Kennebec Boat and Canoe Company
The Kennebec Boat and Canoe Company was located in Waterville, Maine. Established in 1909 by George F. Terry, the company manufactured wooden canoes and boats until 1941; the Kennebec Boat and canoe Company was founded by former railroad station agent, ice cutter and merchandiser George F. Terry. Walter D. Grant supervised the building of canoes for Terry, who had no personal experience building canoes. Grant had worked for the B. N. Morris Canoe Company of Veazie, Maine. Grant's brother worked for the E. M. White Canoe Company and his sister was married to White. In 1930, Grant left Kennebec to found the Skowhegan Boat and Canoe Company whose canoes resemble those of Kennebec. Walter Grant's prior connection to Morris suggests a reason for similarities between the canoes of Kennebec and B. N. Morris; the Morris is known for having stems made of cedar, rather than hardwood. The cedar stem widens to three inches at its end and is diagnostic of the canoes built by B. N. Morris; some Kennebec canoes share this feature as well, yet their profiles are that of the majority of Kennebec canoes, which have a narrow, hardwood stem.
Terry hired men who had learned the trade from Morris, as well as those who had worked elsewhere, gave the men free rein when it came to building canoes as it was not his field of expertise. Terry’s son, George F. Terry, Jr. joined the company and ran it until 1939. In 1939, the company was sold to Frank Terry and James Dean, who built a small number of canoes before closing in 1941. Kennebec canoes are known for their heart shaped decks and short rail caps, a trim used on their open gunwale canoes. Serial numbers consist of four to six digits followed by the length of the canoe, are stamped on the upper face of the stem on the floor of the canoe or on a brass builder's plate. Records linking a serial number to original build-information may be accessed through the Wooden Canoe Heritage Association. Aristocrat 1918 Camp Chief 1932–1941 Camp Special 1918 Charles River 1915 1910–1916 Invisible Sponson 1929–1941 Junior 1922–1928 Katahdin 1922–1928, 1940–1941 K Special 1915–1917 Kennebec 1910–1941 Kineo 1910–1941 Maine Guides Model 1910–1941 Open Gunwale Canoe 1911–1918 Sponson Canoe 1911–1928 Torpedo 1917–1927 War Canoe 1915–1933 White Water Canoe 1940–1941
Veazie is a town in Penobscot County, United States. The population was 1,919 at the 2010 census; the town is named after an early lumber baron and railroad operator. Veazie was part of Bangor, using Penobscot River water power to operate sawmills, it became a separate town in 1853 because Gen. Veazie, its wealthiest citizen, thought Bangor's property taxes were too high. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.22 square miles, of which, 3.03 square miles of it is land and 0.19 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,919 people, 828 households, 498 families residing in the town; the population density was 633.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 884 housing units at an average density of 291.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.0% White, 0.7% African American, 1.4% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 828 households of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.9% were non-families.
30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the town was 43.4 years. 20.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,744 people, 722 households, 495 families residing in the town; the population density was 596.9 people per square mile. There were 767 housing units at an average density of 262.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.90% White, 0.11% African American, 0.86% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population. There were 722 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.85. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $44,519, the median income for a family was $54,583. Males had a median income of $38,456 versus $29,432 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,723. About 5.1% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or older. Veazie Community School teaches children from Kindergarten through Eighth grade.. In 1896, the town opened its own High School. Following its closure in 1901, students from Veazie attend neighboring High Schools in Bangor or Orono; the Town Manager of Veazie is Mark Leonard, who serves as Chief of the Veazie Police Department.
Veazie is part of the 5th district of the Maine Senate, represented by Democrat Jim Dill. The town's representative in the Maine House is Republican Peter Lyford, who serves the State's 129th district. Town of Veazie official website
E.M. White Canoe Company
The E. M. White Canoe Company was founded by Edwin White, who produced wood and canvas canoes from 1889 into the 1940s. White is considered one of the pioneers of wood and canvas canoe building and one of several prominent canoe builders in Maine; the company's construction methods evolved from the manufacture of birchbark canoes. The transition occurred in the 19th century when canoe builders in the Eastern United States and Ontario, laid canvas instead of bark into a traditional building bed. Builders in Maine adapted English boat-building inverted-forms technology, whereby an external waterproofed canvas shell was fastened to a wooden hull formed with white cedar planks and ribs; the earliest commercial builder of wood-and-canvas canoe may have been Evan H. Gerrish of Bangor, Maine, a hunting and fishing guide from Brownville, Maine. Upriver at Gilman Falls, E. M. White started producing canoes in 1889. White gave an interview in 1901 in the Old Town Enterprise, saying: "I saw a man by the name of Evan Gerrish of Bangor riding in the Penobscot River in a canvas-covered canoe.
