken subsidiary roles; the alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded after its formation. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica, such as the Xoconochco province, an Aztec exclave near the present-day Guatemalan border.
Aztec rule has been described by scholars as "hegemonic" or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, facilitated an integrated economic network of diverse lands and peoples who had significant local autonomy; the state religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the central temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan; the imperial cult was that of Huitzilopochtli, the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica. Peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons; the word "Aztec" in modern usage would not have been used by the people themselves.
It has variously been used to refer to the Triple Alliance empire, the Nahuatl-speaking people of central Mexico prior to the Spanish conquest, or the Mexica ethnicity of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples. The name comes from a Nahuatl word meaning "people from Aztlan," reflecting the mythical place of origin for Nahua peoples. For the purpose of this article, "Aztec" refers only to those cities that constituted or were subject to the Triple Alliance. For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization. Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated to central Mexico from the north in the early 13th century; the migration story of the Mexica is similar to those of other polities in central Mexico, with supernatural sites and events, joining earthly and divine history as they sought political legitimacy. According to the pictographic codices in which the Aztecs recorded their history, the place of origin was called Aztlán. Early migrants settled the Basin of Mexico and surrounding lands by establishing a series of independent city-states.
These early Nahua city-states or altepetl, were ruled by dynastic heads called tlahtohqueh. Most of the existing settlements had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Mexica migration; these early city-states fought various small-scale wars with each other, but due to shifting alliances, no individual city gained dominance. The Mexica were the last of the Nahua migrants to arrive in Central Mexico, they entered the Basin of Mexico around the year 1250 AD, by most of the good agricultural land had been claimed. The Mexica persuaded the king of Culhuacan, a small city-state but important as a refuge of the Toltecs, to allow them to settle in a infertile patch of land called Chapultepec; the Mexica served as mercenaries for Culhuacan. After the Mexica served Culhuacan in battle, the ruler appointed one of his daughters to rule over the Mexica. According to mythological native accounts, the Mexica instead sacrificed her by flaying her skin, on the command of their god Xipe Totec.
When the ruler of Culhuacan learned of this, he attacked and used his army to drive the Mexica from Tizaapan by force. The Mexica moved to an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco, where an eagle nested on a nopal cactus; the Mexica interpreted this as a sign from their gods and founded their new city, Tenochtitlan, on this island in the year ōme calli, or "Two House". The Mexica rose to prominence as fierce warriors and were able to establish themselves as a military power; the importance of warriors and the integral nature of warfare in Mexica political and religious life helped propel them to emerge as the dominant military power prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. The new Mexica city-state allied with the city of Azcapotzalco and paid tribute to its ruler, Tezozomoc. With Mexica assistance, Azcopotzalco began to expand into a small tributary empire; until this point, the Mexica ruler was not recognized as a legitimate king. Mexica leaders petitioned one of the kings of Culhuacan to provide a daughter to marry into the Mexica line.
Their son, was enthroned as the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan in the year 1372. While the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco expanded their rule with help from the Mexica, the Acolhua city of Texcoco grew in power in the eastern portion of the lake basin. War erupted between the two states, the Mexica played a vital role in the conquest of Texcoco. By Tenochtitlan had grown into a m
Stone of Tizoc
The Stone of Tizoc, Tizoc Stone or Sacrificial Stone is a large, carved Aztec stone. It is thought to have been a cuauhxicalli or a temalacatl. Richard Townsend maintains, that the stone was hollowed in the 16th century for unknown purposes; the stone was rediscovered on 17 December 1791 when construction was being done in downtown Mexico City. The workmen had been using them as cobblestone. A churchman named Gamboa saved the stone from the same result; the stone was moved to the cemetery of the nearby Cathedral where it stayed until 1824, when it was moved to the University. The stone is in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City; the monolith is made of basalt and measures 93 cm tall with a diameter of 2.65 meters and a circumference of 8.31 meters. The lateral side of the stone depicts 15 separate scenes of a repeated scene of a costumed warrior having their hair grabbed by another warrior; the first figure, the warrior with the largest headress is identified by the glyph of Tizoc and wears the headdress of the deity Huitzilopotchli, the revered god of war.
In each scene the warrior being grabbed has an identifying location glyph. Each of the warriors grabbing the other are identified with the'smoking foot' motif as well as the symbol of the smoking mirror in their headdress both icons associating them with the deity Tezcatlipoca. Along the bottom of the rim are glyphs representing Tlaltecuhtli at each of the cardinal points, in between these glyphs are rows of tecpatl, sacrificial knives. Along the top of the rim are circular pieces of jade, symbols of Venus and the stars; the top of the stone has a sun diadem, with large triangles corresponding with the cardinal directions while smaller rays point in the inter-cardinal directions. The stone features a large divot from the center to the edge of the sculpture; this divot is believed to have been done after the creation of the stone due to the rough and asymmetrical nature of the cut. The act of grabbing another's hair has long been recognized as a symbol of defeat or conquering in Mesoamerica, as such the stone is interpreted to represent the conquest of other locations by the Mexica.
