Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organisation or state. Generally people addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, and others holding equivalent rank and the FIFA President. It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, in reference to such an official, it takes the form His or Her Excellency, in direct address, Your Excellency, or, less formally, simply Excellency. The abbreviation HE is often used instead of His/Her Excellency, alternatively it may stand for His/Her Eminence, in most republican nations, the head of state is formally addressed as His Excellency. If a republic has a head of government, that official is often addressed as Excellency as well. If the nation is a monarchy, however, the customs may vary, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners, governors and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency, in various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government. Judges of the International Court of Justice are also called Your Excellency, in some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, also, former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness and their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. Some of the high ranking counts, Excellency can also attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency. In the years following the First World War, the title of Excellency. The adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the title from that of Excellency given to civil officials. The instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Holy Sees Secretariat of State, dated 28 March 1969, cardinals, even those who were bishops, continued to use the title of Eminence. In some English-speaking countries, the honorific of Excellency does not apply to other than the nuncio
Barend Willem Biesheuvel was a Dutch politician of the defunct Anti Revolutionary Party now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from July 6,1971 until May 11,1973. A Civil servant and Trade Union Leader by occupation, he was General Secretary of the Christian Farmers and Gardeners Association of the Netherlands from 1952 until 1959, Biesheuvel became a Member of the House of Representatives on November 6,1956 after the Dutch general election of 1956. On March 7,1961 he was selected as a Member of the European Parliament, Biesheuvel became the lijsttrekker of the Anti Revolutionary Party for the Dutch general election of 1963 and served as Party leader from July 1,1963 until March 7,1973. For the Dutch general election of 1967 Biesheuvel again as lijsttrekker won two seats, primarily due to the popularity of Prime Minister Jelle Zijlstra, however Zijlstra announced he didnt wanted the serve a full term as Prime Minister and endorsed his Party leader Biesheuvel. The following cabinet formation failed to result in an agreement to form a Cabinet Biesheuvel. Biesheuvel became the Parliamentary leader of the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives on February 16,1967, Biesheuvel became Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs. On July 19,1972 the Cabinet Biesheuvel I fell and a rump Cabinet Biesheuvel II was formed on August 9,1972, Biesheuvel remained as Prime Minister until the Cabinet Den Uyl was installed on May 11,1973. Biesheuvel had three brothers and two sisters, after completing his secondary education at local schools, he graduated in law at the Free University of Amsterdam in September 1945. For the next two years Biesheuvel worked in Alkmaar as secretary to the Food Commissioner for the Province of North Holland, in 1947 he became secretary to the Foreign Division of the Agricultural Society. In 1952 Mr Biesheuvel became general secretary of the Christian Farmers and Gardeners Association of the Netherlands, from the same year he was also a member of the Agricultural Board, the Labour Foundation and the boards of the Centrale Raifeissen Bank and Heidemij. Between 1956 and 1963 he represented the Anti Revolutionary Party in the House of Representatives, from 1957 to 1961 he held a seat on the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe and from 1961 to 1963 in the European Parliament. In 1967 he returned to the House of Representatives and became leader of the parliamentary Anti Revolutionary Party, during the same period he also chaired the Shipbuilding Board and the Committee on Government Information Reform. Following his political career, Biesheuvel went on to many other positions in the public. On November 22,1945 Biesheuvel married his longtime girlfriend Wilhelmina Jacoba Mies Meuring and they had two daughters and one son. Mies Meuring died on January 17,1989 at the age of sixty-nine, barend Biesheuvel died in a hospital in Haarlem after a long illness on April 29,2001 at the age of eighty-one. Biesheuvel and his wife were buried at the cemetery in Bloemendaal. Netherlands Order of Orange-Nassau Officer Grand Officer Knight Grand Cross Order of the Netherlands Lion Commander Mr. B. W
Willem Drees Jr.
Willem Wim Drees Jr. was a Dutch politician of the Democratic Socialists 70. He served as Parliamentary leader of the Democratic Socialists 70 in the House of Representatives from 29 April 1971, after the Dutch general election of 1971 and became Minister of Transport and Water Management in the Cabinet Biesheuvel I serving from 6 July 1971 until 21 July 1972. He returned to the House of Representatives on 5 September 1972 and he resigned his positions on 20 August 1977 and retired as Leader of the Democratic Socialists 70 the same day. After attending Gymnasium Haganum from 1934 to 1940, Drees studied at the Erasmus University Rotterdam from 1940 to 1946, on 3 February 1947 he married Anna Erica Gescher. They had five children, four girls and one son Willem B, Drees the third child became a philosopher. Anna Erica Drees-Gescher died on 12 May 1988 at the age of 65, Willem Drees Jr. died on 5 September 1998 at the age of 75. Relatively young compared to his parents, his father Willem Drees died at the age of 101 and his mother Catharina Hent died at the age of 85
In 1954 he received a masters degree in psychology. After that he became the secretary with a textile company in Helmond. Later he was a joint proprietor of various companies in hotel, from 1960 to 1967 he ran the foreign affairs section of the Dutch daily newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad. From 1971 to 1973 he was the editor of the VNU. As a politician Gruijters was an member of the VVD. As of 1959 he acted as the chairman of the Amsterdams JOVD, from November 1962 until 21 March 1966 he was VVDs representative in the Amsterdams city council. After a conflict which had provoked by his decision not to attend the wedding ceremony of Princess Beatrix. He thought that the marriage would not contribute to the role that the royal house should play in society. Together with Hans van Mierlo he founded D66 in 1966, from 7 July 1970 to 1971 he was a member of the Provincial Council of North Holland. As of 7 December 1972 until 11 May 1973 he was a member of the Dutch House of Representatives, from 11 May 1973 until 19 December 1977 he was a minister of public housing and environmental planning in the cabinet of Den Uyl. In 2004 he left the D66 as he no longer to be welcome there
House of Representatives (Netherlands)
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate. It has 150 seats which are filled through elections using a party-list proportional representation and it sits in the Binnenhof in The Hague. Although this body is called the House of Representatives in English, this is not a translation of its Dutch name. Rather than representatives, members of the House are referred to as Tweede Kamerlid, the House of Representatives is the main chamber of parliament, where discussion of proposed legislation and review of the actions of the cabinet takes place. Both the Cabinet and the House of Representatives itself have the right to propose legislation, review of the actions of the cabinet takes the form of formal interrogations, which may result in motions urging the cabinet to take, or refrain from, certain actions. No individual may be a member of parliament and cabinet, except in a caretaker cabinet that has not yet been succeeded when a new House is sworn in. The House of Representatives is also responsible for the first round of selection for judges to the Supreme Court of the Netherlands and it submits a list of three names for every vacant position to the Government. Furthermore, it elects the Dutch Ombudsman and his subsidiaries, the normal term of the House of Representatives is four years. Anybody eligible to vote in the Netherlands also has the right to establish a political party, parties wanting to take part must register 43 days before the elections, supplying a nationwide list of at most 50 candidates. The candidate lists are placed in the hands of the voters at least 14 days before the election, each candidate list is numbered, with the person in the first position known as the lijsttrekker. The lijsttrekker is usually appointed by the party to lead its election campaign, two or more parties can agree to combine their separate lists, which increases the chance of winning a remainder seat. Only large parties usually have some regional candidates at the bottom of their lists, a single vote can be placed on any one candidate. Many voters select one of the lijsttrekkers, but alternatively a preference vote may be made for a lower down the list. Once the election results are known, the seats are allocated to the parties, the number of valid national votes cast is divided by 150, the number of seats available, to give a threshold for each seat, 1/150th is approximately 0. 67% of the valid votes. Each partys number of votes is divided by this threshold to give a number of seats. Any party that received fewer votes than the threshold fails to gain representation in the House of Representatives, the threshold is one of the lowest for national parliaments in the world, and there are usually multiple parties winning seats with 2% or less of the vote. Any party that received more than 75% of the threshold will have its deposit refunded, after the initial seats are allocated, the remainder seats are allocated using the DHondt method of largest averages. This system slightly favours the larger parties, list combinations compete for the remainder seats as one list of the combined size of all parties in the combination, thus having more chance to gain remainder seats
Roelof Johannes Hendrik Kruisinga was a Dutch physician and politician. His family was doopsgezind, but Kruisinga decided not to be baptized, as a physician he specialised in otolaryngology and he received his doctorate at the University of Groningen in 1955. From 1971 to 1977 he was leader of the Christian Historical Union and he was Minister of Defense under Prime Minister Dries van Agt from 1977 to 1978. In the early eighties he became vice-president of the World Health Organization, afterwards he became a member of the Senate, serving from 1981 to 1991 and representing the Christian Democratic Appeal. He died, aged 90, in Wassenaar