I saw the advantages of that kind over my birchbark, which moreover leaked. I examined the canvas canoe and in a short time was able to produce one, so good someone wanted to buy it."White started building canoes at his Gilman Falls family home by boiling wooden ribs in his mother's washtub and using a horse on a treadmill for power. In 1895, White's brother George and Alfred E. Wickett were working for him. Wickett would go on to help start the Indian Old Town Canoe Company, founded the Penobscot Canoe Company and St. Louis Meramec Canoe Company. White's brother-in-law, E. L. Hinckley, became a working partner and provided the capital to open a large shop in Old Town, Maine in 1896, the town where Old Town Canoe would be established in the early twentieth century. After World War Two, Walter King, one of White’s employees, his brother-in-law Pat Farnsworth purchased the company and changed the name to White Canoe Company and began to build fiberglass canoes; the company was purchased by The Old Town Canoe Company in 1984.
White employed a variety of deck styles, from a simple triangular shape to an inverted heart. Planking is bevel-edged; the stern seat on earlier Whites is steam-bent in a "D" shape. The tips of the inwales and outwales extend an inch or so beyond the top of the stem. Miller and Benson Gray, The Historic Wood Canoe and Boat Manufacturer Catalog Collection, on CD-ROM
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle. In British English, the term "canoe" can refer to a kayak, while canoes are called Canadian canoes to distinguish them from kayaks. Canoes are used for competition and pleasure, such as racing, whitewater and camping, general recreation. Canoeing has been part of the Olympics since 1936; the intended use of the canoe dictates its hull length and construction material. Canoes were dugouts or made of bark on a wood frame, but construction materials evolved to canvas on a wood frame to aluminum. Most modern canoes are made of molded plastic or composites such as fiberglass. Canoes were developed by cultures all over the world, including some designed for use with sails or outriggers; until the mid-1800s the canoe was an important means of transport for exploration and trade, in some places it still is used as such with the addition of an outboard motor.
Where the canoe played a key role in history, such as the northern United States and New Zealand, it remains an important theme in popular culture. The word canoe comes via the Spanish canoa. Constructed between 8200 and 7600 BC, found in the Netherlands, the Pesse canoe may be the oldest known canoe. Excavations in Denmark reveal the use of paddles during the Ertebølle period. Australian Aboriginal people made canoes using a variety of materials, including bark and hollowed out tree trunks; the indigenous people of the Amazon used Hymenaea trees. The Pacific Northwest canoes are a dugouts made of red cedar. Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built bark canoes, they were skinned with birch bark over a light wooden frame, but other types could be used if birch was scarce. At a typical length of 4.3 m and weight of 23 kg, the canoes were light enough to be portaged, yet could carry a lot of cargo in shallow water. Although susceptible to damage from rocks, they are repaired, their performance qualities were soon recognized by early European immigrants, canoes played a key role in the exploration of North America, with Samuel de Champlain canoeing as far as the Georgian Bay in 1615.
René de Bréhant de Galinée a French missionary who explored the Great Lakes in 1669 declared: "The convenience of these canoes is great in these waters, full of cataracts or waterfalls, rapids through which it is impossible to take any boat. When you reach them you load canoe and baggage upon your shoulders and go overland until the navigation is good. American painter and traveler George Catlin wrote that the bark canoe was "the most beautiful and light model of all the water crafts that were invented." Native American groups of the north Pacific coast made dugout canoes in a number of styles for different purposes, from western red-cedar or yellow-cedar, depending on availability. Different styles were required for ocean-going vessels versus river boats, for whale-hunting versus seal-hunting versus salmon-fishing; the Quinault of Washington State built shovel-nose canoes, with double bows, for river travel that could slide over a logjam without portaging. The Kootenai of British Columbia province made sturgeon-nosed canoes from pine bark, designed to be stable in windy conditions on Kootenay Lake.