The main interpretation is that the stone is a propaganda piece for Tizoc, the Aztec Emperor from 1481 to 1486. Aztec glyphs above each conquered soldier give the name of the original site which may have been conquered; the toponyms are written in a mixture of syllabic signs. The stone depicts the stars at the top rim, emphasizing the heavens. Combined with the solar iconography on the top, this associates Aztec conquering and rule with the divine. While Tizoc is the only identifiable conqueror, each subsequent Mexica warrior shares the same'smoking foot' motif to link them together; some historians take this to mean that Tizoc is attempting to link his only large military conquest, depicted as the first scene, to the conquests of previous rulers. The fact that there are fifteen scenes could be related to the 15 lords of the 15 Mexica city-states, emphasizing the political and military divisions of the Mexica emperor. Richard Townsend argues that the relief may function as a symbolic manifestation of the Aztec empires tribute system.
In relation to Mexica tradition, conquered tribes or cities were expected to send sacrificial offerings to the victor. Tizoc, head of the Aztec empire at the time, would therefore be the one collecting these tributes; the stone acts as acknowledgement of such a transaction. As a temalacatl, the stone may have been a used for mock battles between a group of warriors and a victim, tied to the stone and given a feathery club while the warriors had sharp macuahuitl, it is argued however, that temalactal are described of as being flat on the top and the central hole lacks any kind of bar with which to tie a victim. More however, the stone was used as a cuauhxicalli, within the center of which the hearts of sacrificial victims were placed, it is argued that central hole had a face, mutilated. Aztec sun stone Coyolxauhqui stone disk Stone of Motecuhzoma I
A rebus is a puzzle device which combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words and/or phrases. For example: the word ‘been’ might be depicted by a "rebus" showing an illustrated bumblebee next to a plus sign and the letter "n", it was a favorite form of heraldic expression used in the Middle Ages to denote surnames. For example, in its basic form, three salmon are used to denote the surname "Salmon". A more sophisticated example was the rebus of Bishop Walter Lyhart of Norwich, consisting of a stag lying down in a conventional representation of water; the composition alludes to the name, profession or personal characteristics of the bearer, speaks to the beholder Non verbis, sed rebus, which Latin expression signifies "not by words but by things". Rebuses are used extensively as a form of heraldic expression as a hint to the name of the bearer. A man might have a rebus as a personal identification device separate from his armorials, canting or otherwise. For example, Sir Richard Weston bore as arms: Ermine, on a chief azure five bezants, whilst his rebus, displayed many times in terracotta plaques on the walls of his mansion Sutton Place, was a "tun" or barrel, used to designate the last syllable of his surname.
An example of canting arms proper are those of the Borough of Congleton in Cheshire consisting of a conger eel, a lion and a tun. This word sequence "conger-leo-tun" enunciates the town's name; the coat of arms of St. Ignatius Loyola contains wolves and a kettle, said by some to be a rebus for "Loyola"; the arms of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon feature lions. A modern example of the rebus used. By extension, it uses the positioning of words or parts of words in relation to each other to convey a hidden meaning, for example: p walk ark: walk in the park. A rebus made up of letters is known as a gramogram, grammagram, or letteral word; this concept is sometimes extended to include numbers. Rebuses are sometimes used in crossword puzzles, with multiple letters or a symbol fitting into a single square; the term rebus refers to the use of a pictogram to represent a syllabic sound. This adapts pictograms into phonograms. A precursor to the development of the alphabet, this process represents one of the most important developments of writing.
Developed hieroglyphs read in rebus fashion were in use at Abydos in Egypt as early as 3400 BCE. The writing of correspondence in rebus form became popular in the 18th century and continued into the 19th century. Lewis Carroll wrote the children he befriended picture-puzzle rebus letters, nonsense letters, looking-glass letters, which had to be held in front of a mirror to be read. Rebus letters served either as a sort of code or as a pastime. In linguistics, the rebus principle is the use of existing symbols, such as pictograms, purely for their sounds regardless of their meaning, to represent new words. Many ancient writing systems used the rebus principle to represent abstract words, which otherwise would be hard to represent with pictograms. An example that illustrates the Rebus principle is the representation of the sentence "I can see you" by using the pictographs of "eye—can—sea—ewe." Some linguists believe that the Chinese developed their writing system according to the rebus principle, Egyptian hieroglyphs sometimes used a similar system.
A famous rebus statue of Ramses II uses three hieroglyphs to compose his name: Horus, for Ra. Freud posited, he wrote, "A dream is a picture puzzle of this sort and our predecessors in the field of dream interpretation have made the mistake of treating the rebus as a pictorial composition: and as such it has seemed to them nonsensical and worthless." Canada 1980s children's game show. United Kingdom Catchphrase is a long-running game show which required contestants to decipher a rebus; the show began as a short-lived American game show hosted by Art James before being seen in the United Kingdom from 1986 to 2004 and returning in 2013. There was an Australian version of the show hosted by John Burgess. In 1998, Granada TV produced Waffle, a single word rebus puzzle show, hosted by Nick Weir, included premium telephone line viewer participation. United States Rebuses were central to the television game show Concentration. Contestants had to solve a rebus partially concealed behind any of thirty "squares", to win a game.
The HBO children's game series Crashbox features three rebus puzzles in the game segment "Ten Seconds." A short-lived ABC game show from 1965 known as The Rebus Game involved contestants creating rebuses to communicate an answer. India Dadagiri Unlimited is a game show; the show hosted by the famous Indian cricketer Sourav Ganguly. It is reported that when Voltaire was the guest of Frederick the Great at Sanssouci Palace, they exchanged puzzle notes. Frederick sent over a page with two picture blocks on it: two hands below the letter P, the number 100 below a picture of a handsaw, all followed by a question mark. Voltaire replied with: Ga! Both messages were rebuses in the French language: deux mains sous Pé à cent sous scie? "two hands under'p' at hundred under saw" =
Aztec codices are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Nahuas in pictorial and/or alphabetic form. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture; the pre-Columbian codices do not in fact use the codex form and are, or were, long folded sheets. These sheets were made from stretched deerskin or from the fibers of the agave plant, they differ from European books in that they consist of images and pictograms. Important colonial-era codices that are published with scholarly English translations are Codex Mendoza, the Florentine Codex, the works by Diego Durán. Codex Mendoza is a mixed alphabetic Spanish manuscript. Of supreme importance is the Florentine Codex, a project directed by Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún, who drew on indigenous informants' knowledge of Aztec religion, social structure, natural history, includes a history of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire from the Mexica viewpoint; the project resulted in twelve books, bound into three volumes, of bilingual Nahuatl/Spanish alphabetic text, with illustrations by native artists.
Important are the works of Dominican Diego Durán, who drew on indigenous pictorials and living informants to create illustrated texts on history and religion. The colonial-era codices contain Aztec pictograms or other pictorial elements; some are written in alphabetic text in Classical Nahuatl or Spanish, Latin. Some are in Nahuatl without pictorial content. Although there are few surviving prehispanic codices, the tlacuilo tradition endured the transition to colonial culture. Doubtless a large number of prehispanic and colonial indigenous texts have disappeared over time. There has been considerable scholarly work on individual codices as well as the daunting task of classification and description. A major publication project by scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory was brought to fruition in the 1970s, of which a large portion of the material is related to central Mexico; the four-volume Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Handbook of Middle American Indians has two volumes focusing on pictorial manuscripts, including a reproduction of many images of pictorials.
In the two volumes on pictorials, a general survey outlines the origins of Mesomerican manuscripts, classifies them, situates them in a regional survey. The types of information in manuscripts falls into several categories: calendrical, genealogical, economic/tribute, economic/census and cadastral, economic/property plans. A census of 434 pictorial manuscripts of all of Mesoamerica gives information on the title, location, publication status, regional classification, physical description, description of the work itself, a bibliographical essay, list of copies, a bibliography. Indigenous texts known as Techialoyan manuscripts are written on native paper are surveyed, they follow a standard format written in alphabetic Nahuatl with pictorial content concerning a meeting of a given indigenous pueblo's leadership and their marking out the boundaries of the municipality. A type of colonial-era pictorial religious texts are catechisms called Testerian manuscripts, they contain mnemonic devices. An interesting type of pictorial codex are ones deliberately falsified.
John B. Glass published a catalog of such manuscripts that were published without the forgeries being known at the time; some prose manuscripts in the indigenous tradition sometimes have pictorial content, such as the Florentine Codex, Codex Mendoza, the works of Durán, but others are alphabetic in Spanish or Nahuatl. Charles Gibson has written an overview of such manuscripts, with John B. Glass compiled a census, they list 130 manuscripts for Central Mexico. A large section at the end has reproductions of pictorials, many from central Mexico. Another mixed alphabetic and pictorial source for Mesoamerican ethnohistory is the late sixteenth-century Relaciones geográficas, with information on individual indigenous settlements in colonial Mexico, created on the orders of the Spanish crown; each relación was ideally to include a pictorial of the town done by an indigenous resident connected with town government. Although these manuscripts were created for Spanish administrative purposes, they contain important information about the history and geography of indigenous polities.
Colonial-era local-level Nahuatl language documentation is the foundational texts of the New Philology, which utilizes these texts to create scholarly works from the indigenous viewpoint. These are are sometimes found as a single, documentary corpus, while such documentation can be found scattered in legal documentation in individual lawsuits. There are a variety of documents, include censuses such as The Book of Tributes. Colonial-era indigenous elites kept documentation of their properties and privileges, as part of their cacicazgos. Anales de Tlatelolco, an early colonial era set of ann
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