The Gàidhealtachd refers to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland and the Scottish Gaelic-speaking culture of the area. The corresponding Irish word Gaeltacht refers to Irish-speaking areas; the term is used to apply to the Scottish Gaelic-speaking Canadian areas of Nova Scotia and Glengarry County, Ontario. "The Gàidhealtachd" is not interchangeable with "Scottish Highlands" as it refers to the language and not to the geography. Many parts of the highlands no longer have substantial Gaelic-speaking populations, some parts of what is now thought of as the Highlands have long been Scots-speaking or English-speaking areas: Caithness, Grantown-on-Spey, etc. Conversely, several Gaelic-speaking communities lie outwith the Highland and Bute and Outer Hebrides council areas, for example Isle of Arran and parts of Perth and Kinross, not to mention Nova Scotia, North Carolina, other areas to which there was significant migration. Gàidhealtachd increasingly refers to any region where Scottish Gaelic is spoken as a first language by much of the population.
Galldachd is used for the Lowlands, although it is notable that the Hebrides are known as Innse Gall due to the historical presence of Norsemen. Until a few centuries ago, the Gàidhealtachd would have included much of modern-day Scotland north of the Firth of Forth and Galloway, excepting the Northern Isles, as evidenced by the prevalence of Gaelic-derived place names throughout most of Scotland and contemporary accounts; these include Dundee from the Gaelic Dùn Deagh, Inverness from Inbhir Nis, Argyll from Earra-Ghàidheal, Galloway from Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, Stirling from Sruighlea. Gaelic speakers from what would be considered traditionally English-speaking/non-Gaelic regions today included George Buchanan, Robert the Bruce, Margaret McMurray. For historical reasons, including the influence of a Scots-speaking court in Edinburgh and the plantation of merchant burghs in much of the south and east, the Gàidhealtachd has been reduced massively to the present region of the Outer Hebrides, the Northwest Highlands, the Skye and Loch Alsh and Argyll and Bute, with small Gaelic populations existing in Glasgow and Edinburgh.
The Highland Clearances of the 18th and 19th centuries contributed to the decline of the language, as they reduced the population of the Scottish Highlands, which were predominantly Gaelic-speaking at the time. Scottish Gaelic has survived among communities descended from immigrants in parts of Nova Scotia, Glengarry County in present-day Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador; the Codroy Valley on the island of Newfoundland had a Gaelic-speaking minority until the 1960s. Scotia Gaelic road signs in Scotland Y Fro Gymraeg Welsh-speaking regions in Wales; the Colonisation of the Gàidheal by Iain MacKinnon
Scottish Gaelic medium education
Gaelic medium education is a form of education in Scotland that allows pupils to be taught through the medium of Scottish Gaelic, with English being taught as the secondary language. Gaelic medium education is popular throughout Scotland, the number of pupils who are in Gaelic medium education has risen from 24 in 1985 to 3,892 in 2016; the current figure is the highest number of Gaelic medium Education pupils in Scotland since the 2005 passage of the Gaelic Language Act by the Scottish Parliament. Not included in this figure are university students at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, Lews Castle College, or Ionad Chaluim Chille Ìle who are taking their degrees through the medium of Gaelic. However, some research has suggested that Gaelic medium education by itself is not enough for full bilingual competency in Gaelic, it may be the pupils in primary Gaelic education who go on to use the language as adults is limited. Further qualitative and quantitative research is underway to articulate take up and the impact of changing strategies over time.
In 2016, 10,215 pupils in Scotland were receiving some kind of education in Gaelic representing 1.5% of the country's student population. This figure is higher than Scotland's overall proportion of Gaelic speakers which stood at 1.1% in 2011. Nearly 3,900 students in Scotland were enrolled in Gaelic medium education in 2016, a 32% increase in only three years and a 47% increase over 2010 figures. Six council areas had a higher than average enrollment of students in Gaelic Medium Education: Eilean Siar. Over 6,300 other pupils in Scotland were receiving instruction in Gaelic language courses in 2016. In Eilean Siar, 86.19% of all pupils were receiving some form of Gaelic-language education in 2016. In second place was Argyll & Bute at 10.75%, with the Highland council area in third at 7.59%. On the reverse side, sixteen council areas had no students at all receiving any education in Gaelic. There are a handful of dedicated Gaelic medium schools in the country; the largest is Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu, established in 2006 and catering to pupils aged three to eighteen, the country's first 3-18 Gaelic medium school.