The first explorer to cross the North American continent, Alexander Mackenzie, used canoes extensively, as did David Thompson and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In the North American fur trade the Hudson's Bay Company's voyageurs used three types of canoe: The rabaska or canot du maître was designed for the long haul from the St. Lawrence River to western Lake Superior, its dimensions were: length 11 m, beam 1.2 to 1.8 m, height about 76 cm. It could carry 60 packs weighing 41 kg, 910 kg of provisions. With a crew of eight or ten, they could make three knots over calm waters. Four to six men could portage it, bottom up. Henry Schoolcraft declared it "altogether one of the most eligible modes of conveyance that can be employed upon the lakes." Archibald McDonald of the Hudson's Bay Company wrote: "I never heard of such a canoe being wrecked, or upset, or swamped... they swam like ducks." The canot du nord, a craft specially made and adapted for speedy travel, was the workhorse of the fur trade transportation system.
About one-half the size of the Montreal canoe, it could carry about 35 packs weighing 41 kg and was manned by four to eight men. It was portaged in the upright position; the express canoe or canot léger, was about 4.6 m long and were used to carry people and news. The birch bark canoe was used in a 6,500-kilometre supply route from Montreal to the Pacific Ocean and the Mackenzie River, continued to be used up to the end of the 19th century. Popular for hauling freight on inland waterways in 19th Century North America were the York boat and the batteau. In 19th-century North America, the birch-on-frame construction technique evolved into the wood-and-canvas canoes made by fastening an external waterproofed canvas shell to planks and ribs by boat builders Old Town Canoe, E. M. White Canoe, Peterborough Canoe Company and at the Chestnut Canoe Company in New Brunswick. Although canoes were once a means of transport, with industrialization they became popular as recreational or sporting watercraft.
Old Town Canoe
Old Town Canoe Company is a historic maker of canoes in Old Town, Maine. The company had its beginnings in 1898, in buildings constructed in 1890 for a shoe business, was incorporated in 1901. Old Town entered the canoe market as a builder of canvas-covered wooden canoes. In the latter half of the 20th century, the company adopted more modern materials to maintain competitiveness; the company's plant was located along the Penobscot River. Old Town is the best known American canoe manufacturer, it was the leading manufacturer in the world before competitors such as Grumman pressured it by adopting aluminum for manufacture after World War II. It adjusted by moving to using fiberglass and plastic in the 1960s. Old Town produces kayaks; the first canoe built by Old Town Canoe was constructed in 1898 behind the Gray hardware store in Old Town, Maine. Unlike the pioneering canoe businesses established by E. H. Garrish, B. N. Morris, E. M. White, the Grays were not canoe builders themselves, but were entrepreneurs who hired others to design and build their canoes.
As it became more well established at the end of the 19th century, Old Town was incorporated in 1901by brothers George and Samuel Gray, was run as a family business for decades. The origins of canvas canoes can be traced to Maine and early canoe makers such as E. H. Gerrish and C. B. Thatcher of Bangor, B. N. Morris of Veazie and G. E. Carleton and E. M. White of Old Town, Maine. White's brother-in-law, E. L. Hinckley, became his working partner and provided the capital to open a large shop in Old Town, employing several men; the Carleton Canoe Company of Old Town built batteaux and bark canoes in the 1870s and "appears to be the only one of the batteaux and/or bark builders who switched to building canvas canoes and as such was the only one who brought any previous boat building experience to the industry." In addition to White and Carleton, there were several smaller companies building canvas-covered canoes in the town of Old Town when the Old Town Company began its venture. Carleton and White were bought by the Old Town Canoe Company.
In 1905 a court dispute, Old Town Canoe v. William C. Chestnut, was heard over whether enticements to immigrate were given to skilled canoe laborers from Old Town who went to Canada's Chestnut Canoe Company. In 1910, Old Town purchased the Carleton Canoe Company; when the Carleton factory on South Main Street in Old Town burned on May 17, 1911, all of their canoe building was consolidated with Old Town Canoe. Old Town continued to print Carleton catalogs and sell Carleton canoes into the early 1940s, thus creating a dual system of distribution that permitted them to have more of their products in the marketplace. In 1917, Old Town entered the sportfishing market with the introduction of a square-sterned model for the "detachable motor", gaining popularity. By 1923, they became the first distributor of Johnson outboard motors. In 1954 130 workers went on strike in a dispute over wages that topped out at about $1.08 an hour. In the early 1970s the company began using Royalex in an ABS composite plastic.
