Rennes Métropole is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Rennes. It is located in the Brittany region, western France, it was created in January 2015, replacing the previous Communauté d'agglomération de Rennes, which had itself succeeded in 2000 to the previous district created in 1970 with less powers than the current métropole. Its population was 444,723 in 2014; the goal of the Métropoles is to build a better metropolitan area by synchronizing the transport system, environmental actions, urbanization and social development, university research, etc. The métropole comprises the following 43 communes: Metropolitan Rennes encompasses only the center of the metropolitan area of Rennes. Communes further away from the center of the metropolitan area have formed their own intercommunal structures, such as Châteaugiron, Noyal-sur-Vilaine, Liffré, Melesse, La Mézière, Montfort-sur-Meu or Guichen
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called bookwomen, or bookmen; the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade; the spread of Christianity created a great demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books, on for missals and other devotional volumes for both church and private use. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing. In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed with the advent of the Internet. With major websites such as Amazon, eBay, other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than been put in the hands of the small business owner.
Bookstores may be either part of local independent bookstores. Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousand titles, they may be a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles. Bookstores sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps. Colleges and universities have their own student bookstore on campus that focuses on providing course textbooks and scholarly books, although some on-campus bookstores are owned by large chains such as WHSmith or Waterstone's in the United Kingdom, or Barnes & Noble College Booksellers in the United States, a private firm controlled by the chair of Barnes & Noble. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used and out-of-print books in a variety of conditions. A range of titles are available including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores. Large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too.
Individuals wishing to sell their used books using online bookstores agree to terms outlined by the bookstore: for example, paying the online bookstore a predetermined commission once the books have sold. In Paris, the Bouquinistes are antiquarian and used booksellers who have had outdoor stalls and boxes along both sides of the Seine for hundreds of years, regulated by law since the 1850s and contributing to the scenic ambience of the city. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe, who described the mode in which his book was written; these scribes were the earliest booksellers, supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed a somewhat extensive library, Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean; when the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, this appears to have stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers.
In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade, their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the side posts, was a list of the books on sale. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii. According to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written. Abbasid Caliphate in the east and Caliphate of Córdoba in the west, encouraged the development of bookshops and book dealers across the entire Muslim world, in Islāmic cities such as Damascus, Córdoba. According to Encyclopædia Britannica: There is a popular turn of phrase from the 1960s, "Books are written in Cairo, published in Beirut, read in Baghdad". One of the most famous and prestigious Arab publishers is Dar al-Asab; the first wave of French booksellers came soon after Johannes Gutenberg introduced his new printing technologies in Europe.
The oldest known bookstore still opened. Its owner in 1545 was Étienne Rouzeau, it now belongs to publisher Albin Michel. In 1810 Napoleon created a system by which, a would-be bookseller had to apply for a license, supply four references testifying to his morality, four confirmations of his professional ability to perform the job. All references had to be certified by the local mayor. If the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime; the application process was conducted to ensure that the new bookstore was not a place that distributed rebellious publications. The brevet process continued until 1870; the spread of Christianity created a great demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books, on for missals and other devotional volumes for both church and private use. Before the Reformation and the introduction of printing and stationers who sold books formed guilds; some of these stationers had stations built against the walls of cathedrals.
Besides the sworn stationers there were many booksellers in Oxford.
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
Rennes is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine. Rennes is the capital of the region of Brittany, as well as the Ille-et-Vilaine department. Rennes's history goes back more than 2,000 years, at a time when it was a small Gallic village named Condate. Together with Vannes and Nantes, it was one of the major cities of the ancient Duchy of Brittany. From the early sixteenth century until the French Revolution, Rennes was a parliamentary and garrison city of the historic province of Brittany of the Kingdom of France. Since the 1950s, Rennes has grown in importance through rural flight and its modern industrial development automotive; the city developed extensive building plans to accommodate upwards of 200,000 inhabitants. During the 1980s, Rennes became one of the main centres in telecommunication and high technology industry, it is now a significant digital innovation centre in France. In 2015, the city was the tenth largest in France, with a metropolitan area of about 720,000 inhabitants.
With more than 66,000 students in 2016, it is the eighth-largest university campus of France. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French. In 2018, L'Express named Rennes as "the most liveable city in France". Since 2015, Rennes is divided into 6 cantons: Canton of Rennes-1 Canton of Rennes-2 Canton of Rennes-3, which includes parts of Rennes but the commune of Chantepie Canton of Rennes-4 Canton of Rennes-5, which includes parts of Rennes but the commune of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande Canton of Rennes-6, which includes parts of Rennes but the commune of Pacé Rennes is divided into 12 quarters: Le Centre Thabor/Saint Hélier Bourg l'Évêque-Moulin du Comte Saint-Martin Maurepas-Patton-Bellangerais Jeanne d'Arc-Longs-Champs-Beaulieu Francisco Ferrer-Landry-Poterie Sud Gare Cleunay-Arsenal-Redon Villejean-Beauregard Le Blosne Bréquigny The current mayor of Rennes is Nathalie Appéré. A member of the Socialist Party, she replaced retiring Socialist incumbent Daniel Delaveau, in office from 2008 to 2014.
