Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a support from which it protrudes. Cantilevers can be constructed with trusses or slabs; when subjected to a structural load, the cantilever carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. Cantilever construction allows overhanging structures without external bracing, in contrast to constructions supported at both ends with loads applied between the supports, such as a supported beam found in a post and lintel system. Cantilevers are found in construction, notably in cantilever bridges and balconies. In cantilever bridges, the cantilevers are built as pairs, with each cantilever used to support one end of a central section; the Forth Bridge in Scotland is an example of a cantilever truss bridge. A cantilever in a traditionally timber framed building is called a forebay. In the southern United States, a historic barn type is the cantilever barn of log construction.
Temporary cantilevers are used in construction. The constructed structure creates a cantilever, but the completed structure does not act as a cantilever; this is helpful when temporary supports, or falsework, cannot be used to support the structure while it is being built. So some truss arch bridges are built from each side as cantilevers until the spans reach each other and are jacked apart to stress them in compression before joining. Nearly all cable-stayed bridges are built using cantilevers as this is one of their chief advantages. Many box girder bridges are built segmentally, or in short pieces; this type of construction lends itself well to balanced cantilever construction where the bridge is built in both directions from a single support. These structures are based on torque and rotational equilibrium. In an architectural application, Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater used cantilevers to project large balconies; the East Stand at Elland Road Stadium in Leeds was, when completed, the largest cantilever stand in the world holding 17,000 spectators.
The roof built over the stands at Old Trafford uses a cantilever so that no supports will block views of the field. The old, now demolished; the largest cantilevered roof in Europe is located at St James' Park in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, the home stadium of Newcastle United F. C. Less obvious examples of cantilevers are free-standing radio towers without guy-wires, chimneys, which resist being blown over by the wind through cantilever action at their base. Another use of the cantilever is in fixed-wing aircraft design, pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915. Early aircraft wings bore their loads by using two wings in a biplane configuration braced with wires and struts, they were similar to truss bridges, having been developed by Octave Chanute, a railroad bridge engineer. The wings were braced with crossed wires so they would stay parallel, as well as front-to-back to resist twisting, running diagonally between adjacent strut anchorages; the cables and struts generated considerable drag, there was constant experimentation for ways to eliminate them.
It was desirable to build a monoplane aircraft, as the airflow around one wing negatively affects the other in a biplane's airframe design. Early monoplanes used either struts, or cables like the 1909 Bleriot XI; the advantage of using struts or cables is a reduction in weight for a given strength, but with the penalty of additional drag. This increases fuel consumption. Hugo Junkers endeavored to eliminate all major external bracing members, only a dozen years after the Wright Brothers' initial flights, to decrease airframe drag in flight, with the result being the Junkers J 1 pioneering all-metal monoplane of late 1915, designed from the start with all-metal cantilever wing panels. About a year after the initial success of the Junkers J 1, Reinhold Platz of Fokker achieved success with a cantilever-winged sesquiplane built instead with wooden materials, the Fokker V.1. The most common current wing design is the cantilever. A single large beam, called the main spar, runs through the wing nearer the leading edge at about 25 percent of the total chord.
In flight, the wings generate lift, the wing spars are designed to carry this load through the fuselage to the other wing. To resist fore and aft movement, the wing will be fitted with a second smaller drag-spar nearer the trailing edge, tied to the main spar with structural elements or a stressed skin; the wing must resist twisting forces, done either by a monocoque "D" tube structure forming the leading edge, or by the aforementioned linking two spars in some form of box beam or lattice girder structure. Cantilever wings require a much heavier spar. However, as the size of an aircraft increases, the additional weight penalty decreases. A line was crossed in the 1920s, designs turned to the cantilever design. By the 1940s all larger aircraft used the cantilever even on smaller surfaces such as the horizontal stabilizer, with the Messerschmitt Bf 109E of 1939–41 being one of the last World War II fighters in frontline service to have bracing struts for its stabilizer. Cantilevered beams are the most ubiquitous structures in the field of microelectromechanical systems.