This competed with aluminum and fibre glass canoe makers who nearly put many of the handcrafted wood and canvas builders out of business. In 1974 the company was sold to S. C. Johnson. In 1984 the company purchased White Canoe, named for its founder E. M. White and founded in 1889. Old Town was acquired by Johnson Outdoors in 2004, it was kept in Maine after a $900,000 interest free block grant were secured. Paddle manufacturing was added to the production facility as part of the parent company's consolidation and streamlining efforts. Old Town was to gain 48 jobs as the parent company cut an estimated 90 in its hometown of Racine, Wisconsin; the company began making kayaks in 1995. In 2000 the company was making more kayaks than canoes; the original plant buildings were abandoned after the company moved out, leaving empty buildings lined with asbestos that were difficult to sell. In the end, city officials decided the cost of rehabilitating the complex was too prohibitive and the decision was made to demolish the buildings.
The city was awarded a $600,000 grant from the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency to help move the project forward. An extensive photographic record will be sent to the Maine Historic Preservation Commission. Demolition began in March 2014. Old Town’s trademark wood and canvas canoes have never gone out of production, although they are no longer built at Old Town Canoe. With the closing of the factory at Old Town, the company contracted with Island Falls Canoe, owned by Jerry Stelmok of Atkinson, to build and maintain its wooden canoes. Most of the individual records for Old Town's canoes and boats built prior to 1976 still exist. Information on serial numbers 210,999 or less has been scanned and can be accessed by providing the number either to Wooden Canoe Heritage Association volunteers online or by contacting the Old Town company. A serial number is located on the upper face of the stem on the floor of the canoe at each end. Build records contain specific information regarding construction of each boat or canoe, including the dates each part of the build-process was accomplished, the date it was shipped and its final destination.
Seven 16-foot Guide Model Old Town canoes were used in production of the film Deliverance. They were serial numbers 183635, 184310, 184314, 184380, 184432, 184434, 184739; the canoe that journalist Eric Sevareid and his friend Walter Port paddled on the 2,250 mile adventure described in Sevareid's book Canoeing with the Cree was an Old Town of unspecified model. In 1935, environmentalist Sigurd F. Olson purchased a number of Old Town Yankee Model canoes for his outfitting and livery business, Border Lakes O
E.H. Gerrish Canoe Company
E. H. Gerrish is credited with being the first person to sell wood-canvas canoes commercially. From 1882-1909, Gerrish built and sold canoes from a shop in Bangor, Maine. Early Gerrish canoes contain elements of the birchbark canoes upon which they were based. If studied from earliest-to-latest, the canoes of E. H. Gerrish appear to show the morphing of the wood-canvas from its roots in the birch bark to the modern open gunwale canoe. Evan Hughes “Eve” Gerrish is credited with being the first person to sell wood-canvas canoes commercially. Born in Brownville, Maine, in 1847, Eve Gerrish was an established hunting and fishing guide when he moved to Bangor in 1875, set up shop manufacturing fishing rods and canoe paddles and began experimenting with wood-canvas canoe construction. Canvas had been used to patch leaks in bark canoes, native people had experimented with the use of canvas in canoe-building as the supply of usable birch bark became depleted with the rise in interest in use of the canoe for sporting activities.
These early canvas-covered canoes were built without metal fastenings and, as with bark canoes, they were built from the outside-in—the reverse of the practice of building over a form or mold. By 1878, Gerrish was producing eighteen canoes a year and by 1882 hired his first employee. In 1884 he was producing over 50 canoes annually; that year, Gerrish exhibited his canoes in New Orleans at the World Cotton Centennial. As the advantages of the canvas covered canoe became evident to a public interested in a replacement for the more difficult to obtain and maintain bark canoe, others entered the canoe-building market and contributed to the advancement of the manufacturing process. E. M. White opened a canoe shop in Old Town, Maine. Gerrish canoes were exhibited at World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893. An economic depression known as the Panic of 1893 may have worked to the advantage of canvas canoe builders such as Gerrish: wooden boat builder J. H. Rushton nearly went bankrupt after investing in the promotion of his boats at this event, while the less expensive and maintained canvas canoe continued to grow in popularity throughout the 1890s.
Gerrish continued to build canoes until retiring in 1909 at the age of 62, selling the company to his foreman, Herbert Walton. Walton moved the company to his hometown of Costigan, where he continued to use the Gerrish name on his canoes but changed the name tag to reflect the new location of Costigan. Production of the canoes declined until the shop closed around 1930. A metal nameplate is affixed to bow deck of some Gerrish canoes, stating E. H. Gerrish/Maker/Bangor ME; this wording is occasionally seen stenciled on the canoe's planking. A Gerrish canoe may or may not have a serial number. No company records are known to exist, there is no way to determine the age of a Gerrish canoe based upon a serial number. Existing examples of Gerrish canoes suggest Eve Gerrish continued to refine his design throughout the years that he produced canoes. Among surviving examples, it is unusual to find any two that are alike, it is Gerrish produced canvas canoes built in the manner of the birch bark, without the use of a form, although no examples are known to survive.