At the beginning of the 2015-16 year the school enrolled 811 pupils and is one of the most over-enrolled schools in Scotland. The country's only other Gaelic medium secondary school is Sgoil Lionacleit on the island of Benbecula in Na h-Eileanan Siar. Several Gaelic language primary schools exist in the Western Isles. Outside that region, Bun-sgoil Ghàidhlig Inbhir Nis opened in 2007 in Inverness and serves pupils in class 1-7, as does Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce which opened in 2013 in the capital city of Edinburgh. A new Gaelic medium primary school, Bun-sgoil Ghàidhlig Loch Abar, opened in Caol near Fort William in 2015, a similar school is under construction in Portree; as there are still few such schools, Gaelic medium education is provided through Gaelic medium units within English-speaking schools. Bun-sgoil Shlèite on the Isle of Skye is the exception in that it is a Gaelic school with an English Medium Unit; the largest Gaelic unit is at Mount Cameron Primary School in East Kilbride which enrolled 70 pupils at the start of the 2015-16 school year.
Several studies have examined the Gaelic-language capabilities of Gaelic-medium educated adults and found that few of them demonstrate native-like, or bilingual, abilities in Gaelic: "researchers in these studies observed frequent and unmarked use of non-native-like features in GME students’ syntax and phonology, both through ethnographic observations in the classroom and individual interviews." In her 2013 thesis, Julia Landgraf found that the few GME students exhibiting bilingual abilities came from Gaelic-speaking households. However, GME students and other young adults from Gaelic-speaking areas are exhibiting English-influenced phonology. Furthermore, not all graduates end up using the language. In Dunmore's study of 46 adults from a GME background, a majority were classified as "low use." Usage was correlated with language abilities. The attitudes towards education and the promotion of Anglicisation have been described as resulting from "confrontation of two disparate societies... Lowland Scotland made plain its anxiety concerning the unreformed society in the north in terms of unease concerning its language, identified as the chief cause of barbarity and popery" and can be seen as a continuation of such policies going back to 1609 and the Statutes of Iona which saw the Gaelic speaking nobility of Scotland forced to send their children to be educated in English speaking Lowland Scotland.
This was followed in 1616 by an act of the privy council which included a requirement that the children of the Highland nobility must be capable of speaking and writing English if they were to be recognised as heirs. The history of Gaelic language schools in Scotland can be traced back to the early 18th century and the schools of the Scottish Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge or SSPCK. One of the primary aims of the society was the de-Gaelicisation of the Highlands and its schools taught through the medium
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for The Highland Council and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands. Inverness lies near two important battle sites: the 11th-century battle of Blàr nam Fèinne against Norway which took place on the Aird and the 18th century Battle of Culloden which took place on Culloden Moor, it is the northernmost city in the United Kingdom and lies within the Great Glen at its north-eastern extremity where the River Ness enters the Moray Firth. At the latest, a settlement was established by the 6th century with the first royal charter being granted by Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim in the 12th century; the Gaelic king Mac Bethad Mac Findláich whose 11th-century killing of King Duncan was immortalised in Shakespeare's fictionalized play Macbeth, held a castle within the city where he ruled as Mormaer of Moray and Ross. The population of Inverness grew from 40,969 in 2001 to 46,869 in 2012; the Greater Inverness area, including Culloden and Westhill, had a population of 59,969 in 2012.
In 2018, it had a population of 69,989. Inverness is one of Europe's fastest growing cities, with a quarter of the Highland population living in or around it, is ranked fifth out of 189 British cities for its quality of life, the highest of any Scottish city. In the recent past, Inverness has experienced rapid economic growth: between 1998 and 2008, Inverness and the rest of the central Highlands showed the largest growth of average economic productivity per person in Scotland and the second greatest growth in the United Kingdom as a whole, with an increase of 86%. Inverness is twinned with one German city and two French towns, La Baule and Saint-Valery-en-Caux. Inverness College is the main campus for the University of the Islands. With around 8,500 students, Inverness College hosts around a quarter of all the University of the Highlands and Islands' students, 30% of those studying to degree level. In 2014, a survey by a property website described Inverness as the happiest place in Scotland and the second happiest in the UK.
Inverness was again found to be the happiest place in Scotland by a new study conducted in 2015. Inverness was one of the chief strongholds of the Picts, in CE 565 was visited by St Columba with the intention of converting the Pictish king Brude, supposed to have resided in the vitrified fort on Craig Phadrig, on the western edge of the city. A 93 oz silver chain dating to 500–800 was found just to the south of Torvean in 1983. A church or a monk's cell is thought to have been established by early Celtic monks on St Michael's Mount, a mound close to the river, now the site of the Old High Church and graveyard; the castle is said to have been built by Máel Coluim III of Scotland, after he had razed to the ground the castle in which Mac Bethad mac Findláich had, according to much tradition, murdered Máel Coluim's father Donnchad, which stood on a hill around 1 km to the north-east. The strategic location of Inverness has led to many conflicts in the area. Reputedly there was a battle in the early 11th century between King Malcolm and Thorfinn of Norway at Blar Nam Feinne, to the southwest of the city.
