The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
Battle of Berlin
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major offensives of the European theatre of World War II. Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz; the first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici. When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin.
On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army took the entire city. Before the battle was over and several of his followers killed themselves; the city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets. Starting on 12 January 1945, the Red Army began the Vistula–Oder Offensive across the Narew River. On the fourth day, the Red Army broke out and started moving west, up to 30 to 40 km per day, taking East Prussia and Poznań, drawing up on a line 60 km east of Berlin along the Oder River; the newly created Army Group Vistula, under the command of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, attempted a counter-attack, but this had failed by 24 February.
The Red Army drove on to Pomerania, clearing the right bank of the Oder River, thereby reaching into Silesia. In the south the Siege of Budapest raged. Three German divisions' attempts to relieve the encircled Hungarian capital city failed, Budapest fell to the Soviets on 13 February. Adolf Hitler insisted on a counter-attack to recapture the Drau-Danube triangle; the goal was to secure the oil region of Nagykanizsa and regain the Danube River for future operations, but the depleted German forces had been given an impossible task. By 16 March, the German Lake Balaton Offensive had failed, a counter-attack by the Red Army took back in 24 hours everything the Germans had taken ten days to gain. On 30 March, the Soviets entered Austria. Between June and September 1944, the Wehrmacht had lost more than a million men, it lacked the fuel and armaments needed to operate effectively. On 12 April 1945, who had earlier decided to remain in the city against the wishes of his advisers, heard the news that the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had died.
This raised false hopes in the Führerbunker that there might yet be a falling out among the Allies and that Berlin would be saved at the last moment, as had happened once before when Berlin was threatened. No plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation; the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force, General Eisenhower lost interest in the race to Berlin and saw no further need to suffer casualties by attacking a city that would be in the Soviet sphere of influence after the war, envisioning excessive friendly fire if both armies attempted to occupy the city at once. The major Western Allied contribution to the battle was the bombing of Berlin during 1945. During 1945 the United States Army Air Forces launched large daytime raids on Berlin and for 36 nights in succession, scores of RAF Mosquitos bombed the German capital, ending on the night of 20/21 April 1945 just before the Soviets entered the city; the Soviet offensive into central Germany, what became East Germany, had two objectives.
Stalin did not believe the Western Allies would hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet zone, so he began the offensive on a broad front and moved to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible. But the overriding objective was to capture Berlin; the two goals were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won unless Berlin were taken. Another consideration was that Berlin itself held useful post-war strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and the German atomic bomb programme. On 6 March, Hitler appointed Lieutenant General Helmuth Reymann commander of the Berlin Defence Area, replacing Lieutenant General Bruno Ritter von Hauenschild. On 20 March, General Gotthard Heinrici was appointed Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula replacing Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. Heinrici was one of the best defensive tacticians in the German army, he started to lay defensive plans. Heinrici assessed that the main Soviet thrust would be made over the Oder River and along the main east-west Autobahn.
He decided not to try to defend the banks of the Oder with anything more than a light skirmishing screen. Instead, Heinrici arranged for engineers
Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station
Berlin Zoologischer Garten Station is a railway station in Berlin, Germany. It is located on the Berlin Stadtbahn railway line in the Charlottenburg district, adjacent to the Berlin Zoo. During the division of the city, the station was the central transport facility of West Berlin, thereafter for the western central area of reunified Berlin until the opening of Berlin Hauptbahnhof in 2006, it is an interchange with the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, which uses the Stadtbahn viaduct along with RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn trains. The station building overlooks the Hardenbergplatz square, named after Prussian prime minister Karl August von Hardenberg, Berlin's largest city bus terminal and night bus service centre, it is used by long-distance buses/coaches, however the "ZOB", Berlin's central intercity bus terminal, is located on Messedamm in Westend, not far from the Funkturm. Zoologischer Garten is a Berlin U-Bahn station and S-Bahn station located at the Berlin Zoologischer Garten terminal, serving the U-Bahn lines U 2 and U 9, as well as by the S-Bahn lines S 3, S 5, S 7, S 9.