Edmond Hervé, Socialist mayor from 1977 to 2008. Among previous well-known mayors are: Jean Janvier, from 1908 to 1923; the mairie is right in the centre of Rennes. The French Prison Service operates the Centre pénitentiaire de Rennes, the largest women's prison in France; the ancient centre of the town is built on a hill, with the north side being more elevated than the south side. It is at the confluence of two rivers: the Vilaine. Rennes is located on 50 km from the English Channel. Rennes has the distinction of having a significant Green Belt around its ring road; this Green Belt is the rest of its urban area. Rennes features an oceanic climate. Precipitation in Rennes is less abundant than in the western parts of Brittany, reaching only half of the levels of, e.g. the city of Quimper, which makes rainfall in Rennes comparable to the levels of larger parts of western Germany. Sunshine hours range between 1,700 and 1,850 annually, about the amount of sunshine received by the city of Lausanne. In 2018, the inner population of the city was of 221,272 inhabitants, the Rennes intercommunal structure connecting Rennes with 42 nearby suburbs counted 450,593 inhabitants and the metropolitan area counted over 720,000 inhabitants.
Rennes has the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in France after Toulouse and before Montpellier and Nantes. The inhabitants of Rennes are called Rennais in French. Rennes is classified as a city of history; the historic centre is located on the former plan of the ramparts. There is a difference between the northern city centre and the southern city centre due to the 1720 fire, which destroyed most of the timber framed houses in the northern part of the city; the rebuilding was done on a grid plan. The southern part, the poorest at this time, was not rebuilt. Due to the presence of the parlement de Bretagne, many "hôtels particuliers" were built in the northern part, the richest in the 18th century. Most of the monuments historiques can be found there. Colourful traditional half-timbered houses are situated along the roads of Saint-Sauveur, Saint-Georges, de Saint-Malo, Saint-Guillaume, des Dames, du Chapitre, Saint-Michel, de la Psallette and around the plazas of Champ-Jacquet, des Lices, Saint-Anne and Rallier-du-Baty.
The Parlement de Bretagne is the most famous 17th century building in Rennes. It was rebuilt after a terrible fire in 1994 that may have been caused by a flare fired by a protester during a demonstration, it houses the Rennes Court of Appeal. The plaza around is built on the classical architecture. On the west, the Place de la Mairie: City Hall OperaOn the east, at the end of the Rue Saint-Georges with traditional half-timbered houses: 1920s Saint George Municipal Pool, with mosaics Saint George Palace, its gardenOn the south-east: Saint-Germain square Saint-Germain Church Saint-Germai
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River. Traditionally the capital of the province of Maine, it is now the capital of the Sarthe department and the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Le Mans. Le Mans is a part of the Pays de la Loire region, its inhabitants are called Mancelles. Since 1923, the city has hosted the internationally famous 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance sports car race. First mentioned by Claudius Ptolemy, the Roman city Vindinium was the capital of the Aulerci, a sub tribe of the Aedui. Le Mans is known as Civitas Cenomanorum, or Cenomanus, their city, seized by the Romans in 47 BC, was within the ancient Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis. A 3rd-century amphitheatre is still visible; the thermae were demolished during the crisis of the third century when workers were mobilized to build the city's defensive walls. The ancient wall around Le Mans is one of the most complete circuits of Gallo-Roman city walls to survive; as the use of the French language replaced late Vulgar Latin in the area, with dissimilation, became known as Celmans.
Cel- was taken to be a form of the French word for "this" and "that", was replaced by le, which means "the". Gregory of Tours mentions a Frankish sub-king Rigomer, killed by King Clovis I in his campaign to unite the Frankish territories; as the principal city of Maine, Le Mans was the stage for struggles in the eleventh century between the counts of Anjou and the dukes of Normandy. When the Normans had control of Maine, William the Conqueror invaded England and established an occupation. In 1069 the citizens of Maine revolted and expelled the Normans, resulting in Hugh V being proclaimed count of Maine. Geoffrey V of Anjou married Matilda of England in the cathedral, their son Henry II Plantagenet, king of England, was born here. In 1154, during the reign of his uncle King Stephen, Henry landed in England with an army, intent on challenging Stephen for the throne; some of the members of that feudal force were known by the surname'del Mans' In medieval records pertaining to the history of Gloucester is a reference to one such man, Walter del Mans, beside his name'Cenomanus' was added by the medieval scribe, so that there is no doubt as to Walter's origin.
In the English censuses down to the twentieth century the surname Mans was confined to the counties of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire and their borderlands, reflecting the original settlement patterns in the Welsh Marches of the original followers of Henry's from Le Mans in 1154. A John Mans/Manns was escheator of Hereford 1399-1400. One family from Mans held the manor of Worcestershire. Intercourse between England and Le Mans continued throughout the Angevin period. Soon after Le Mans was liberated by the U. S. 79th and 90th Infantry Divisions on 8 August 1944, engineers of the Ninth Air Force IX Engineering Command began construction of a combat Advanced Landing Ground outside of the town. The airfield was declared operational on 3 September and designated as "A-35", it was used by several American fighter and transport units until late November of that year in additional offensives across France. Le Mans has a well-preserved old town and the Cathédrale St-Julien, dedicated to St Julian of Le Mans, honoured as the city's first bishop.
Remnants of a Roman wall are visible in the old town and Roman baths are located by the river. These walls are highlighted every summer evening in a light show. Arboretum de la Grand Prée Part of the former Cistercian abbey de l'Epau, founded by Queen Berengaria and maintained in extensive grounds by the Département de la Sarthe. Jardin des Plantes du Mans Musée de la reine Bérengère, a museum of Le Mans history located in a gothic manor house. Musée de Tessé, the fine arts museum of the city, displaying painting and archaeological collections as well as decorative arts. Le Mans has an oceanic climate influenced by the mild Atlantic air travelling inland. Summers are warm and hot, whereas winters are mild and cloudy. Precipitation is uniform and moderate year round. At the 1999 French census, there were 293,159 inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Le Mans, with 146,105 of these living in the city proper; the Gare du Mans is the main railway station of Le Mans. It takes 1 hour to reach Paris from Le Mans by TGV high speed train.
There are TGV connections to Lille, Nantes and Brest. Gare du Mans is a hub for regional trains. Le Mans inaugurated a new light rail system on 17 November 2007; the first French Grand Prix took place on a 64-mile circuit based at Le Mans in 1906. Since the 1920s, the city has been best known for its connection with motorsports. There are two official and separate racing tracks at Le Mans; the smaller is the Bugatti Circuit, a short permanent circuit, used for racing throughout the year and has hosted the French motorcycle Grand Prix. The longer and more famous Circuit de la Sarthe is composed of public roads; these are closed to the public. Since 1923, this route
John V, Duke of Brittany
John V, sometimes numbered as VI, bynamed John the Wise, was Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort from 1399 to his death. His rule coincided with the height of the Hundred Years' War between France. John's reversals in that conflict, as well as in other internal struggles in France, served to strengthen his duchy and to maintain its independence, his alternative regnal name, John VI, as he is known traditionally in old English sources, comes from English partisan accounting as to, the rightful duke of Brittany during the War of the Breton Succession, which had preceded the rule of his father. Although he faced problems which had lingered from it, his rule as duke was unchallenged. Without significant internal and foreign threats, John V reinforced ducal authority, reformed the military, constructed a coherent method of taxation, established diplomatic and trade contacts with most of Western Europe. John V was a patron of the arts and the Church, funded the construction of several cathedrals.
He is known for creating the "Lycée Lesage" in Vannes. John V was born on 24 December 1389 at the Château de l'Hermine as the eldest son of John IV, Duke of Brittany, Joan of Navarre, he became Duke of Brittany in 1399. His mother served as regent in the initial portion of his reign. Unlike his father, John V inherited the duchy in peace, as the end of the Breton War of Succession and John IV's military conquests in Brittany promised. However, his father's rivals for the duchy, the Pentheiveres, continued to plot against him. Furthermore, John had to secure the peace of the duchy during an unstable period culminating in King Henry V of England's invasion of France, he became duke at the age of ten, began his reign under the tutelage of Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, ravaging nearby Jersey and Guernsey. He made peace with the king of Charles VI, whose daughter, Joan of France, he married, he reconciled with the powerful magnate Olivier de Clisson an enemy of his father. In 1404, he defeated a French force near Brest.
A potential conflict with Clisson was averted by the latter's death. When Henry V invaded France, John was allied to the French. However, he missed the Battle of Agincourt, his brother Arthur de Richemont participated and was captured and imprisoned by the English. The confusion in the aftermath of the battle allowed John to seize Saint-Malo, annexed by the French, he adopted a policy of switching between the two parties and French. He signed the Treaty of Troyes, which made Henry V heir to France, but he allowed his brother Arthur de Richemont to fight for the French; the Counts of Penthièvre had lost the Breton War of Succession in which they had claimed the ducal title of Brittany from John's grandfather, John of Montfort. The war ended in 1364 in a military victory for John's father, in which the Penthièvre claimant, Charles of Blois, died, his widow, Countess of Penthièvre, was forced to sign the Treaty of Guérande which concluded the conflict. The treaty stated that Penthièvres accepted the Montforts's right to the dukedom, but if they failed to produce a male heir the duchy would revert to the Penthièvres.
Despite the military loss and the diplomatic treaty, the Counts of Penthièvre had not renounced their direct ducal claims to Brittany and continued to pursue them. In 1420, they invited John V to a festival held at Châtonceaux. John was arrested. Olivier, Count of Penthièvre and his mother, Margaret de Clisson spread rumours of his death and moved him to a new prison each day. John's wife, Joan of France, called upon all the barons of Brittany to respond, they besieged all the castles of the Penthièvre family one by one. Joan ended the crisis by seizing the dowager countess of Penthièvre and forcing her to free the duke. After the release, the Châtonceaux citadel was destroyed and the name changed to Champtoceaux; as a result of this failed imprisonment, Olivier had his county confiscated by the duke and he was forced into exile. In addition, the Montforts declared that the Treaty of Guérande had been broken and that the Penthièvre family no longer had a claim to the throne upon the extinction of the Montfort line.
This ensured. After the English defeat at the Battle of Baugé, John V ditched his allies by signing a treaty with the Dauphin Charles at Sablé on May 1421; some of its provisions were that John would abandon his commitments to the English, while Charles would dismiss his councillors who had advised him to support the Penthièvre revolt. Initial Breton military support to Charles proved significant: in the Dauphin's Loire valley campaign in the summer of 1421, the duchy provided more than a third of his army, about the same as the Scots. However, the agreement was soon undermined, as both parties failed to fulfill their promises. Furthermore, the release of John's brother Arthur from English captivity, along with subsequent English military successes, convinced John to once again reverse his allegiance, by signing the Treaty of Amiens with England and Burgundy; the Amiens agreement proved ephemeral. Brittany and Burgundy had secretly agreed to maintain good relations with each other if any of them abandoned the English.
Arthur de Richemont soon defected to the Dauphin, was made Constable of France. The duke of Brittany was convinced to do the same.
Ille-et-Vilaine is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country. Ille-et-Vilaine is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Brittany. Ille-et-Vilaine is a part of the current region of Brittany and is bordered by the departments of Manche to the north-east, Mayenne to the east, Maine-et-Loire to the south-east, Loire-Atlantique to the south, Morbihan to the south-west, Côtes-d'Armor to the west and north-west; the English Channel borders the department to the north. The department is named after its two main rivers, the Ille and the Vilaine, whose confluence is in Rennes, the capital of the department and of the region. Other important rivers include: the Rance, that borders the department in the north-west and flows to the north, creating a deep fjord before reaching the English Channel on the western part of the coast between the cities of Dinard and Saint-Malo).
The department is moderately elevated above the level of the sea, with many hills. The elevated hills bordering this basin are covered by several old forests now exploited by men for the production of wood; the basin itself is a rich agriculture area, as well as the north-west of the department near the Rance. In the extreme south of the department the Vilaine goes through a slower decrease in elevation in a small corridor in the area of the city of Redon. To avoid these hazards within inhabited cities, some natural fields bordering the Vilaine in the south of the department are now left floodable, works for regulating the level have been done including, small artificial lakes with derivation channels, replanting trees in the basin, better management of forests, regulating the artificial drains made for agriculture; the population has grown over the last few decades and was estimated at 1,019,923 in January 2013. Gallo is a historic minority language spoken in eastern Brittany. Gallo and Breton are both studied at the University of Rennes.
The Breton language was little spoken in the eastern part of Brittany, this was one of the first regions where the language disappeared such that Breton was not spoken for many centuries. Today, Breton is again spoken due to schools teaching Breton, due to a small immigration from Western Brittany to Eastern Brittany, where there are more cities with growing industries and external investment and therefore more work. A recent study shows that Breton speakers in this region represent 3.3% of the total number of Breton speakers. The Breton speakers aged 18–30 in this region represent 12.7% of the total number of Breton speakers of that age group. This is because there are few elder speakers but many people are learning the language; the study says. The President of the General Council is the Socialist Jean-Louis Tourenne since the French cantonal elections, 2004; the city of Rennes and its suburbs are the original base of the rapid Socialist growth in the department. The city has been governed by Socialist Mayors since 1977, notably by Edmond Hervé between 1977 and 2008.
Since the growth of middle-class suburbs have helped the Socialists, who have been gaining strength in those right-leaning areas. The right remains strong in a Catholic area from outside Redon to Vitré or Fougères. In addition, the right is strong in the wealthy coastal area of Dinard. Cantons of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Arrondissements of the Ille-et-Vilaine department Prefecture website General Council website Ille-et-Vilaine at Curlie Cultural Heritage City of Rennes website