Angaïs is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angaïsaises. Angaïs is located in the urban area of Pau 6 km south of Ousse. Access to the commune is by the D38 road from Ousse in the north-west passing through the town and continuing south to Baudreix; the D215 comes from near Assat in the west passing through the town and continuing south-east to Beuste. The D938 passes through the south-western corner of the commune and the D839 from Boeil-Bezing forms the southern border of the commune; the north-east of the commune is forested for about 25% of the total land area with the rest of the commune outside the town area farmland. Bus route 835 of the Interurban Network of Pyrenees Atlantiques from Bénéjacq to Pau services the commune; the Lagoin river flows through the centre of the commune from south-east to north-west continuing to join the Gave de Pau near Pau. The commune name in béarnais is Angais.
Brigitte Jobbe-Duval indicated. She mentioned that the people were nicknamed éleveurs de mules; the breeding of these animals had been one of the most productive industries of the Nay plain and of the commune of Angaïs. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Homages: Homages of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Assat: Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Paul Raymond noted on opage 6 of his 1863 dictionary that the commune once had a Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385 there were 4 fires in the commune and it depended on the bailiwick of Pau. On 2 February 1617 Louis de Colom, lay abbot of Angaïs and a trustee of Béarn, made an important speech which united the Catholics and Protestants of Béarn to resist the king's wishes, to oppose the execution of any act that may lead to political annexation of Béarn to France.
In the same year the First Huguenot Rebellion occurred. The Barony of Angaïs was created in 1656 by Louis XIV and consisted of Beuste and Sendets. Isaac de Navailles appears to have been the first Baron, Henri de Navailles-Labatut was Baron of Angaïs in the mid-19th century; the Uzerte of Angaïs refers to a local phenomenon of plague, documented in 1789. The inhabitants of Angaïs stated that every year the plague was transported by clear water - which rose above the village on the plain on the upper side of the wooded area - in April and June, it caused fatal diseases in animals. The poisoned water harmed plants, such as maize, flax and vegetables in gardens. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Pays de Nay; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-Iraty. The Château of Angaïs is registered as an historical monument; the Parish Church of Notre-Dame is registered as an historical monument. Inside the church the Altar and Retable in the south side chapel are registered as historical objects; the Chemin Henri-IV borders the commune in the north-east. It is a walking trail that connects the Château of Franqueville to Bizanos near Pau at the Lake of Lourdes, it alternates forest trails with dirt roads and offers walkers panoramic views of the Pyrenees, the foothills, the plains. About 35 kilometres long, the route can be divided up between the various roads, it is possible to go on foot, on horseback, or by bicycle but motor vehicles are forbidden. The commune has a primary school. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Angaïs on Lion1906 Angais on the 1750 Cassini Map Angaïs on the INSEE website INSEE
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France. It takes its name from the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the Béarn. Named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre, i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd and Soule, Béarn. The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native laws; the Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers Garat, representing Labourd voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions. On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwest France. It is bordered by Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Biarritz, Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located here. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain. Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, 344,000 workers in the local area. Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan the main language of southern France, it is more related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by all inhabitants. Pyrénées-Atlantiques is home to a number of professional sports teams, including Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique, Section Paloise, Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez and Pau FC.
The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship. The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces: Béarn Labourd Lower Navarre Soule Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department General Council website Archives of the Pyrenees-Atlantiques department website Photography Panoramics 360° website Prefecture official website Pyrenees-Atlantiques at Curlie Pyrenees-Atlantiques Monuments, Villages and Attractions Information on living and visiting Pyrenees Atlantiques
Abos is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Abosiens or Abosiennes. Abos is located 15 km north-west of Pau and 20 km southeast of Lescar, on the left bank of the Gave de Pau, the north east boundary of the commune. Highway D2 passes through the commune; the southeastern boundary of the commune is formed by Highway D229. The commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, with the Gave de Pau in the northeast and a number of streams in the commune feed into the La Baise river and Juscle. Bagneres Cap de Castel Chateau of Abos Idernes Le Moulin d'en Bas Le Moulin d'en Haut Peyré Saint-Laurent The name Abos is mentioned in 1116 and 1234 and in the 13th century, it appears in the forms: Abossium Abos Abous Abos (1630 Pierre de Marca and in 1750 on the Cassini Map. Michel Grosclaude proposed a Latin etymology of Avus with the aquitaine suffix -ossum; the commune name in Béarnais is Abòs.
Aubrun was a farm in Abos, mentioned in 1538 as La boyrie aperade d'Aubrun, Reformation of Béarn B. 637 in the 1863 dictionary. Cap de Castel is a hamlet in Abos mentioned by the dictionary in 1863. Paul Raymond said in 1863 that the Chateau of Abos or Castet-d'Abos, was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. Donadon was a fief under the Viscounts of Béarn, mentioned in 1538; the fief of Idernes was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn and appeared in the forms: Ydernas and Ydernes. Maucor was a fief of Abos, cited with the spelling of L'ostau de Maucoo in 1385 in the Census of Béarn; this fief was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn restored to the Bailiwick of Lagor and Pardies as was Saint Jean, another fief of Abos mentioned in 1385 in the form of L'ostau de Sent-Johan d'Abos. Saint-Laurent, a hamlet and fief of Abos under the Viscounts of Béarn, was restored to the Bailiwick of Lagor and Pardies, it was mentioned in the forms Sent-Laurentz d'Abos and Saint-Laurens d'Abos. Paul Raymond noted that the commune had a Lay Abbey a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn and in 1385, Abos depended on the bailiwick of Lagos and Pardies with 49 fires.
The Lord of Abos was of the first rank after the Barons of Béarn. List of Successive Mayors of Abos The town is a member of nine inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Lacq SIVU for the development and management of the river basin of the baïse AEP union for the Gave and the baïse. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Jurançon AOC and Béarn AOC vineyard regions. Activity in the commune is agricultural; the commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The 2006 classification of INSEE, indicated the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households ranked Abos at 7513, for an income of €18,000 per person; the Church of Saint John the Baptist dates to the 19th century. The town has a primary school. Didier Courrèges is a French horseman, a former high level event rider and a member of the Cadre Noir - elite instructors at the National Riding School of Saumur.
He now lives in Abos. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Abos on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Abos on the 1750 Cassini Map Abos on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Anhaux is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anhauztar. Anhaux is located some 10 km south of Ossès. Access to the commune is by country roads branching from the D15 road passing to the north of the commune; the commune consists of farmland in the north with the southern part more rugged and hilly. The commune is located in the drainage basin of the Adour; the Ontzeroneker erreka' - a tributary of the Nive d'Arnéguy - with many tributaries rising in the commune forms the southern border with Lasse commune. A right tributary of the Berroko erreka, the Aparraineko erreka flows down from the Artzaïnharria; the Napoleonic land registry divided the commune into 16 districts in 1840: Districts in Section A called The Village Districts in Section B called Honçaron Heguy was an old district, extending that of Choubitoa. Today, the following localities are listed: The commune name in basque is Anhauze.
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval proposed a basque origin of ona-oz, meaning "place of the hill". The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne Anhaux village is one of eleven hamlets or villages which were in the Baigorry Valley. In the Middle Ages, the eleven hamlets were: Ascarat, Moussourits, Irouleguy, Leispars, Oticoren and Anhauz, all in the north of the valley; the south was not populated until much later. Despite sounding Basque, the name of this village seems to defy all analysis; the oldest document known on which the name Anhaux appears is now the cartulary of the abbey of Saint-Jean of Sorde where it appears in the 10th century.
Father Haristoy in his book Research on the Basque Country noted that recorded in this cartulary were: "1068-1072 Oz Guilhem de Onotz and his wife received from Saint-Jean a piece of land located at Anhaux subject to they and their successors providing security and seven loaves, one pig, one pint of wine, two measures of provisions". The Benedictine Abbey in question was founded in the 9th century north-east of Navarre, it was, as with all the monasteries at the time, a vast agricultural area spread along the mountain streams in Orthe country and lower Navarre and, according to the two cited references, in the parish of Anhaux. It was around 1023 that King Sancho III of Navarre founded the fief of the Viscounty of Baigory in favour of Garcias Lop, related; the creation of the hamlet itself, on the viscounts' lands, therefore dates back to this period. Thus from the 11th century the status of houses at Anhaux was defined by the writer Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, he provided a list of houses existing in the Middle Ages in Anhaux.
This document was created from the archives from 1350, 1366, 1412. Of the twenty-eight houses found there, four were noble, the others were fivatiéres which means that they paid a fee in crops, work, or money and were built on the land of the "Lord" of the main house; the successive Viscounts of Baigorry of Echaux enjoyed the tithes of the village until their liquidation in 1792. The arms Anhaux are those of the Apesteguy family, they were adopted by the municipal council on 30 July 1993. Pierre Haristoy wrote that the Apesteguy were lords of Jaureguia and of Anhaux and nominated the priest for the area. In deeds before 1670 several of the Apesteguy appear as noble. Towards 1720 Jean-Pierre d'Apesteguy was received by the States of Navarre; the house of Apesteguia was, until the 18th century, the Lay Abbey for the area. Its members played an important role in the valley until the end of the 19th century; the Cassini map, made in the 18th century shows a parish consisting of: the village of Anhaux with a parish church.
List of Successive Mayors Anhaux commune participates in eight inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri. In 2009 the commune had 286 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée of Irouléguy and the AOC of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is princip
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ance Féas is a commune in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2017 by merger of the former communes of Féas and Ance. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department