Inverness had four traditional fairs, including Legavrik or "Leth-Gheamhradh", meaning midwinter, Faoilleach. William the Lion granted Inverness four charters, by one. Of the Dominican friary founded by Alexander III in 1233, only one pillar and a worn knight's effigy survive in a secluded graveyard near the town centre. Medieval Inverness suffered regular raids from the Western Isles by the MacDonald Lords of the Isles in the 15th century. In 1187 one Domhnall Bán led islanders in a battle at Torvean against men from Inverness Castle led by the governor's son, Donnchadh Mac An Toisich. Both leaders were killed in the battle, Donald Ban is said to have been buried in a large cairn near the river, close to where the silver chain was found. Local tradition says that the citizens fought off the Clan Donald in 1340 at the Battle of Blairnacoi on Drumderfit Hill, north of Inverness across the Beauly Firth. On his way to the Battle of Harlaw in 1411, Donald of Islay harried the city, sixteen years James I held a parliament in the castle to which the northern chieftains were summoned, of whom three were arrested for defying the king's command.
Clan Munro defeated Clan Mackintosh in 1454 at the Battle of Clachnaharry just west of the city. Clan Donald and their allies stormed the castle during the Raid on Ross in 1491. In 1562, during the progress undertaken to suppress Huntly's insurrection, Queen of Scots, was denied admittance into Inverness Castle by the governor, who belonged to the earl's faction, whom she afterwards caused to be hanged; the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser of Lovat took the castle for her. The house in which she lived meanwhile stood in Bridge Street until the 1970s, when it was demolished to make way for the second Bridge Street development. Beyond the northern limits of the town, Oliver Cromwell built a citadel capable of accommodating 1,000 men, but with the exception of a portion of the ramparts it was demolished at the Restoration; the only surviving modern remnant is a clock tower. Inverness played a role in the Jacobite rising of 1689. In early May, it was besieged by a contingent of Jacobites led by MacDonell of Keppoch.
The town was rescued by Viscount Dundee, the overall Jacobite commander, when he arrived with the main Jacobite army, although he required Inverness to profess loyalty to King James VII. In 1715 the Jacobites occupie
National Library of Scotland
The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections. Its main public building is in Edinburgh city centre on George IV Bridge, between the Old Town and the university quarter. There is a more modern building in a residential area on the south side of the town centre, on Causewayside; this was built to accommodate some of the specialist collections, such as maps and science collections, to provide extra large-scale storage. In 2016 a new public centre opened at Glasgow's Kelvin Hall providing access to the Library's digital and moving image collections; the National Library of Scotland holds 7 million books, 14 million printed items and over 2 million maps. The collection includes copies of the Gutenberg Bible, the letter which Charles Darwin submitted with the manuscript of Origin of Species, the First Folio of Shakespeare and numerous journals and other publications, it has the largest collection of Scottish Gaelic material of any library.
Scotland's national deposit library was the Advocates Library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates. It was opened in 1689 and gained national library status in the 1710 Copyright Act, giving it the legal right to a copy of every book published in Great Britain. In the following centuries, the library added books and manuscripts to the collections by purchase as well as legal deposit, creating a funded national library in all but name. By the 1920s, the upkeep of such a major collection was too much for a private body, with an endowment of £100,000 provided by Alexander Grant, managing director of McVitie & Price, the Library's contents were presented to the nation; the National Library of Scotland was formally constituted by Act of Parliament in 1925. The Nation recognised Grant with a baronetcy, he was created Sir Alexander Grant of Forres in June 1924. In 1928 he donated a further £100,000 – making his combined donations the equivalent of around £6 million today – for a new library building to be constructed on George IV Bridge, replacing the Victorian-period Sheriff Court, which institution moved to the Royal Mile.
Government funding was secured. Work on the new building was started in 1938, interrupted by the Second World War, completed in 1956; the architect was Reginald Fairlie. The coat of arms above the entrance was sculpted by Scott Sutherland and the roundels above the muses on the front facade by Elizabeth Dempster. By the 1970s, room for the ever-expanding collections was running out, other premises were needed; the Causewayside Building opened in the south-side of Edinburgh in two phases, in 1989 and in 1995, at a total cost of £50 million, providing much-needed additional working space and storage facilities. Since 1999, the Library has been funded by the Scottish Parliament, it remains one of only six legal deposit libraries in the United Kingdom and Ireland, is governed by a board of trustees. The Library holds many ancient family manuscripts including those of the Clan Sinclair, which date back as far as 1488. On 26 February 2009, areas of the building were flooded after a water main burst on the 12th floor.