While his system of building canvas canoes evolved to employ European boat building methods, Gerrish incorporated a nod to the Native-built canoe when he used cane to simulate spruce root lashings and carrying devices. This is seen on canoes presumed to be pre-1900; the thwarts of earlier Gerrish canoes are found mortised into the inwales, as with the traditional bark canoe, some might have no seats. Some Gerrish canoes have seats that are mortised into the inwale; some canoes have mortised thwarts and seats that are hung from the inwales rather than mortised into them. The rails of early Gerrish canoes extend beyond the stems and are “lashed” at the ends with cane or bound with leather. Seat frames and reed-weaving are distinctive and seen on early as well as post-1900 Gerrish canoes. Late Gerrish canoes, dating from 1905-1909, may have a more “modern” look, with open gunwales that do not extend beyond the stems. Gerrish open gunwale canoes contain the additional detail of half-round trim laid the full length of the rails at the edge of the inwale and the outwale.
The decks of a Gerrish canoe are found to vary from a primitive heart-shape, to a traditionally-lobed heart, to a simple curve that may or may not be trimmed with coaming. Wood species used on decks and seat frames may be American chestnut; the Wood and Canvas Canoe: Two by Gerrish Miller and Benson Gray, The Historic Wood Canoe and Boat Manufacturer Catalog Collection, on CD-ROM. E. H. Gerrish Facebook page
A canvas is an durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, marquees and other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, shoes. It is popularly used by artists as a painting surface stretched across a wooden frame. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, along with polyvinyl chloride, although it was made from hemp, it differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim, in being plain weave rather than twill weave. Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck; the threads in duck canvas are more woven. The term duck comes from the Dutch word for doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways: by a graded number system; the numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4. The word "canvas" is derived from the Old French canevas. Both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for "made of hemp," originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting.
It was used from the 14th century in Italy, but only rarely. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, its use in Saint George and the Dragon by Paolo Uccello in about 1470, Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus in the 1480s was still unusual for the period. Large paintings for country houses were more to be on canvas, are less to have survived, it was a good deal cheaper than a panel painting, may sometime indicate a painting regarded as less important. In the Uccello, the armour does not use silver leaf. Another common category of paintings on lighter cloth such as linen was in distemper or glue used for banners to be carried in procession; this is a less durable medium, surviving examples such as Dirk Bouts' Entombment, in distemper on linen are rare, rather faded in appearance. Panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe. Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change.
Canvas is stretched across a wooden frame called a stretcher and may be coated with gesso before it is to be used. A traditional and flexible chalk gesso is composed of lead carbonate and linseed oil, applied over a rabbit skin glue ground; as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Various alternative and more flexible canvas primers are commercially available, the most popular being a synthetic latex paint composed of titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate, bound with a thermo-plastic emulsion. Many artists have painted onto unprimed canvas, such as Jackson Pollock, Kenneth Noland, Francis Bacon, Helen Frankenthaler, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Color Field painters, Lyrical Abstractionists and others. Staining acrylic paint into the fabric of cotton duck canvas was more benign and less damaging to the fabric of the canvas than the use of oil paint. In 1970 artist Helen Frankenthaler commented about her use of staining: When I first started doing the stain paintings, I left large areas of canvas unpainted, I think, because the canvas itself acted as forcefully and as positively as paint or line or color.
In other words, the ground was part of the medium, so that instead of thinking of it as background or negative space or an empty spot, that area did not need paint because it had paint next to it. The thing was to decide where to leave it and where to fill it and where to say this doesn't need another line or another pail of colors, its saying it in space. Early canvas was made of a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength. Linen is suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas referred to as "cotton duck," came into use. Linen is composed of higher quality material, remains popular with many professional artists those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more and has an mechanical weave, offers a more economical alternative; the advent of acrylic paint has increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are available.
They are available in a variety of weights: light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz. They are ready for use straight away. Artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso. Professional artists who wish to work on canvas may prepare their own canvas in the traditional manner. One of the most outstanding differences between modern painting techniques and those of the Flemish and Dutch Masters is in the preparation of the canvas. "Modern" techniques take advantage of both the canvas texture as well as those of the paint itself. Renaissance masters took extreme measures to ensure that none of the texture of the canvas came through; this required a painstaking, months-long process of laye