Bulletin board system
A bulletin board system or BBS is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program. Once logged in, the user can perform functions such as uploading and downloading software and data, reading news and bulletins, exchanging messages with other users through public message boards and sometimes via direct chatting. In the middle to late 1980s, message aggregators and bulk store-and-forward'ers sprung up to provide services such as FidoNet, similar to email. Many BBSes offer online games in which users can compete with each other. BBSes with multiple phone lines provide chat rooms, allowing users to interact with each other. Bulletin board systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Web, social networks, other aspects of the Internet. Low-cost, high-performance modems drove the use of online services and BBSes through the early 1990s. Infoworld estimated that there were 60,000 BBSes serving 17 million users in the United States alone in 1994, a collective market much larger than major online services such as CompuServe.
The introduction of inexpensive dial-up internet service and the Mosaic web browser offered ease of use and global access that BBS and online systems did not provide, led to a rapid crash in the market starting in 1994. Over the next year, many of the leading BBS software providers went bankrupt and tens of thousands of BBSes disappeared. Today, BBSing survives as a nostalgic hobby in most parts of the world, but it is still an popular form of communication for Taiwanese youth. Most surviving BBSes are accessible over Telnet and offer free email accounts, FTP services, IRC and all the protocols used on the Internet; some offer access through packet switched networks or packet radio connections. A precursor to the public bulletin board system was Community Memory, started in August 1973 in Berkeley, California. Useful microcomputers did not exist at that time, modems were both expensive and slow. Community Memory therefore ran on a mainframe computer and was accessed through terminals located in several San Francisco Bay Area neighborhoods.
The poor quality of the original modem connecting the terminals to the mainframe prompted a user to invent the Pennywhistle modem, whose design was influential in the mid-1970s. Community Memory allowed the user to type messages into a computer terminal after inserting a coin, offered a "pure" bulletin board experience with public messages only, it did offer the ability to tag messages with keywords. The system acted in the form of a buy and sell system with the tags taking the place of the more traditional classifications, but users found ways to express themselves outside these bounds, the system spontaneously created stories and other forms of communications. The system was expensive to operate, when their host machine became unavailable and a new one could not be found, the system closed in January 1975. Similar functionality was available to most mainframe users, which might be considered a sort of ultra-local BBS when used in this fashion. Commercial systems, expressly intended to offer these features to the public, became available in the late 1970s and formed the online service market that lasted into the 1990s.
One influential example was PLATO, which had thousands of users by the late 1970s, many of whom used the messaging and chat room features of the system in the same way that would become common on BBSes. Early modems were very simple devices using acoustic couplers to handle telephone operation; the user would first pick up the phone, dial a number press the handset into rubber cups on the top of the modem. Disconnecting at the end of a call required the user to pick up the handset and return it to the phone. Examples of direct-connecting modems did exist, these allowed the host computer to send it commands to answer or hang up calls, but these were expensive devices used by large banks and similar companies. With the introduction of microcomputers with expansion slots, like the S-100 bus machines and Apple II, it became possible for the modem to communicate instructions and data on separate lines. A number of modems of this sort were available by the late 1970s; this made the BBS possible for the first time, as it allowed software on the computer to pick up an incoming call, communicate with the user, hang up the call when the user logged off.
The first public dial-up BBS was developed by Randy Suess. According to an early interview, when Chicago was snowed under during the Great Blizzard of 1978, the two began preliminary work on the Computerized Bulletin Board System, or CBBS; the system came into existence through a fortuitous combination of Christensen having a spare S-100 bus computer and an early Hayes internal modem, Suess's insistence that the machine be placed at his house in Chicago where it would be a local phone call to millions of users. Christensen patterned the system after the cork board his local computer club used to post information like "need a ride". CBBS went online on 16 February 1978. CBBS, which kept a count of callers connected 253,301 callers before it was retired. A key innovation required for the popularization of the BBS was the Smartmodem manufactured by Hayes Microcomputer Products. Internal modems like the ones used by CBBS and similar early systems were usable, but expensive due to the manufacturer having to make a different modem for every computer platform they wanted to target.
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The chili pepper, from Nahuatl chīlli, is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum which are members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Chili peppers are used in many cuisines as a spice to add heat to dishes; the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Cultivars grown in North America and Europe are believed to all derive from Capsicum annuum, have white, red or purple to black fruits. In 2016, world production of raw green chili peppers was 34.5 million tonnes, with China producing half of the world total. Capsicum fruits have been a part of human diets since about 7,500 BC, are one of the oldest cultivated crops in the Americas, as origins of cultivating chili peppers are traced to northeastern Mexico some 6,000 years ago.