An early example of a MEMS cantilever is the Resonistor, an electromechanic
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
A reciprocating engine often known as a piston engine, is a heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types; the main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles. Internal combustion engines are further classified in two ways: either a spark-ignition engine, where the spark plug initiates the combustion. There may be one or more pistons; each piston is inside a cylinder, into which a gas is introduced, either under pressure, or heated inside the cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture or by contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder. The hot gases expand; this position is known as the Bottom Dead Center, or where the piston forms the largest volume in the cylinder. The piston is returned to the cylinder top by a flywheel, the power from other pistons connected to the same shaft or by the same process acting on the other side of the piston.
This is. In most types the expanded or "exhausted" gases are removed from the cylinder by this stroke; the exception is the Stirling engine, which heats and cools the same sealed quantity of gas. The stroke is the distance between the TDC and the BDC, or the greatest distance that the piston can travel in one direction. In some designs the piston may be powered in both directions in the cylinder, in which case it is said to be double-acting. In most types, the linear movement of the piston is converted to a rotating movement via a connecting rod and a crankshaft or by a swashplate or other suitable mechanism. A flywheel is used to ensure smooth rotation or to store energy to carry the engine through an un-powered part of the cycle; the more cylinders a reciprocating engine has the more vibration-free it can operate. The power of a reciprocating engine is proportional to the volume of the combined pistons' displacement. A seal must be made between the sliding piston and the walls of the cylinder so that the high pressure gas above the piston does not leak past it and reduce the efficiency of the engine.
This seal is provided by one or more piston rings. These are rings made of a hard metal, are sprung into a circular groove in the piston head; the rings fit in the groove and press against the cylinder wall to form a seal, more when higher combustion pressure moves around to their inner surfaces. It is common to classify such engines by the number and alignment of cylinders and total volume of displacement of gas by the pistons moving in the cylinders measured in cubic centimetres or litres or. For example, for internal combustion engines and two-cylinder designs are common in smaller vehicles such as motorcycles, while automobiles have between four and eight, locomotives, ships may have a dozen cylinders or more. Cylinder capacities may range from 10 cm³ or less in model engines up to thousands of liters in ships' engines; the compression ratio affects the performance in most types of reciprocating engine. It is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder, when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke.
The bore/stroke ratio is the ratio of the diameter of the piston, or "bore", to the length of travel within the cylinder, or "stroke". If this is around 1 the engine is said to be "square", if it is greater than 1, i.e. the bore is larger than the stroke, it is "oversquare". If it is less than 1, i.e. the stroke is larger than the bore, it is "undersquare". Cylinders may be aligned in line, in a V configuration, horizontally opposite each other, or radially around the crankshaft. Opposed-piston engines put two pistons working at opposite ends of the same cylinder and this has been extended into triangular arrangements such as the Napier Deltic; some designs have set the cylinders in motion around the shaft, such as the Rotary engine. In steam engines and internal combustion engines, valves are required to allow the entry and exit of gases at the correct times in the piston's cycle; these are worked by eccentrics or cranks driven by the shaft of the engine. Early designs used the D slide valve but this has been superseded by Piston valve or Poppet valve designs.
In steam engines the point in the piston cycle at which the steam inlet valve closes is called the cutoff and this can be controlled to adjust the torque supplied by the engine and improve efficiency. In some steam engines, the action of the valves can be replaced by an oscillating cylinder. Internal combustion engines operate through a sequence of strokes that admit and remove gases to and from the cylinder; these operations are repeated cyclically and an engine is said to be 2-stroke, 4-stroke or 6-stroke depending on the number of strokes it takes to complete a cycle. In some steam engines, the cylinders may be of varying size with the smallest bore cylinder working the highest pressure steam; this is fed through one or more larger bore cylinders successively, to extract power from the steam at lower pressures. These engines are called Compound engines. Aside from loo
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Hamburg Airport, known in German as Flughafen Hamburg, is the international airport of Hamburg, the second-largest city in Germany. Since November 2016 the official name has become Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt, after the former German chancellor Helmut Schmidt, it is located 8.5 km north of the city center in the Fuhlsbüttel quarter and serves as a hub for Eurowings and focus cities for Condor, TUI fly Deutschland. Hamburg Airport is the fifth-busiest of Germany's commercial airports measured by the number of passengers and counted 17,231,687 passengers and 156,388 aircraft movements in 2018, it is named after chancellor of Germany, Helmut Schmidt. As of July 2017, it featured flights to more than 130 European metropolitan and leisure destinations as well as three are long-haul routes to Dubai and Tehran; the airport is equipped to handle wide-bodied aircraft including the Airbus A380. Hamburg's other airport, Finkenwerder, is not open to commercial traffic; the airport was opened in January 1911 from private funding by the Hamburger Luftschiffhallen GmbH, making it the oldest airport in the world that still in operation,´.