The original station, served by Berlin Stadtbahn commuter trains, opened on 7 February 1882. On 11 March 1902, today the U2, was opened under ground. With a view to the 1936 Summer Olympics, the station was rebuilt and expanded between 1934 and 1940. On the night of 23 and 24 November 1943, the track area was directly hit by bombs, further damage accumulated during the Battle of Berlin. After the final closure of the Anhalter Bahnhof in 1952, Bahnhof Zoo remained the only long-distance railway station operated by the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany within West Berlin. On 28 August 1961, two weeks after the erection of the Berlin Wall, the new U-Bahn Line 9 was opened below the U2, connecting the station with the transport network in the north-south direction; the fact that, with only two platforms and four tracks for long-distance trains, the station was still the most important in West Berlin, was another unnatural phenomenon of the divided city. After reunification, despite the outcry from nearby Kurfürstendamm retailers and local politicians, the station lost its importance following the launching of the new Berlin Hauptbahnhof on 28 May 2006, because long-distance services began passing through the station without stopping.
An exception was the famous Sibirjak, which departed from Bahnhof Zoo for the Novosibirsk Trans-Siberian railway station until 2013. The station is served by the following services: Regional services IRE 1 Hamburg – Uelzen – Stendal – Berlin Regional services RE 1 Magdeburg – Brandenburg – Potsdam – Berlin – Fürstenwalde – Frankfurt Regional services RE 2 Wismar – Schwerin – Wittenberge – Nauen – Berlin – Königs Wusterhausen – Lübben – Cottbus Regional services RE 7 Dessau – Bad Belzig – Michendorf – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Wünsdorf-Waldstadt Local services RB 14 Nauen – Falkensee – Berlin – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport Local services RB 21 Wustermark – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Local services RB 22 Königs Wusterhausen – Berlin-Schönefeld Airport – Saarmund – Golm – Potsdam – Berlin Berlin S-Bahn services S 3 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof – Alexanderplatz – Ostbahnhof – Karlshorst – Köpenick – Erkner Berlin S-Bahn services S 5 Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Lichtenberg - Strausberg Nord Berlin S-Bahn services S 7 Potsdam - Wannsee - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Lichtenberg - Ahrensfelde Berlin S-Bahn services S 9 Spandau - Westkreuz - Hauptbahnhof - Alexanderplatz - Ostbahnhof - Schöneweide - Flughafen Schönefeld The station is well known as the setting of the 1978 book Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo, written by the Stern journalists Kai Hermann and Horst Rieck according to the interviews with Christiane Felscherinow.
It became a bestseller in Germany, dramatising the period in the late 1970s when the rear of the station facing Jebensstraße was a meeting point for rent-boys, teen runaways, drug addicts. The film Christiane F. – We Children from Bahnhof Zoo directed by Uli Edel was released in 1981. The 1991 U2 song "Zoo Station" was inspired by the station, written while the band was recording Achtung Baby at the Hansa Tonstudio in Berlin, which in turn inspired their Zoo TV Tour and the album Zooropa. Although the U-Bahn line U2 today passes through the station, it was numbered U1 at the time; the song "Auf'm Bahnhof Zoo" by Nina Hagen released on the 1978 album Nina Hagen Band refers to the station. The song "Zootime" by Mystery Jets ends with the line Wir sind die Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo. "Bahnhof Zoo" is a track on the 2005 album Randy the Band by the Swedish band Randy. The song "Big in Japan" by Alphaville refers to the Zoo station in the line "Should I stay here at the Zoo"; the song "Bahnhof Zoo" by port-royal takes its name from the station.
The song "Slept" by The Sisters of Mercy was inspired by this station. The book "Zoo Station: Adventures in East and West Berlin" by Ian Walker was published in 1987 by the Atlantic Monthly Press, it recounts the author's experiences in 1980s Berlin, his encounters with the young people on both sides of the wall, their separation and occasional commingling. The book "Zoo Station" by David Downing published by Soho Press in 2007, it is the first in a series of World War II spy thrillers set in Berlin. Zoo Bahnhof was one of the murder scenes in The Pale Criminal, a historical detective novel by Philip Kerr. Media related to Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station at Wikimedia Commons
Unknown (2011 film)
Unknown is a 2011 action thriller film directed by Jaume Collet-Serra and starring Liam Neeson, Diane Kruger, January Jones, Aidan Quinn, Bruno Ganz, Frank Langella. The film is based on the 2003 French novel published in English as Out of My Head, by Didier Van Cauwelaert. Released in the United States on February 18, 2011, the film received mixed reviews from critics and grossed $136 million against its $30 million budget. Dr. Martin Harris and his wife Liz arrive in Berlin for a biotechnology summit. At their hotel, as Liz goes to check in, Harris realizes he left his briefcase at the airport and takes a taxi to retrieve it; the taxi is involved in crashes into the Spree, knocking him unconscious. The driver flees the scene. Harris learns he has been in a coma for four days. Desperate to find his wife, who he realizes doesn't know what happened to him, Harris returns to the hotel. There he discovers Liz with another man who she says is her husband and declares she does not know Harris; the police are called and he attempts to call a colleague, to no avail.
Stating he wants to go back to the hospital, he finds himself being followed. While on a train, he loses the man following him and writes down his schedule for the next day from memory. Harris is able to track Gina, the taxi driver who saved him, but she is an illegal immigrant and is afraid to help him, he goes to visit the office of Prof. Leo Bressler, whom he is scheduled to meet, only to find "Dr. Harris" is there; as Harris attempts to prove his identity, "Harris" provides identification and a family photo, both of which have his face. Overwhelmed by the identity crisis, Harris awakens back at the hospital. Smith, an apparent assassin sent to target Harris, kills Gretchen Erfurt, Harris's attending nurse, but Harris escapes. Harris seeks help from private investigator and former Stasi agent Ernst Jürgen. Harris's only clues are his father's book on botany and Gina, the taxi driver, a Bosnian illegal, working at a diner since the crash. While Harris persuades her to help him, Jürgen researches Harris and the biotechnology summit, discovering it is to be attended by Prince Shada of Saudi Arabia.
The prince is funding a secret project headed by Bressler, has survived numerous assassination attempts. Jürgen suspects. Harris and Gina are attacked in another assassin, Jones. In his book, Harris finds that Liz has written a series of numbers that correspond to words found on specific pages. Using his schedule, Harris confronts Liz alone. Meanwhile, Jürgen receives Cole at his office and reveals his findings about a secret assassination group known as Section 15. Jürgen soon deduces that Cole is a former member of the group. After retrieving his briefcase, Harris parts ways with Gina; when she sees him kidnapped by Cole and Jones, she follows them. When Harris awakes, Cole explains that "Martin Harris" is just a cover name created by Harris and Liz was his professional teammate, his head injury caused him to believe. He continues to explain. Gina drives up in time to save Harris, running over Jones before he can kill Harris rams the van Cole is in over a railing, killing him as well. During the commotion, Harris finds a hidden compartment in his briefcase containing two Canadian passports, remembering that he and Liz were in Berlin three months prior to plant a bomb in Prince Shada's suite.
Now aware of his own role in the assassination plot, Martin seeks to redeem himself by thwarting it. Hotel security hold Martin and Gina, but Martin proves his earlier visit to the hotel. After being convinced of the bomb's presence, security evacuates the hotel. Harris realizes that Prince Shada is not Section 15's target, but rather Bressler, who has developed a genetically modified breed of corn capable of surviving harsh climates. Knowing with Bressler's death and the theft of his research, his findings would be worth billions of dollars should they fall into the wrong hands. Liz, who accessed Bressler's laptop and stole the data. Unable to disarm it in time, Liz is blown up. During the evacuation, Harris stops "Harris" from killing Bressler, killing "Harris", the last remaining Section 15 assassin. Gina finds Harris and they escape during the aftermath of the bombing; as the bombing is identified as a failed assassination of the Prince Shada, Bressler announces he is making his corn available to the world for free.
As the announcement is televised and Gina board a train together with new identities. Many German actors were cast for the film. Bock had starred in Inglourious Basterds and The White Ribbon. Other cast includes Adnan Maral as a Turkish taxi driver and Petra Schmidt-Schaller as an immigration officer. Kruger herself is German, despite playing a non-German character. Principal photography took place in early February 2010 in Berlin, in the Studio Babelsberg film studios; the bridge the taxi plunges from is the Oberbaumbrücke. The Friedrichstraße was blocked for several nights for the
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word bāzār; the term bazaar is sometimes used to refer to the "network of merchants and craftsmen" who work in that area. Although the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been accepted into the vernacular in countries around the world. In Balinese, the word pasar means "market." The capital of Bali province, in Indonesia, is Denpasar, which means "north market." Souq is another word used in the Middle East for commercial quarter. Evidence for the existence of bazaars dates to around 3,000 BCE. Although the lack of archaeological evidence has limited detailed studies of the evolution of bazaars, indications suggest that they developed outside city walls where they were associated with servicing the needs of caravanserai; as towns and cities became more populous, these bazaars moved into the city center and developed in a linear pattern along streets stretching from one city gate to another gate on the opposite side of the city.
Over time, these bazaars formed a network of trading centres which allowed for the exchange of produce and information. The rise of large bazaars and stock trading centres in the Muslim world allowed the creation of new capitals and new empires. New and wealthy cities such as Isfahan, Samarkand, Cairo and Timbuktu were founded along trade routes and bazaars. Street markets are the North American equivalents. Shopping at a bazaar or market-place remains a central feature of daily life in many Middle-Eastern and South Asian cities and towns and the bazaar remains the "beating heart" of Middle-Eastern city and South Asian life. A number of bazaar districts have been listed as World Heritage sites due to their historical and/or architectural significance. Visiting a bazaar or souq has become a popular tourist pastime; the origin of the word bazaar comes from Persian bāzār. from Middle Persian wāzār, from Old Persian vāčar, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *wahā-čarana. The term, spread from Persia into Arabia and throughout the Middle East.
In North America, the United Kingdom and some other European countries, the term can be used as a synonym for a "rummage sale", to describe charity fundraising events held by churches or other community organisations in which either donated used goods or new and handcrafted goods are sold for low prices, as at a church or other organisation's Christmas bazaar, for example. Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. English place names translate "çarşı" as "bazaar" when they refer to an area with covered streets or passages. For example, the Turkish name for the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is "Kapalıçarşı", while the Spice Bazaar is the "Mısır Çarşısı"; the Arabic term, souk is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries. Bazaars originated in the Middle East in Persia. Pourjafara et al. point to historical records documenting the concept of a bazaar as early as 3000 BC.
By the 4th century, a network of bazaars had sprung up alongside ancient caravan trade routes. Bazaars were situated in close proximity to ruling palaces, citadels or mosques, not only because the city afforded traders some protection, but because palaces and cities generated substantial demand for goods and services. Bazaars located along these trade routes, formed networks, linking major cities with each other and in which goods, culture and information could be exchanged; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described The Babylonian Marriage Market. Prior to the 10th century, bazaars were situated on the perimeter of the city or just outside the city walls. Along the major trade routes, bazaars were associated with the caravanserai. From around the 10th century and market places were integrated within the city limits; the typical bazaar was a covered area where traders could buy and sell with some protection from the elements.
Over the centuries, the buildings that housed bazaars became more elaborate. The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul is cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating, purpose-built market. City bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised. In pre-Islamic Arabia, two types of bazaar existed: permanent urban markets and temporary seasonal markets; the temporary seasonal markets were held at specific times of the year and became associated with particular types of produce. Suq Hijr in Bahrain was noted for its dates while Suq ` Adan was known for its perfumes. In spite of the centrality of the Middle East in the history of bazaars little is known due to the lack of archaeological evidence.
However, documentary sources point to permanent marketplaces in cities from as early as 550 BCE. Nejad has made a detailed study of early bazaars in Iran and identifies two distinct type
Kurfürstendamm (Berlin U-Bahn)
Kurfürstendamm is an underground station, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U 1 and U 9 line and opened on 28 August 1961, when the first section of the U9 between Spichernstraße and Leopoldplatz was inaugurated; as there had been no stop of the U1 where it now crossed the U9, the line received an additional station here. It lies in eastern Charlottenburg on the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Joachimstaler Straße, south of Zoologischer Garten Berlin and the Bahnhof Zoo. At the road junction above the station can be found the Café Kranzler, successor of the Café des Westens, a famous venue for artists and bohémiens of the pre–World War I era, as well as the Swissôtel Berlin; the well-known Kurfürstendamm boulevard is the most important upscale shopping district in Berlin. Next to the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche on Breitscheidplatz, shattered during the air raids in World War II, a modern new church was built
Berlin Potsdamer Platz station
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of