They were one of the first self-pollinating crops cultivated in Mexico, Central America, parts of South America. Peru is considered the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity because it is a center of diversification where varieties of all five domesticates were introduced and consumed in pre-Columbian times. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers is consumed. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C. eshbaughii, C. caballeroi landraces. Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them, called them "peppers" because they, like black pepper of the genus Piper known in Europe, have a spicy, hot taste unlike other foodstuffs. Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus' second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. Upon their introduction into Europe, chilies were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries.
Christian monks experimented with the culinary potential of chili and discovered that their pungency offered a substitute for black peppercorns. Paprika is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper. Originating in central Mexico, paprika was brought to Spain in the 16th century; the trade in paprika expanded from the Iberian Peninsula to Africa and Asia, reached Central Europe through the Balkans under Ottoman rule, which explains the Hungarian origin of the English term. The spread of chili peppers to Asia was most a natural consequence of its introduction to Portuguese traders, it was introduced in India by the Portuguese towards the end of 15th century. Today chilies are an integral part of Indian, East Asian, Southeast Asian cuisines; the chili pepper features in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, the site of a Portuguese colony. Worldwide in 2016, 34.5 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.9 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced.
China was the world's largest producer of green chilis, providing half of the global total. Global production of dried chili peppers was about one ninth of fresh production, led by India with 36% of the world total. There are five domesticated species of chili peppers. Capsicum annuum includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, cayenne, jalapeños, all forms of New Mexico chile. Capsicum frutescens includes malagueta and Thai peppers, piri piri, Malawian Kambuzi. Capsicum chinense includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero and Scotch bonnet. Capsicum pubescens includes the South American rocoto peppers. Capsicum baccatum includes the South American aji peppers. Though there are only a few used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chili peppers that have different names for culinary use. Green and red bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum, immature peppers being green. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano, New Mexico and other cultivars.
Peppers are broken down into three groupings: bell peppers, sweet peppers, hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them; the substances that give chili peppers their pungency when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. The quantity of capsaicin varies by variety, on growing conditions. Water stressed peppers produce stronger pods; when a habanero plant is stressed, by absorbing low water for example, the concentration of capsaicin increases in some parts of the fruit. When peppers are consumed by mammals such as humans, capsaicin binds with pain receptors in the mouth and throat evoking pain via spinal relays to the brainstem and thalamus where heat and discomfort are perceived; the intensity of the "heat" of chili peppers is reported in Scoville heat units. It was a measure of the dilution of an amount of chili extract added to sugar syrup before
The habanero is a hot variety of chili pepper. Unripe habaneros are green, they color as they mature; the most common color variants are orange and red, but the fruit may be white, yellow, green, or purple. A ripe habanero is 2–6 cm long. Habanero chilis are hot, rated 100,000–350,000 on the Scoville scale; the habanero's heat and floral aroma make it a popular ingredient in hot sauces and other spicy foods. The name indicates someone from La Habana. In English, it is sometimes incorrectly spelled habañero and pronounced, the tilde being added as a hyperforeignism patterned after jalapeño; the habanero chili comes from the Amazon, reaching Mexico. A specimen of a domesticated habanero plant, dated at 8,500 years old, was found at an archaeological site in Peru. An intact fruit of a small domesticated habanero, found in pre-ceramic levels in Guitarrero Cave in the Peruvian highlands, was dated to 6500 BC; the habanero chili was disseminated by Spanish colonists to other areas of the world, to the point that 18th-century taxonomists mistook China for its place of origin and called it Capsicum chinense.
Today, the largest producer is the Yucatán Peninsula, in Mexico. Habaneros are an integral part of Yucatecan food, accompanying most dishes, either in natural form or purée or salsa. Other modern producers include Belize, Costa Rica, Colombia and parts of the United States, including Texas and California; the Scotch bonnet is compared to the habanero, since they are two varieties of the same species, but they have different pod types. Both the Scotch bonnet and the habanero have waxy flesh, they have flavor. Both varieties average around the same level of pungency, but the actual degree varies from one fruit to another according to genetics, growing methods and plant stress. In 1999, the habanero was listed by Guinness World Records as the world's hottest chili, but it has since been displaced by other peppers; the Bhut jolokia and Trinidad moruga scorpion have since been identified as native Capsicum chinense subspecies hotter than the habanero. Breeders crossbreed subspecies to attempt to create cultivars that will break the record on the Scoville scale.
One example is the Carolina Reaper, a cross between a Bhut jolokia pepper with a pungent red habanero. Habaneros thrive in hot weather. Like all peppers, the habanero does well in an area with good morning sun and in soil with a pH level around 5 to 6. Habaneros which are watered daily produce more vegetative growth but the same number of fruit, with lower concentrations of capsaicin, as compared to plants which are watered only when dry. Overly moist soil and roots will produce bitter-tasting peppers. Daily watering during flowering and early setting of fruit helps prevent flower and immature fruit from dropping, but flower dropping rates are reported to reach 90% in ideal conditions; the habanero is a perennial flowering plant, meaning that with proper care and growing conditions, it can produce flowers for many years. Habanero bushes are good candidates for a container garden. In temperate climates, though, it is treated as an annual, dying each winter and being replaced the next spring. In tropical and subtropical regions, the habanero, like other chiles, will produce year round.
As long as conditions are favorable, the plant will set fruit continuously. Several growers have attempted to selectively breed habanero plants to produce hotter and larger peppers. Most habaneros rate between 300,000 on the Scoville scale. In 2004, researchers in Texas created a mild version of the habanero, but retained the traditional aroma and flavor; the milder version was obtained by crossing the Yucatán habanero pepper with a heatless habanero from Bolivia over several generations. Breeder Michael Mazourek used a mutation discovered by the Chile Pepper Institute to create a heatless version labeled the'Habanada' bred in 2007 and released in 2014. Black habanero is an alternative name used to describe the dark brown variety of habanero chilis; some seeds have been found. The black habanero has an exotic and unusual taste, is hotter than a regular habanero with a rating between 400,000 and 450,000 Scoville units. Small slivers used in cooking can have a dramatic effect on the overall dish.
Black habaneros take longer to grow than other habanero chili varieties. In a dried form, they can be preserved for long periods of time, can be reconstituted in water added to sauce mixes. Known as habanero negro, or by their Nahuatl name, their name was translated into English by spice traders in the 19th century as "black habanero"; the word "chocolate" was derived from the Nahuatl word, xocolātl, was used in the description, as well, but it proved to be unpronounceable to the British traders, so it was named "black habanero". A'Caribbean Red,' a cultivar within the habanero family, has a citrusy and smoky flavor, with a Scoville rating ranging from 300,000 to 445,000 Scoville units. Capsicum Jalapeño Scotch bonnet Clarke, Dale C.. Aji Chombo peppers. Photographic account of chilies grown in Fairfax, from seeds imported from Panama
Nero was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He became Claudius' heir and successor. Like Claudius, Nero became emperor with the consent of the Praetorian Guard. Nero's mother, Agrippina the Younger, was implicated in Claudius' death and Nero's nomination as emperor, she dominated Nero's early life and decisions. Five years into his reign, he had her murdered. During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca and his Praetorian prefect, Sextus Afranius Burrus; as time passed, he started to play a more active and independent role in government and foreign policy. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire, his general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a major revolt in Britain, led by the Iceni Queen Boudica. The Bosporan Kingdom was annexed to the empire, the First Jewish–Roman War began. Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy and the cultural life of the empire, ordering theatres built and promoting athletic games.
He made public appearances as an actor, poet and charioteer. In the eyes of traditionalists, this undermined the dignity and authority of his person and office, his extravagant, empire-wide program of public and private works was funded by a rise in taxes, much resented by the middle and upper classes. Various plots against his life were revealed. In 68 AD Vindex, governor of the Gaulish territory Gallia Lugdunensis, rebelled, he was supported by the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Vindex's revolt failed in its immediate aim, but Nero fled Rome when Rome's discontented civil and military authorities chose Galba as emperor, he committed suicide on June 9, 68 AD, when he learned that he had been tried in absentia and condemned to death as a public enemy, making him the first Roman Emperor to commit suicide. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is associated with tyranny and extravagance. Most Roman sources, such as Suetonius and Cassius Dio, offer overwhelmingly negative assessments of his personality and reign.
Suetonius tells that many Romans believed that the Great Fire of Rome was instigated by Nero to clear the way for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. According to Tacitus he was said to have seized Christians as scapegoats for the fire and burned them alive motivated not by public justice but by personal cruelty; some modern historians question the reliability of the ancient sources on Nero's tyrannical acts. A few sources paint Nero in a more favorable light. There is evidence of his popularity among the Roman commoners in the eastern provinces of the Empire, where a popular legend arose that Nero had not died and would return. At least three leaders of short-lived, failed rebellions presented themselves as "Nero reborn" to enlist popular support. Nero was born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December 37 AD in Antium, he was the only son of Agrippina the Younger. His maternal grandparents were Agrippina the Elder, he was Augustus' great-great grandson, descended from the first Emperor's only daughter, Julia.
The ancient biographer Suetonius, critical of Nero's ancestors, wrote that Augustus had reproached Nero's grandfather for his unseemly enjoyment of violent gladiator games. According to Jürgen Malitz, Suetonius tells that Nero's father was known to be "irascible and brutal", that both "enjoyed chariot races and theater performances to a degree not befitting their position."Nero's father, died in 40. A few years before his death, Domitius had been involved in a political scandal that, according to Malitz, "could have cost him his life if Tiberius had not died in the year 37." In the previous year, Nero's mother Agrippina had been caught up in a scandal of her own. Caligula's beloved sister Drusilla had died and Caligula began to feel threatened by his brother-in-law Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Agrippina, suspected of adultery with her brother-in-law, was forced to carry the funerary urn after Lepidus' execution. Caligula banished his two surviving sisters and Julia Livilla, to a remote island in the Mediterranean Sea.
According to The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Agrippina was exiled for plotting to overthrow Caligula. Nero's inheritance was taken from him and he was sent to live with his paternal aunt Domitia Lepida, the mother of Claudius' third wife Valeria Messalina. Caligula's reign lasted from 37 until 41, he died from multiple stab wounds in January of 41 after being ambushed by his own Praetorian Guard on the Palatine Hill. Claudius succeeded Caligula as Emperor. Agrippina became his fourth wife. By February 49, she had persuaded Claudius to adopt her son Nero. After Nero's adoption, "Claudius" became part of his name: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Claudius had gold coins issued to mark the adoption. Classics professor Josiah Osgood has written that "the coins, through their distribution and imagery alike, showed that a new Leader was in the making." David Shotter noted that, despite events in Rome, Nero's step-brother Britannicus was more prominent in provincial coinages during the early 50s.
Nero formally entered public life as an adult in 51 AD—he was around 14 years old. When he turned 16, Nero married Claudius' daughter (
Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes. The cells of the root tubers of the potato plant contain starch grains. To extract the starch, the potatoes are crushed; the starch is washed out and dried to powder. Potato starch contains typical large oval spherical granules ranging in size between 100 μm. Potato starch is a refined starch, containing minimal protein or fat; this gives the powder a clear white colour, the cooked starch typical characteristics of neutral taste, good clarity, high binding strength, long texture and a minimal tendency to foaming or yellowing of the solution. Potato starch contains 800 ppm phosphate bound to the starch; these typical properties are used in food and technical applications. Starch derivatives are used in many recipes, for example in noodles, wine gums, cocktail nuts, potato chips, hot dog sausages, bakery cream and instant soups and sauces, in gluten-free recipes, in kosher foods for Passover and in Asian cuisine. In pastry, e.g. sponge cake, it is used to give a soft texture.
It is occasionally used in the preparation of pre-packed grated cheese, to reduce sweating and binding. Other examples are helmipuuro, a porridge made from monodisperse grains of potato starch and milk, papeda, it is used in non-food applications as wallpaper adhesive, for textile finishing and textile sizing, in paper coating and sizing, as an adhesive in paper sacks and gummed tape. Potato starch was used in one of the earlier color photography processes, the Lumière brothers' Autochrome Lumière, until the arrival of other colour film processes in the mid-1930s. Many types of potatoes are grown. A new type of potato plant was developed that only contains one type of starch molecule: amylopectin, the waxy potato starch. Waxy starches, after starch gelatinisation, retrograde less during storage; the cultivation of potatoes for starch takes place in Germany, the Netherlands, Japan, France and Poland, but in Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, Ukraine and India. Some potato starch is produced as a byproduct from the potato processing industry, recovered from the potato cutting circuit during the production of French fries and potato chips.
Examined under a microscope using a mixture of equal volumes of glycerol and distilled water, potato starch presents transparent, colorless granules, either irregularly shaped, ovoid or pear-shaped 30 μm to 100 μm in size but exceeding 100 μm, or rounded, 10 μm to 35 μm in size. Starch granules exhibit characteristic dark crosses in polarized light. If potato starch is wetted it becomes sticky. Corn starch Katakuri Potato starch production Potato flour Memorandum on potato starch, International Starch Institute Potato starch gelatinization film, Youtube