Firefighters were called and the leaking water was stopped within ten minutes. A number of items were damaged; the last letter written by Mary Queen of Scots made a rare public appearance to mark the opening of a new Library visitor centre in September 2009. The Library joined the 10:10 project in 2010 in a bid to reduce their carbon footprint. One year they announced that they had reduced their carbon emissions according to 10:10's criteria by 18%. On 16 May 2012 the National Library of Scotland Act 2012 was passed by the Scottish Parliament, received Royal Assent in 21 June 2012. In April 2013 the Library advertised for a Wikipedian in residence, becoming the first institution in the Scotland to create such a post. In 2016, the Library recruited a Gaelic Wikipedian in residence. In September 2016 the Library opened a new centre at the refurbished Kelvin Hall, Glasgow, in partnership with Glasgow Life and the University of Glasgow; the centre provides access to moving image collections. As of 2013, the Library holds: manuscripts: 100,000 items maps: 2 million items films: more than 46,000 items newspaper and magazine titles: 25,000 items Bartholomew Archive John Murray Archive Scottish Publishers Association Ask Scotland, Scotland's online information service provided by Scotland’s libraries Books in the United Kingdom Official website
Cairngorms National Park
Cairngorms National Park is a national park in north east Scotland, established in 2003. It was the second of two national parks established by the Scottish Parliament, after Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park, set up in 2002; the park covers the Cairngorms range of mountains, surrounding hills. The largest national park in the British Isles, in 2010 it expanded into Perth and Kinross. Cairngorms National Park covers an area of 4,528 km2 in Aberdeenshire, Highland and Perth and Kinross Regions; the Cairngorm Mountains are a spectacular landscape, similar in appearance to the Hardangervidda National Park of Norway in having a large upland plateau. While the Hardangervidda National Park is recognised as a Category 2 national park under the IUCN categories the Cairngorm National Park is a Category 5 protected landscape that has farmed and managed landscapes in which tourism is encouraged. Aviemore is a popular holiday destination; the Highland Wildlife Park and Dalwhinnie distillery lie within the National Park.
In 2015, 53 km of the 132 kV power line in the middle of the park was taken down, while another section along the edge of the park was upgraded to 400 kV. A skiing and winter sports industry is concentrated in the Cairngoms, with three of Scotland's five resorts situated here, they are Glenshee Ski Centre and The Lecht Ski Centre. The Frank Bruce Sculpture Trail is located near Feshiebridge; this short trail through the woods features a sculptures created by Frank Bruce between 1965 and 2009. Before the national park was established in 2003, Scottish Natural Heritage conducted a consultation exercise, considering the boundary and the powers and structure of the new park authority. One option presented for the area included Tomatin, Blair Atholl and Glen Shee, making the park twice as big as the Lake District National Park; the area chosen was smaller than expected, but still the largest in Britain. It involved the boundary areas of Carrbridge, Dalwhinnie, Grantown-on-Spey and Ballater. Many groups and local communities felt that a large area of highland Perth and Kinross should form part of the park and carried out a sustained campaign.
On 13 March 2008 Michael Russell announced that the National Park would be extended to take in Blair Atholl and Spittal of Glenshee. There was controversy surrounding the construction of the funicular Cairngorm Mountain Railway on Cairn Gorm, a scheme supported by the new National Park Authority. Supporters of the scheme claimed that it would bring in valuable tourist income, whilst opponents argued that such a development was unsuitable for a protected area. To reduce erosion, the railway operates a "closed scheme" and only allows skiers out of the upper Ptarmigan station. On 4 October 2010 the Park extended into Highland Glenshee; the National Park Authority shares statutory planning functions with the five local authorities within the national park boundary. Ballater Braemar Corgarff Crathie Dinnet Strathdon Lumsden Only the heads of the Angus Glens are within the park. Clova Aviemore Boat of Garten Carrbridge Dalwhinnie Dulnain Bridge Drumochter Grantown-on-Spey Kingussie Laggan Nethy Bridge Newtonmore Glenlivet Tomintoul Blair Atholl Killiecrankie Spittal of Glenshee Geology of the Cairngorms National Park Abernethy Forest Caledonian Forest National parks of Scotland Scottish Highlands SEARS Tourism in Scotland World Heritage Sites in Scotland Official website Visit Cairngorms Map of the National Park
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat