The rigsdaler was the name of several currencies used in Denmark until 1875. The similarly named Reichsthaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary and these currencies were often anglicized as rix-dollar or rixdollar. The Danish currency system established in 1625 consisted of 12 penning =1 skilling,16 skilling =1 mark,6 mark =1 rigsdaler and 8 mark =1 krone. From 1713, two separate systems coexisted and species, with courant being a debased currency used for banknote issue, the rigsdaler species contained 4⁄37 of a Cologne mark of fine silver. In 1813, following a crisis, a new currency system was introduced, based on the rigsbankdaler. For six rigsdaler in old banknotes, a new one rigsbankdaler note was exchanged, the rigsbankdaler This was divided into 96 rigsbank skilling and was equal to half a rigsdaler species or 6 rigsdaler courant. A further change was made in 1854, the rigsdaler species name disappeared and the names rigsbankdaler and rigsbank skilling became rigsdaler and skilling rigsmønt.
Thus, there were 96 skilling rigsmønt to the rigsdaler, in 1873, Denmark and Sweden formed the Scandinavian Monetary Union and the rigsdaler was replaced by the Danish krone on 1 January 1875. An equal valued krone/krona of the union replaced the three currencies at the rate of 1 krone/krona = 1⁄2 Danish rigsdaler = 1⁄4 Norwegian speciedaler =1 Swedish riksdaler. Because of this reform, where two Danish kroner was of equal worth to the Danish daler, the coins got the common name of daler as they were functionally the same. This has however, become an uncommon name as a result of a gap in the tokrone coins existence from 1959 to 1993. In the late 18th century, coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄2,1,2,4,8,24 and 32 skilling, 1⁄15, 1⁄4, 1⁄3, 1⁄2 and 1 rigsdaler specie. Between 1813 and 1815, copper coins bearing the legend rigsbanktegn were issued in denominations of 2,3,4,6,12 and 16 skilling, from 1818,1,2 and 32 rigsbank skilling coins were issued, with 1 rigsdaler species from 1820.
From 1826, gold coins were issued denominated in Frederiks dOr or Christians dOr, the dor was nominally worth 10 rigsdaler, although the currency was on a silver standard. In 1838, 1⁄2 rigsbank skilling coins were introduced, between 1840 and 1843, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 1⁄5, 1⁄2,1,2,3,4,8,16 and 32 rigsbank skilling,1 rigsbankdaler and 1 rigsdaler species. These denominations were 1 1⁄4, 2 1⁄2,5,10 and 30 Schilling Courant, the renaming of the currency units in 1854 lead to the issuing of coins for 1⁄2,1,4 and 16 skilling rigsmønt,1 and 2 rigsdaler. Gold dor coins continued to be issued, in 1713, the government introduced notes for 1,2 and 3 mark,1,5,10,25,50 and 100 rigsdaler. The Copenhagen Assignation and Loans Bank issued notes between 1737 and 1804 for 10,20,30,40,50 and 100 rigsdaler courant
Islands Brygge is a harbourfront area in central Copenhagen, located on the north-western coast of Amager. The neighbourhood is noted for its waterfront park Havneparken, which is one of the most popular areas along the Copenhagen harbourfront, established through a series of land reclamations from the 1880s, it served both military, residential and dockland purposes. It is characterized by a mixture of old buildings and modern architecture, Islands Brygge has an area of roughly 1 km² and a population of 12,147, though it has never been an administrative unit with formally defined boundaries. The north-western shore of Amager was originally characterized by a shallow watered beach, at that time the shoreline was situated just east of present-day Artillerivej. The area was filled in 1887-88 and a new arsenal, shooting ranges, Islands Brygge was the hub of commercial ships sailing to and from Iceland, a former member of the state of Denmark. The Danish trade monopoly in Iceland was a business, generating extreme wealth and political power for many of Copenhagens mayors.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Port of Copenhagen had become very busy both with freight and passenger vessels and extensions were needed. In 1901, the Port Authorities extended the existing reclamation southwards to create new areas for the storage of coal, from 1905 construction of residential buildings on the most inland parts of the new land began. The co-operative Danish retailer FDB established new headquarters in the neighbourhood in 1908 and it comprised both administrative functions and storage facilities. Dansk Sojakagefabrik, a soy bean processing plant, was opened by the East Asiatic Company in 1909, at its peak in the 1950s, the plant employed approximately 2,500 workers, many of whom lived in the neighbourhood. To improve road and rail connections between Zealand and Amager, a new bridge was constructed at the site of the present-day Langebro, the new bridge soon became outdated and in 1930 a new temporary bridge was built. Still more land was reclaimed until 1933, when Islands Brygge reached its current extent.
Under the Occupation of Denmark during World War II, many German troops were stationed at Islands Brygge, after World War II, the military presence in the area diminished and by 1976 most of the former military buildings had been demolished or converted to other use. The first step towards the transformation of the area into a lively, Islands Brygge is today a fashionable mainly residential neighbourhood, stretching from Langebro in the north to Bryggebroen in the south. The northern part of the area, from Langebro to Sturlasgade, is dominated by early 20th-century residential blocks with shops at street level. Some structures from the industrial and dockland past have been preserved and converted to other uses. These include Gemini Residence, the Wennberg Silo and the Zepeline Building, located directly on the waterfront, is the main recreational area of the neighbourhood and one of the most lively and popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront. It has retained several features from the industrial past, including old railway tracks
Amager is a Danish island in the Øresund. The Danish capital, Copenhagen, is situated on Amager. Amager has a connection across the Øresund to Sweden, the Øresund Bridge and its western part begins with a tunnel from Amager to another Danish island, Peberholm. Copenhagen Airport is located on the island, around 7 km from Copenhagen city centre, Amager is the largest island in the Øresund, and the only one with a large population. As of 2016,192,709 people live on the island, including its northern tip, the northern part is included in the Copenhagen municipality. The middle part comprises Tårnby municipality, and Dragør municipality is located on the southeast part of the island, most of the western part is land that was reclaimed from the sea from the 1930s-1950s. This enlargement, from the sound towards Zealand, is known as Kalveboderne. The enlargement has never been built-up and its soil isnt suitable for agricultural use, however the area between Dragør town and the airport is cultivated land of high quality.
Amager has in the past been referred to as the kitchen of Copenhagen, at the border of the enlargement there is an old beech forest, Kongelunden. Amager has long been populated, and well used, thanks to its rich soil, in 1521, Christian II invited some Dutch farmers to move to Amager and grow vegetables to supply the Danish Court and Copenhagen. It was only in the late 19th century that Copenhagen began to expand onto the island, the area houses such major facilities as the Bella Center, a convention and exposition center, and Fields, the second-largest shopping center in Scandinavia. This project was initiated by the Danish government, the beach area to the east of the island, known as Amager Strandpark, which had fallen into disrepair since its inception in the 1930s, was extensively redeveloped between May 2004 and August 2005. A 2-km-long artificial island, was constructed just off the mainland from which it is separated by a small lagoon, until the 1970s, Amager was used as a place to dump litter, this led to a slang term for the island Lorteøen.
Large parts of Kalvebod Fælled are rich in nature and have many grazing cows and this area allows the citizens of Copenhagen to experience nature, without travelling far from the city. Amager is home to the Amager Bio, a cinema, top bands from the last 40 years have played there, both those of international origin and from Denmark. Various communities are located on Amager, including Islands Brygge, and the towns of Dragør, the Øresund Bridge connects Sweden to Denmark at Amager. The construction of the bridge has had a significant impact on the geography of the island. The Copenhagen Metro connects Amager to central Copenhagen, the metro line from Vanløse to Amager divides into M1 and M2 lines at Christianshavn and continue to Vestamager and Lufthavnen
Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen, originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchants town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere, students, artists and traditional families with children live side-by-side. Administratively, Christianshavn has been part of Indre By since 2007, Christianshavn covers an area of 3.43 km², and includes three minor islands to the north, jointly referred to as Holmen. It has a population of 10,140 and a density of 2,960 per km². To the south and east Christianshavn is defined by its old ramparts, to the west Christianshavn borders on the Inner Harbour that separates it from Slotsholmen and the rest of Copenhagens city centre.
In 1612, Christian IV initiated a programme to fortify Copenhagen. During the period 1618-1623, he erected earthen embarkments with five bastions in the area between Copenhagen and the island of Amager. At the same time the idea was hatched of creating a new merchant town in the area, in 1639 the little merchant and fortress town of Christianshavn was established. However, competition from Copenhagen soon proved too strong for the little town, the fortifications were further developed with six more bastions in the 1660s, and seven more bastions between 1682-1692. Additional reinforcements occurred between 1779–1791, and again in 1810-1813, even though the fortifications around the Inner City were being dismantled in the late 19th century, Christianshavns fortifications continued in use into the 20th century. Some areas were opened up in the late 1910s-1920s, and the areas were made public space in 1961. The fortifications are a part of the fortification system around the old part of Copenhagen.
Today the area around the fortifications is a park area, Christianshavn is a lively, primarily residential area. Where the canal and the street intersects, at the centre of Christianshavn. Along the eastern shoreline of the island runs Christianshavns Vold which now serves as the principal greenspace of the neighbourhood, on the other—Rampar Sidet—side of the canal, the area is dominated by historic residential buildings and institutions. Cultural institutions include Danish Architecture Centre and the North Atlantic House and it is in this area that the Church of Our Saviour and Christiania are found
Frederick VII of Denmark
Frederick VII was King of Denmark from 1848 to 1863. He was the last Danish monarch of the older Royal branch of the House of Oldenburg, during his reign, he signed a constitution that established a Danish parliament and made the country a constitutional monarchy. Fredericks motto was The peoples love, my strength, Frederick was born at Amalienborg Palace to Christian VIII of Denmark and Duchess Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His maternal grandparents were Friedrich Franz I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the kings first two marriages both ended in scandal and divorce. He was first married in Copenhagen on 1 November 1828 to his second cousin Princess Vilhelmine Marie of Denmark and they separated in 1834 and divorced in 1837. On 10 June 1841 he married for a time to Duchess Caroline Charlotte Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Køppen and of Juliane Caroline Rasmussen and this marriage seems to have been happy, although it aroused great moral indignation among the nobility and the bourgeoisie.
Countess Danner, who was denounced as a gold digger by her enemies. She worked at maintaining his popularity by letting him meet the people of the provinces, the expectation that Frederick would not likely produce offspring, despite numerous affairs, was widespread, but sources rarely state the reasons. Some speculate that Frederick was infertile, during the reign of Fredericks father, King Christian VIII, the succession question was already being brought forward. This was brought forward in a book published in 1994 and again in a book published in 2009, the letters are quoted in the book. In all cases, extramarital offspring were and still are barred from the line of succession and it has been claimed Frederick had a same-sex relationship with his friend, Carl Berling (1812-1871 publisher and owner of the newspaper Berlingske Tidende. To retain a tinge of decency, the King married Louise Rasmussen, the public indignation within higher circles over Fredericks morganatic marriage is well-known, but reasons have rarely been explained in detail.
Frederick, who was the last king of the branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, had a rather neglected childhood after the divorce of his parents. His youth was marked by scandals and for many years he appeared as the problem child of the royal family. When he succeeded to the throne in January 1848, he was almost at once met by the demands for a constitution, the Schleswig-Holsteiners wanted an independent state while the Danes wished to maintain South Jutland as a Danish area. The king soon yielded to the Danish demands, and in March he accepted the end of absolutism, during his reign, Frederick on the whole behaved as a constitutional monarch. He did not, quite give up interfering in politics, in 1854, he contributed to the fall of the strongly conservative Ørsted cabinet, and in 1859–60, he accepted a liberal government appointed on the initiative of his wife
Oslo Stock Exchange
Oslo Børs offers Norway’s only regulated markets for securities trading today. The stock exchange offers a product range including equities, derivatives. Oslo Børs is the only independent stock exchange within the Nordic countries, Oslo Børs is today an online market place where all trading is done through computer networks. Trading starts at 09, 00am and ends at 04, 30pm local time on all days of the week except weekends, established in 1819, first as an commodity exchange. Equities and bonds listed and traded from 1881, Oslo Axess was established in May 2007 as an alternative to Oslo Børs for listing and trading in shares. Nordic ABM was established in June 2005 as a bond market. Norwegian public limited companies and equivalent foreign companies can apply for their shares to be listed on Oslo Børs or Oslo Axess, to be listed the exchange includes strict requirements on the treatment of confidential information. Companies that meet the requirements for listing can much easier get access to capital through share issues, many investors only invest in securities listed on a stock exchange, because those papers are easier to sell.
OBX – The index comprises the 25 most traded shares listed on Oslo Børs, the OBX index is tradable, meaning that you can buy and sell listed futures and options on the index. Put another way, you can get the exposure by purchasing an index product as if you buy all the shares included in the index. The rating is based on a trading period. The index is adjusted every third Friday in June and December, OSEBX – The Oslo Børs Benchmark Index is an investable index containing a representative selection of all listed shares on Oslo Børs. The OSEBX is revised on a year basis and the changes are implemented on December 1. Oslo Børs can offer an international position related to the industries of energy, shipping. The exchange is world leading and the/among the largest in the world within these sectors, Oslo Børs was established by a law of September 18,1818. Trading on Oslo Børs commenced on April 15,1819, in 1881 Oslo Børs became a stock exchange, which means securities were listed. The first listing of securities contained 16 bond series and 23 stocks, Oslo Børs cooperates with London Stock Exchange on trading systems.
The exchange has a partnership with the exchanges in Singapore
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
A stock exchange or bourse is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and/or sell stocks and other securities. Stock exchanges may provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges often function as continuous auction markets, with buyers and sellers consummating transactions at a central location, to be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, it must be listed there. Trade on an exchange is restricted to brokers who are members of the exchange, the initial public offering of stocks and bonds to investors is by definition done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. A stock exchange is often the most important component of a stock market and demand in stock markets are driven by various factors that, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks.
There is usually no obligation for stock to be issued via the exchange itself. Such trading may be off exchange or over-the-counter and this is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a securities market. The idea of debt dates back to the ancient world, as evidenced for example by ancient Mesopotamian clay tablets recording interest-bearing loans, there is little consensus among scholars as to when corporate stock was first traded. Some see the key event as the Dutch East India Companys founding in 1602, economist Ulrike Malmendier of the University of California at Berkeley argues that a share market existed as far back as ancient Rome. One such service was the feeding of geese on the Capitoline Hill as a reward to the birds after their honking warned of a Gallic invasion in 390 B. C. Participants in such organizations had partes or shares, a concept mentioned various times by the statesman, in one speech, Cicero mentions shares that had a very high price at the time.
Such evidence, in Malmendiers view, suggests the instruments were tradable, the societas declined into obscurity in the time of the emperors, as most of their services were taken over by direct agents of the state. Tradable bonds as a used type of security were a more recent innovation, spearheaded by the Italian city-states of the late medieval. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market, the Dutch East India Company became the first company to offer shares of stock. Control of the company was held tightly by its directors, with shareholders not having much influence on management or even access to the companys accounting statements. However, shareholders were rewarded well for their investment, the company paid an average dividend of over 16 percent per year from 1602 to 1650. Financial innovation in Amsterdam took many forms, by the 1620s, the company was expanding its securities issuance with the first use of corporate bonds
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was developed to commemorated the 300 years jubilee of the House of Oldenburg ascending to the Danish throne, a. G. Moltke was in charge of the project and Nicolai Eigtved was the main architect. The district is characterized by broad streets in a straight-angled street layout. The streets are lined by houses and palaces. Another important building in the district is the royal Frederiks Hospital which was Denmarks first hospital in the meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design, amalienborg Frederiks Church The Odd Fellow Mansion Moltkes Mansion Royal Danish Playhouse