Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Pritzker Military Museum & Library
The Pritzker Military Museum & Library is a museum and a research library for the study of military history in Chicago, Illinois, US. It was founded in 2003 to be a non-partisan institution for the study of "the citizen soldier as an essential element for the preservation of democracy" by Colonel Jennifer Pritzker, who had just retired from the Illinois Army National Guard. Located in the Streeterville neighborhood at 610 N. Fairbanks Court, the library moved to 104 S. Michigan Avenue in the Loop; the Museum & Library is supported by donations and membership. The collection of the Pritzker Military Museum & Library comprises over 100,000 items and includes more than 62,000 books, as well as periodicals, artwork, rare military ephemera, over 9000 photographs and glass negatives from the American Civil War and the Spanish–American War to the present and journals from American soldiers, a sizable collection related to Winston Churchill. Sam Gevirtz, a private first class gunner on board the USS Bunker Hill during the Okinawa invasion, donated his two World War II diaries to the Museum & Library.
The collection is open to the public. The Library participates in an interlibrary loan program with major public and university libraries in the continental United States, it is a member of several academic consortia, including the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois and Libraries Very Interested in Sharing. The library has a non-circulating collection of more than 3,000 rare books and periodicals, including the Famiano Strada's De Bello Belgico and John Entick's The General History of the Late War: Containing It's Rise and Event, in Europe, Asia and America; the collection includes unit histories, such as Civil War regimentals, cruise books, like those from the USS Chicago. These materials must be read in the Rare Book Reading Room; the Museum & Library has over ten named collections, which include the Parrish Collection on Soviet History, the Dr. Charles E. Metz Collection, James Wengert Military Medical Collection, Lt. Col. Robert C. Peithman Collection, Henry J. Reilly Memorial Library, the Robert C.
Baldridge Collection, Edward Jablonski Collection, John V. Farwell Collection, Robert G. Burkhardt Memorial Collection, World War I and World War II Sheet Music and Song Books Collection; the Museum & Library's Holt Oral History Program has collected stories from 71 US military veterans and posted a downloadable podcast. The full audio interviews and transcriptions are available on the Library's website. Kenneth Clarke, president and CEO of the library, said one of the Library’s goals is to provide a secure space for veterans to explore their experiences in war. Programs at the Museum & Library are open to the public for a small fee, they have included interviews with Medal of Honor recipients such as Paul William Bucha and Gary L. Littrell, retired military figures such as Gen. Anthony Zinni and NASA Capt. Jim Lovell, as well as military authors such as Doris Kearns Goodwin, Rick Atkinson, W. E. B. Griffin. Retired CIA agent Sandra Grimes paid a visit to the Museum & Library and introduced her book Circle of Treason.
Programs are webcast live on the library's website and archived for viewing or listening in streaming media or as podcasts. This website has over 400 of these programs available as episodes of Pritzker Military Presents, or original programming produced by the Museum & Library; the programs are downloaded at a rate of 2,000 per month per program. They are broadcast on Chicago PBS affiliates WYCC Channel 20 and WTTW Channel 11; the Museum & Library produces a television show, entitled Citizen Soldier. Each episode is a panel, conversation or interview that takes place at Pritzker Military Museum & Library, it is edited into a 26-minute episode, broadcast on Chicago Public TV station, WTTW Channel 11 and WTTW-Prime Channel 11-2. Seasons one and two can be viewed on the Library's website; as of 2018 the show is in its third season. The Museum & Library serves as a community resource, hosting commissioning and citizenship ceremonies; the Museum & Library has hosted exhibitions by artists such as Steve Mumford, James Dietz, Don Stivers, members of the Midwest Air Force Association.
Other exhibitions have included Don't Be a Dope!: Training Comics from World War II and Korea and She's a Wow!: Women's Service Organizations in World War II. In May 2014, the Pritzker exhibited photography from Stephanie Freid-Perenchio: her work depicted Navy SEALs in training and during their service in Afghanistan. In 2007, the Museum & Library awarded its first annual Pritzker Literature Award for Lifetime Achievement in Military Writing to Civil War historian James M. McPherson; the award includes a $100,000 honorarium. It is given in the Library's name by the Tawani Foundation; the Pritzker Military Museum & Library was named one of 10 recipients of the 2009 National Medal for Museum and Library Service. The annual award, made by the Institute of Museum and Library Services since 1994, recognizes institutions for outstanding social, environmental, or economic contributions to their communities; the Museum & Li
Stolen Valor: How the Vietnam Generation Was Robbed of Its Heroes and Its History is a book by B. G. Burkett, a Vietnam veteran, Glenna Whitley, an investigative journalist; the book attempts to counter the view of Vietnam War veterans as broken men and psychopaths, provides details of people said to have lied about serving in Vietnam and receiving military awards. The book was self-published in 1998, won the Colby Award in 2000. Stolen Valor is divided into 4 parts, along with an appendix. Part I begins with a chapter about B. G. Burkett's time in the Army; the next four chapters detail the author's argument that the image of the Vietnam Veteran was tarnished by a combination of media coverage, Veteran imposters, US citizens' anger against the draft, a perception of the veteran as a victim. Part II looks into the diagnoses of Posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam Veterans and how this is treated by the Veterans' Administration, the rise in war atrocity accusations against Vietnam veterans.
It does further analysis of the effects of people the authors believe to be Vietnam War veteran imposters on the image of the Vietnam veteran, focuses on the lack of investigation by the news media into the background of these so-called veterans. This part attempts to counter the assertion that the Vietnam War was one of the causes of homelessness. Part III describes the wearing of Vietnam War specific medals and badges by people who did not earn them; the authors, using the Freedom of Information Act, retrieved records of individuals who claimed they served in Vietnam during the War and received awards, denounce people whose records do not match their claims, examples of which include William Northrop and Frank Dux. In this section the author attempts to counter the belief that African-Americans were overly represented in casualties during the war. Part IV discusses what the authors believe to be myths about the effects of Agent Orange, profiling pilots from the Vietnam War who flew Agent Orange delivery missions in Vietnam and who have not had an increase in health effects since then.
In this section, the author denounces the Vietnam Veterans of America, calling them "Vietnam Victims of America." The Appendices provide lists of Medal of Honor awardees, Distinguished Service Cross awardees, Navy Cross awardees, Air Force Cross awardees and U. S. military POWs who survived their captivity. US Senator Jim Webb praised Stolen Valor, calling it "one the most courageous books of the decade"; the book was awarded the Colby Award in 2000, has been credited as providing the inspiration for the Stolen Valor Act of 2005, which made it a crime to falsely claim to have been awarded military medals. In 1999, Mackubin Thomas Owens, a Marine infantry veteran of Vietnam, praised the book and Burkett for the effort of finding military imposters, concluding "Mr. Burkett has done an immense service to his fellow veterans, by extension to his country". In 2004, Dave Curry from Vietnam Veterans Against the War responded to the criticism of VVAW in the book, in turn delivered a scathing review, saying the book displayed political partisanship, made "errors in research methodology" and misleading statements about Winter Soldier Investigation participants, denigrated the experiences and motives of veterans who subsequently opposed the war.
In 2008, psychiatrist Paul R. McHugh listed Stolen Valor as one of the five best books on "the factions and follies of psychiatry", citing Burkett's efforts to uncover fraudulent PTSD claims. A 2009 article in Columbia Journalism Review discussed the way Stolen Valor exposed the media's gullibility in failing to fact-check con artists who claim military service or awards, concluding that "no reporter who reads it will again crank out a Veterans Day feature without making an effort to verify the subject’s claims first". Glenna Whitley & B. G. Burkett: Stolen Valor: How the Vietnam Generation Was Robbed of Its Heroes and Its History at the Pritzker Military Museum & Library
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Navy, had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was established on 26 February 1935, just over a fortnight before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on March 16; the Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. As a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.
By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader. The Luftwaffe operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units; the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.
In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, met with failure. With dwindling supplies of petroleum and lubricants after this campaign, as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely; the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe was involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners; the Luftwaffe's demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944.
The Luftwaffe High Command organized Nazi human experimentation, Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in Italy and Poland. The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most shortened to Fliegertruppe, it was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet, Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa.
To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union, isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in 1924 and operated for nine years using Dutch and Soviet, but some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933; this base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Fosse, Heini, Makratzki and many other future Luftwaffe aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring; the first steps towards the Luftwaffe's formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Hermann Göring, a World War I ace, became National Kommissar for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry was established; the RLM was in charge of production of aircraft.
Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation organizations in th
Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace was an American journalist, game show host and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career, he was one of the original correspondents for CBS' 60 Minutes, which debuted in 1968. Wallace retired as a regular full-time correspondent in 2006, but still appeared on the series until 2008, he interviewed many politicians and academics, such as Pearl S. Buck, Deng Xiaoping, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Jiang Zemin, Ruhollah Khomeini, Kurt Waldheim, Frank Lloyd Wright, Yasser Arafat, Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat, Manuel Noriega, Nobel Prize winner John Nash, Gordon B. Hinckley, Vladimir Putin, Maria Callas, Barbra Streisand, Salvador Dalí, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Ayn Rand. Wallace, whose family's surname was Wallik, was born on May 9, 1918, in Brookline, Massachusetts, to Russian Jewish immigrant parents, He identified as a Jew throughout his life, his father was a insurance broker. Wallace attended Brookline High School, graduating in 1935.
He graduated from the University of Michigan four years with a Bachelor of Arts. While a college student he was a reporter for the Michigan Daily and belonged to the Alpha Gamma Chapter of the Zeta Beta Tau Fraternity. Wallace appeared as a guest on the popular radio quiz show Information Please on February 7, 1939, when he was in his last year at the University of Michigan. Wallace spent his first summer after graduation working on-air at Interlochen Center for the Arts, his first radio job was as newscaster and continuity writer for WOOD Radio in Grand Rapids, Michigan. This lasted until 1940, when he moved to WXYZ Radio in Michigan, as an announcer, he became a freelance radio worker in Chicago, Illinois. Wallace enlisted in the United States Navy in 1943 and during World War II served as a communications officer on the USS Anthedon, a submarine tender, he saw no combat but traveled to Hawaii and Subic Bay in the Philippines patrolling the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea and south of Japan.
After being discharged in 1946, Wallace returned to Chicago. Wallace announced for the radio shows Curtain Time, Ned Jordan:Secret Agent, Sky King, The Green Hornet, Curtain Time, The Spike Jones Show, it is sometimes reported Wallace announced for The Lone Ranger. From 1946 through 1948 he portrayed the title character on The Crime Files of Flamond, on WGN and in syndication. Wallace announced wrestling in Chicago in the late 1940s and early 1950s, sponsored by Tavern Pale beer. In the late 1940s, Wallace was a staff announcer for the CBS radio network, he had displayed his comic skills. He was the voice of Elgin-American in their commercials on Groucho Marx's You Bet Your Life; as "Myron Wallace", he portrayed New York City detective Lou Kagel on the short-lived radio drama series "Crime on the Waterfront". In 1949, Wallace began to move to the new medium of television. In that year, he starred under the name Myron Wallace in a short-lived police drama, Stand By for Crime. Wallace hosted a number of game shows in the 1950s, including The Big Surprise, Who's the Boss? and Who Pays?.
Early in his career Wallace was not known as a news broadcaster. It was not uncommon during that period for newscasters to announce, do commercials and host game shows. Wallace hosted the pilot episode for Nothing but the Truth, helmed by Bud Collyer when it aired under the title To Tell the Truth. Wallace served as a panelist on To Tell the Truth in the 1950s, he did commercials for a variety of products, including Procter & Gamble's Fluffo brand shortening. Wallace hosted two late-night interview programs, Night Beat and The Mike Wallace Interview on ABC in 1957–1958. See Profiles in Courage, section: Authorship controversy. In 1959, Louis Lomax told Wallace about the Nation of Islam. Lomax and Wallace produced a five-part documentary about the organization, The Hate That Hate Produced, which aired during the week of July 13, 1959; the program was the first time most white people heard about the Nation, its leader, Elijah Muhammad, its charismatic spokesman, Malcolm X. By the early 1960s, Wallace's primary income came from commercials for Parliament cigarettes, touting their "man's mildness".
Between June 1961 and June 1962 he hosted a New York–based nightly interview program for Westinghouse Broadcasting called PM East for one hour. Westinghouse syndicated the series to a few other cities. People in southern and southwestern states were unable to watch it. A frequent guest on the PM East segment was Barbra Streisand. Only the audio of some of her conversations with Wallace survives. Westinghouse wiped the videotapes. In the early 1960s, Wallace was the host of the David Wolper–produced Biography series. After his elder son's death in 1962, Wallace decided to get back into news and hosted an early version of CBS Morning News from 1963 through 1966. In 1964 he interviewed Malcolm X, half-jokingly, commented "I am a dead man already." The black leader was assassinated a few months in February 1965. In 1967, Wallace anchored the documentary CBS Reports: The Homosexuals. "The average homosexual, if there be such, is promiscuous", Wallace said