Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet
Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, French archeologist and anthropologist, was born at Meylan, Isère. Mortillet was educated at the Paris Conservatoire. Becoming in 1847 proprietor of La Revue indépendante, he was implicated in the Revolution of 1848 and sentenced to two years' imprisonment, he during the next fifteen years lived abroad, chiefly in Italy. In 1858 he turned his attention to ethnological research, making a special study of the Swiss lake-dwellings, he issued three works on the evidence for early man in North Italy, the third making a unprecedented association with the Ice Age. He returned to Paris in 1864, soon afterwards was appointed curator of the museum at St Germain, he became mayor of the town, in 1885 he was elected deputy for Seine-et-Oise. He had meantime founded a review, Matériaux pour l'histoire positive et philosophique de l'homme, in conjunction with Broca assisted to found the French School of Anthropology, he died at St Germain-en-Laye on 25 September 1898. Mortillet is ordering of the archeology of the Paleolithic.
Where Édouard Lartet had used fauna as a distinguishing feature – Mammoth against Reindeer – for his important discoveries, Mortillet realised that as fauna varied with latitude they were unreliable indicators, proposed instead a classification by means of dwelling places: Alluvial or Cave epochs, for example. Acknowledging the ambiguity in that system as well, he published a new classification in 1869, using type sites and their associated artifacts to distinguish and name periods:, his system still remains in current use. However, whereas Mortillet believed his classifications were universal stages, with a unilineal evolution thinking regards each culture as a more localised conglomerate, capable of overlapping in time with others, not lineally related. Mortillet proposed the name "Marnian Epoch" as a replacement for the period called the Gallic, which extends from about five centuries before the Christian era to the conquest of Gaul by Caesar. Mortillet objected to the term Gallic, as the civilization characteristic of the epoch was not peculiar to the ancient Gauls, but was common to nearly all Europe at the same date.
The name is derived from the French département of Marne. De Mortillet recognised the importance of the mobiliary art discovered by Lartet and Christie, commenting of such bone carvings, “They are not the work of children, they are the childhood of art”. However he was unable to accept the authenticity of the much more extensive cave art, coming to light and stiffly rejecting Sautuola's discovery of the paintings in Altamira as the original work of palaeolithic man. Musée préhistorique. Le préhistorique. Les Nègres et la civilisation égyptienne. Origines de la chasse, de la pêche et de l'agriculture. Le préhistoire: origine et antiquité de l'homme, 1900. Henry Christie This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Mortillet, Louis Laurent Gabriel de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 879
A dildo is a sex toy explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for sexual penetration or other sexual activity during masturbation or with sex partners. A dildo is a device designed for penetration of the vagina, mouth, or anus, is solid and phallic in shape; some expand this definition to include vibrators. Others exclude penis prosthetic aids, which are known as "extensions"; some include penis-shaped items designed for vaginal penetration if they are not true approximations of a penis. Some people include devices designed for anal penetration. People of all genders and sexual orientations use these devices for masturbation or for other sexual activity. Rubber dildos incorporating a steel spring for stiffness, became available in the 1940s; this arrangement was unsatisfactory because of the potential for injury from cuts by the spring if the rubber cracked and came apart. PVC dildos with a softer PVC filler became popular. Most of the inexpensive dildos sold in the 2000s are made this way. PVC and jelly-rubber toys are problematic because they contain unsafe phthalates, softeners added to many plastics that are found in some jewelry, food containers, other soft rubber toys.
Phthalates are linked to health problems such as prenatal defects. Products made of PVC or jelly rubber cannot be sterilized. Manufacturers recommend using condoms with these toys. High-end, chrome plated steel dildos are popular in the BDSM scene; some users prefer them because of their hardness, durability, electrical conductance, low friction when used with lubricant. Because they are heavy, they can be used to exercise vaginal PC muscles. A steel dildo may be cooled in water to elicit a range of temperature sensations, it may retain the user's body heat. Its polished nonporous surface allows sterilization in an autoclave. Glass and steel dildos have similar features. In most cases, glass toys are solid, made of Pyrex or other types borosilicate glass, although their construction can vary depending on the manufacturer. Like steel, glass toys may be used to apply firmer pressure than silicone can to a female's G-spot or a male's prostate gland. Unlike other types of toys, glass sex toys can be personalized with inscriptions.
Cyberskin is a synthetic material. It can not be sterilized, it becomes sticky after washing and is more delicate and more prone to rips and tears than silicone dildos. "Packing dildos", which are not designed for penetration, are made of this material. Phallus-shaped vegetables and fruits, such as bananas or zucchini or other food items, such as hot dogs or other types of sausages, have been used as dildos. Any object of sufficient firmness and shape could be used as a dildo. Conventionally, many dildos are shaped like a human penis with varying degrees of detail. Not all, are fashioned to reproduce the male anatomy meticulously, dildos come in a wide variety of shapes, they may resemble figures, or be practical creations which stimulate more than conventional designs. In Japan, many dildos are created to resemble animals or cartoon characters, such as Hello Kitty, so that they may be sold as conventional toys, thus avoiding obscenity laws; some dildos have textured surfaces to enhance sexual pleasure, others have macrophallic dimensions including over a dozen inches long.
Most dildos are intended for vaginal or anal penetration and stimulation, whether for masturbation or with a sexual partner. Dildos have fetishistic value as well, may be used in other ways, such as touching one's own or another's skin in various places during foreplay or as an act of dominance and submission. If of appropriate sizes, they can be used as gags, for oral penetration for a sort of artificial fellatio. Dildos specially designed ones, may be used to stimulate the G-spot area. A dildo designed for anal insertion and to remain in place is referred to as a butt plug. A dildo intended for repeated anal penetration is referred to as an anal dildo or "dildo". Anal dildos and butt plugs have a large base to avoid accidental complete insertion into the rectum, which may require medical removal; some women use double-ended dildos, with different-sized shafts pointing in the same direction, for simultaneous vaginal and anal penetration, or for two partners to share a single dildo. In the latter case, the dildo acts as a sort of "see-saw," where each partner takes an end and receives stimulation.
Some dildos are designed to be worn in a harness, sometimes called a strap-on harness or strap-on dildo, or to be worn inside, sometimes with externally-attached vibrating devices. Strap-on dildos may be double-ended, meant to be worn by users who want to experience vaginal or anal penetration while penetrating a partner, they may be used for anally penetrating men. If a female penetrates a male, the act is known as pegging. Other types of dildos include those designed to be fitted to the face of one party, inflatable dildos, dildos with suction cups attached to the base. Other types of harness mounts for dildos include thigh mount, face mount, or furniture mounting straps. Recent social acceptance and popularity has resulted in the emergence of adorned dildos, which are made of expensive materials and may be jewelled; the etymology of the word dildo is unclear. The Oxford English Dicti
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
William Irwin Thompson
William Irwin Thompson is known as a social philosopher and cultural critic, but he has been writing and publishing poetry throughout his career and received the Oslo International Poetry Festival Award in 1986. He describes his writing and speaking style as "mind-jazz on ancient texts", he is the founder of the Lindisfarne Association. Thompson was born in Chicago and grew up in Los Angeles, California. Thompson received his B. A. at Pomona College and his Ph. D. at Cornell University. He was a professor of humanities at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at York University in Toronto, Ontario, he has held visiting appointments at Syracuse University, the University of Hawaii, University of Toronto, the California Institute of Integral Studies. In 1973, he left academia to found the Lindisfarne Association, a group of scientists and religious scholars who met in order to discuss and to participate in the emerging planetary culture that he led from 1972 to 2012. Thompson lived in Switzerland for 17 years.
He describes a recent work, Canticum Turicum in his 2009 book, Still Travels: Three Long Poems, as "a long poem on Western Civilization that begins with folktales and traces of Charlemagne in Zurich and ends with the completion of Western Civilization as expressed in Finnegans Wake and the traces of James Joyce in Zurich." Thompson is a Founding Mentor to the private K-12 Ross School in New York. In 1995, with mathematician Ralph Abraham, he designed a new type of cultural history curriculum based on their theories about the evolution of consciousness. Thompson resides in Portland, Maine; when he was a high school student in Los Angeles in the 1950s, Thompson attended a talk by Brother Bhaktinanda of Paramahansa Yogananda's Self-Realization Fellowship. The talk concerned Yogananda's synthesis of esoteric Christianity and Hindu Vedic philosophy and practices such as Kriya Yoga. Thompson did his dissertation on applying the process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead to poetry. While working at the University of Toronto in the 1960s, Thompson met famed media ecologist Marshall McLuhan, who would influence Thompson's writings on media.
Thompson engages a diverse set of traditions, including the Swiss cultural historian Jean Gebser, the Vedic philosopher Sri Aurobindo Ghose, the autopoetic epistemology of Francisco Varela, the endosymbiotic theory of evolution of Lynn Margulis, the Gaia Theory of James Lovelock, the complex systems thought of Ralph Abraham, the novels of Thomas Pynchon, the daimonic transmissions of mystic David Spangler. Since the 1960s, Thompson's work has emphasized that story-telling is an inescapable feature of human existence:Science wrought to its uttermost becomes myth. History wrought to its uttermost becomes myth, but what is myth that it returns to mind when we would most escape it? Thompson finds his role as a cultural historian to be a potential vehicle for transcendence: Anything can deliver us from our lost memory of the soul, and anything can enslave us: science, art, or the militarism of a Zen monastery. But if we are lost in time and suffering racial amnesia we need something to startle us into recollection.
If history is the sentence of our imprisonment history, can become the password of our release. Performance is central to Thompson's approach. Performances either open new horizons for the future or close them down, should be judged on that basis. Thompson thought that with the emergence of the integral era and its electronic media expressions that a new mode of discourse was required, he sought "to turn non-fiction into a work of art on its own terms. Rather than trying to be a scholar or a journalist writing on the political and cultural news of the day, I worked to become a poetic reporter on the evolutionary news of the epoch", he espoused the notion that one must express an integral approach not just in content but in the means of expressing it. Thompson did this in the way he approached teaching: "The traditional academic lecture became for me an occasion to transform the genre, to present not an academic reading of a paper, but a form of Bardic performance–not stories of battles but of the new ideas that were emerging around the world...
The course was meant to be a performance of the reality it sought to describe". "Wissenskunst" is a German term. Contrasting it with Wissenschaft, the German term for science, Thompson defines Wissenskunst as "the play of knowledge in a world of serious data-processors."As fiction and music are coming closer to reorganizing knowledge, scholarship is becoming closer to art. Our culture is changing, so the genres of literature and history are changing as well. In an agricultural-warrior society, the genre is an Iliad. In an industrial-bourgeois society, the genre is a Moll Flanders. In our electronic, cybernetic society, the genre is Wissenkunst: the play of knowledge in a world of serious data-processors; the scholarly fictions of Jorge Luis Borges, or the reviews of non-existent books by Stanislaw Lem, are examples of new art forms of a society in which humanity live, not innocently in nature nor confidently in cities, but apocalyptically in a civilization cracking up to the universe. At such a moment as this the novelist becomes a prophet, the composer a magician, the historian a bard, a voice recalling ancient identities.
In his acclaimed 1981 work The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light: Mythology and the Origins of Culture, Thompson criticized what he considers the hubristic pretensions of E. O. Wilson's sociobiology, which attempted to subsume the humanities to evol
Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km from Paris, it is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City"; the Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris and Marseille, ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley, it hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre, the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites have a significant presence in Toulouse; the University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city; the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania. It is now the capital of the second largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose, Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi, the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate, with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone; the Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.
Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, Muslims occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade won the Battle of Tours called the Battle of Poitiers; the Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops; the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded.
Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel. In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France; the county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. In 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started, they found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls; the fear of repression obliged the notabilities to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 4
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water