The original site comprised 45 hectares and was used for airship flights in its early days. In 1913, the site was expanded to 60 hectares, the northern part being used for airship operations, while the southeast area was used for fixed-wing aircraft. During the First World War, the airship hangar was used extensively by the German military, until it was destroyed by fire in 1916. During the British occupation, beginning in 1945, the airport was given its current name, Hamburg Airport, it was used extensively during the Berlin Airlift in 1948 as a staging area, as the northern air corridor went between Hamburg and West Berlin. When Lufthansa launched passenger operations in 1955, Hamburg was used as a hub until Frankfurt Airport took over due to growth constraints posed by the location in the city. Lufthansa Technik still maintains a large presence at the airport due to the early activities of the airline at the airport. In the 1960s discussions began with the aim of moving the airport to Heidmoor near Kaltenkirchen.
Among the reasons cited were limited expansion possibilities, capacity constraints due to crossing runways, noise. Lufthansa had introduced the Boeing 707 in 1960, which made more noise than previous piston engined aircraft; the plans were dropped due to bad experiences in other cities with airports being moved far from city centres and Lufthansa's move to Frankfurt. In the early 1990s, the airport began an extensive modernization process; the plan, called HAM21, included a new 500 m pier extension, a new terminal, the Airport Plaza between Terminals 1 and 2, which includes a consolidated security area. The airport's shareholders are the City of AviAlliance; the Radisson Blu Hotel Hamburg Airport was added in 2009, combined with new roadside access and a station and connection to the rapid transit system Hamburg S-Bahn. In January 2016, TUIfly announced it was leaving Hamburg Airport due to increasing competition from low-cost carriers. While the summer seasonal routes would not resume, all remaining destinations were cancelled by March 2016.
A few weeks it was announced that the airport was to be named after Helmut Schmidt, a former Senator of Hamburg and chancellor of West Germany. On 10 November 2016, the airport was renamed Hamburg Airport Helmut Schmidt. In October 2016, Air Berlin announced the closure of its maintenance facilities at the airport due to cost cutting and restructuring measures. In June 2017, easyjet announced it would close its base at Hamburg by March 2018 as part of a refocus on other base airports. While over half of the former services were cut, several routes remained in place as they are served from other easyJet bases. In October 2018, United Airlines announced the end of its seasonal service to Newark, leaving the airport with only three long-haul routes, all to the Middle East and no direct services to North America. Hamburg Airport covered 440,000 m2. Since the site has grown more than tenfold to 5.7 km2. The main apron covers 320,000 m2 and features 54 parking positions, the passenger terminals provide 17 jetways.
As of July 2016 the airport only has three routes served with Wide-body aircraft, however during 2016 three gates were upgraded with double-Jet bridges to provide faster boarding and de-boarding for large planes like Airbus A380. The runways and aprons can accommodate large aircraft, including the Airbus A380. Emirates plans to replace one Boeing 777 with A380 aircraft on the route. On 28 May 2018, Emirates announced it would commence services from Dubai International Airport to Hamburg with the A380. Hamburg has two terminals, Terminal 1 and Terminal 2, connected by the Airport Plaza and the baggage claim area that extends through the lower levels of all three buildings; these three buildings were designed by Gerkan and Partners. Both terminals have a curved ceiling designed to emulate the shape of a wing. In all buildings level 1 is the departure level. Hamburg Airport offers 12 baggage claim belts on the arrivals level; the Airport Plaza hosts the central security check as well as shops, restaurants and other service facilities.
It houses the S-Bahn station and was completed in December 2008. Terminal 1 was completed in 2005 and is similar to Terminal 2 in terms of design and size, it has numerous energy and water saving features like rain water collection for use in restrooms and a ThermoLabyrinth, which uses ground temperature to help regulate the building's temperature and reduce loads on the air condit
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes. A monoplane has inherently the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and is the simplest to build. However, during the early years of flight, these advantages were offset by its greater weight and lower manoeuvrability, making it rare until the 1930s. Since the monoplane has been the most common form for a fixed-wing aircraft; the inherent efficiency of the monoplane can best be realized in the unbraced cantilever wing, which carries all structural forces internally. By contrast, a braced wing has additional drag from the exposed bracing struts or wires, lowering aerodynamic efficiency. On the other hand, the braced wing can be made much lighter; this in turn means that for a wing of a given size, bracing allows it to fly slower with a lower-powered engine, while a heavy cantilever wing needs a more powerful engine and can fly faster.
Besides the general variations in wing configuration such as tail position and use of bracing, the main distinction between types of monoplane is how high up the wings are mounted in relation to the fuselage. A low wing is one, located on or near the base of the fuselage. Placing the wing low down allows good visibility upwards and frees up the central fuselage from the wing spar carry-through. By reducing pendulum stability, it makes the aircraft more manoeuvrable, as on the Spitfire. A feature of the low wing position is its significant ground effect, giving the plane a tendency to float further before landing. Conversely, this ground effect permits shorter takeoffs. A mid wing is mounted midway up the fuselage; the carry-through spar structure can reduce the useful fuselage volume near its centre of gravity, where space is in most demand. A shoulder wing is a configuration whereby the wing is mounted near the top of the fuselage but not on the top, it is so called because it sits on the "shoulder" of the fuselage, rather than on the pilot's shoulder.
Shoulder-wings and high-wings share some characteristics, namely: they support a pendulous fuselage which requires no wing dihedral for stability. Compared to a low-wing, shoulder-wing and high-wing configurations give increased propeller clearance on multi-engined aircraft. On a large aircraft, there is little practical difference between a high wing. On a light aircraft, the shoulder-wing may need to be swept forward to maintain correct center of gravity. Examples of light aircraft with shoulder wings include the ARV Super2, the Bölkow Junior, Saab Safari and the Barber Snark. A high wing has its upper surface above the top of the fuselage, it shares many advantages and disadvantages with the shoulder wing, but on a light aircraft, the high wing has poorer upwards visibility. On light aircraft such as the Cessna 152, the wing is located on top of the pilot's cabin, so that the centre of lift broadly coincides with the centre of gravity. A parasol wing aircraft is a biplane without the lower pair of wings.
The parasol wing is not directly attached to the fuselage, but is held above it, supported either by cabane struts or by a single pylon. Additional bracing may be provided by struts extending from the fuselage sides; some early gliders had a parasol wing mounted on a pylon. The parasol wing was popular only during the interwar transition years between biplanes and monoplanes. Compared to a biplane, a parasol wing has lower drag. Although the first successful aircraft were biplanes, the first attempts at heavier-than-air flying machines were monoplanes, many pioneers continued to develop monoplane designs. For example, the first aeroplane to be put into production was the 1907 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, while the Blériot XI flew across the English Channel in 1909. Throughout 1909–1910, Hubert Latham set multiple altitude records in his Antoinette IV monoplane reaching 1,384 m; the equivalent German language term is Eindecker, as in the mid-wing Fokker Eindecker fighter of 1915 which for a time dominated the skies in what became known as the "Fokker scourge".
The German military Idflieg aircraft designation system prior to 1918 prefixed monoplane type designations with an E, until the approval of the Fokker D. VIII fighter from its former "E. V" designation. However, the success of the Fokker was short-lived, World War I was dominated by biplanes. Towards the end of the war, the parasol monoplane became popular and successful designs were produced into the 1920s. Nonetheless few monoplane types were built between 1914 and the late 1920s, compared with the number of biplanes; the reasons for this were practical. With the low engine powers and airspeeds available, the wings of a monoplane needed to be large in order to create enough lift while a biplane could have two smaller wings and so be made smaller and lighter. Towards the end of the First World War, the inherent high drag of the biplane was beginning to restrict performance. Engines were not yet powerful enough to make the heavy cantilever-wing monoplane viable, the braced parasol wing became popular on fighter aircraft, alth