HMS Conqueror (S48)
HMS Conqueror was a British Churchill-class nuclear-powered fleet submarine which served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. She was the third submarine of her class, following the earlier Churchill and Courageous, that were all designed to face the Soviet threat at sea, she was built by Cammell Laird at Birkenhead. Conqueror is the only nuclear-powered submarine to have engaged an enemy ship with torpedoes, sinking the cruiser General Belgrano during the 1982 Falklands War. Conqueror was ordered on 9 August 1966 and was laid down at Cammell Laird's Birkenhead shipyard on 5 December 1967. Construction was delayed by slow working by Cammell Laird's workforce, sabotage of the ship's gearbox, which delayed completion by several months. Conqueror was commissioned on 9 November 1971. Conqueror, commanded by Commander Chris Wreford-Brown, was deployed during the Falklands War, setting sail from Faslane Naval Base on the Gareloch in Scotland on 3 April 1982, one day after the Argentine invasion. Conqueror arrived in the exclusion zone around the Falkland Islands 21 days and was ordered to scan the area for Argentine shipping the aircraft carrier Veinticinco de Mayo.
On 30 April, she spotted the Argentine light cruiser General Belgrano sailing southwest of the Falklands, just outside the exclusion zone imposed by the British on all shipping. With Veinticinco de Mayo approaching the islands from the north, the commander of the British Taskforce, Admiral'Sandy' Woodward, feared a pincer attack, with General Belgrano attacking from the south and Veinticinco de Mayo from the north and requested permission from the British government to sink General Belgrano. After some debate, permission to engage General Belgrano was sent to the submarine from the Royal Navy's fleet command centre in Northwood in the United Kingdom. In the intervening period, General Belgrano had retired from its attack position and turned west, since Veinticinco de Mayo was not yet ready to engage the British fleet; this would cause some controversy, although General Belgrano's captain and the Argentine government acknowledged that the attack was a legitimate act of war. On 2 May Conqueror became the first nuclear-powered submarine to fire in anger, launching three Mark 8 torpedoes at General Belgrano, two of which struck the ship and exploded.
Twenty minutes the ship was sinking and was abandoned by her crew. General Belgrano was unable to issue a Mayday signal because of electrical failure. A total of 323 men were killed. Adding to the confusion, the crew of the Bouchard felt an impact, the third torpedo striking at the end of its run; the two ships began dropping depth charges. By the time the ships realised that something had happened to General Belgrano, it was dark and the weather had worsened, scattering the life rafts. Conqueror's war did not end there; the crew of the submarine had to face Argentine Air Force attempts to locate her in the days after the attack, which had shocked the Argentine people and ruling dictatorship. Conqueror did not fire again in anger throughout the war, but provided valuable help to the task force by using sophisticated monitoring equipment to track Argentine aircraft departing from the mainland. After the war, Conqueror returned to Faslane, flying a Jolly Roger adorned with torpedoes, a customary act of Royal Navy submarines after a kill.
When asked about the incident Commander Wreford-Brown responded, "The Royal Navy spent thirteen years preparing me for such an occasion. It would have been regarded as dreary if I had fouled it up". In 1982, Conqueror completed a raid to acquire a Soviet sonar array from its Polish-flagged towing vessel; the operation, a joint mission between British and American forces, was conducted on the boundary of Soviet territorial waters. Conqueror used cutters affixed to her bow to shear through the three-inch thick wire before silently returning to her base on the Clyde. On 2 July 1988 Conqueror was involved in a collision with the Army Sail Training Association yacht Dalriada south of the Mull of Kintyre; the yacht sank and four crew members were rescued. Conqueror did not take part in any other conflicts, was decommissioned in 1990; the periscopes, captain's cabin and main control panel from the submarine's control room are on display in the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in Gosport. Hennesey, Peter; the Silent Deep: The Royal Navy Submarine Service since 1945.
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-241-95948-0. Moore, John. Jane's Fighting Ships 1985–86. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-7106-0814-4. Rossiter, Mike. Sink the Belgrano. Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-593-05842-8. Hansard: Loss of the "control room log" of HMS Conqueror
Port of Barrow
The Port of Barrow refers to the enclosed dock system within the town of Barrow-in-Furness, England. Morecambe Bay is to the east of the port and the Irish Sea surrounds it to the south and west; the port is owned and operated by Associated British Ports Holdings, but some land is shared with BAE Systems Submarine Solutions. Consisting of four large docks, the Port of Barrow is one of North West England's most important ports; the docks are as follows: Cavendish Dock, Devonshire Dock and Ramsden Dock. The port of Barrow is the only deep water port between the Clyde. Barrow shipyard is one of the largest in the United Kingdom, rivalled only by those in Belfast and Govan, it is home to the country's only submarine production facility. The port is involved with the transportation of natural gases and other forms of energy from local sites such as Sellafield, Barrow Offshore Windfarm, Ormonde Wind Farm, Rampside Gas Terminal and Roosecote Power Station. Barrow is becoming popular as a port of call for cruise liners visiting the town and the Lake District.
James Fisher & Sons are the main company to operate out of the port. Barrow has a complex history of shipbuilding and maritime trade. In the late 19th century, the town had the largest steelworks on Earth, the Port of Barrow was the main route used to transport the steel produced in the town; the Port of Barrow and BAE cover a large area, so that Barrow is one of the country's largest shipbuilding centres. Hundreds of warships, aircraft carriers, cruise liners and submarines have been constructed in Barrow, which remains the only operational submarine production facility in the UK. A 1936 LMS advert said that their 300 acres of water and 400 acres of quays handled 375,000 tons of cargo per year; the port's busiest year was 1956. In 1839 Henry Schneider arrived at Barrow-in-Furness as a young speculator and dealer in iron, in 1850 he discovered large deposits of haematite, he and other investors founded the Furness Railway, the first section of which opened in 1846 to transport the ore from the slate quarries at Kirkby-in-Furness and haematite mines at Lindal-in-Furness to a deep water harbour near Roa Island.
The docks built between 1867 and 1881 in the more sheltered channel between the mainland and Barrow Island replaced the port at Roa Island. The increasing quantities of iron ore mined in Furness were brought to Barrow to be transported by sea; the sheltered strait between Barrow and Walney Island was an ideal location for the shipyard. The first ship to be built, Jane Roper, was launched in 1852. Shipbuilding activity increased, on 18 February 1871 the Barrow Shipbuilding Company was incorporated. Barrow's relative isolation from the United Kingdom's industrial heartlands meant that the newly-formed company included several capabilities that would be subcontracted to other establishments. In particular, a large engineering works was constructed, including a foundry and pattern shop, a forge, an engine shop. In addition, the shipyard had a joiners' shop, a boat-building shed and a sailmaking and rigging loft; the Barrow Shipbuilding Company was taken over by the Sheffield steel firm of Vickers in 1897, by which time the shipyard had surpassed the railway and steelworks as the largest employer and landowner in Barrow.
The company constructed Vickerstown, modelled on George Cadbury's Bournville, on the adjacent Walney Island in the early 20th century to house its employees. It commissioned Sir Edwin Lutyens to design Abbey House as a guest house and residence for its managing director, Commander Craven. By the 1890s the shipyard was engaged in the construction of warships for the Royal Navy and for export; the Royal Navy's first submarine, Holland 1, was built in 1901, by 1914 the UK had the most advanced submarine fleet in the world, with 94% of it constructed by Vickers. Well-known ships built in Barrow include Mikasa, the Japanese flagship during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War, the liner Oriana and the aircraft carriers HMS Invincible and HMAS Melbourne. During World War II, Barrow was a target for the German Air Force looking to disable the town's shipbuilding capabilities. Barrow's industry continued to supply the war effort. Winston Churchill once visited the town to launch the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable.
After a rapid decline in the town's steel industry, shipbuilding became Barrow's largest and most important industry. From the 1960s onwards it concentrated its efforts in submarine manufacture, the UK's first nuclear-powered submarine, HMS Dreadnought was constructed in 1960. HMS Resolution, the Swiftsure and Vanguard-class submarines all followed; the end of the Cold War in 1991 marked a reduction in the demand for military ships and submarines, the town continued its decline. The shipyard's dependency on military contracts at the expense of civilian and commercial engineering and shipbuilding meant it was hard hit as government defence spending was reduced dramatically; the workforce shrank from 14,500 in 1990 to 5,800 in February 1995. The rejection by the VSEL management of detailed plans for Barrow's industrial renewal in the mid-to-late 1980s remains controversial; this has led to renewed academic interest in recent years in the possibilities of converting military-industrial production in declining shipbuilding areas to the offshore renewable energy sector.
The port of Barrow has seen a big decrease in trade since steel production in the town halted.
SSN (hull classification symbol)
An SSN is a nuclear-powered general-purpose attack submarine. SSN is the US Navy hull classification symbol for such vessels; the designation SSN is used for interoperability throughout NATO under STANAG 1166. Though navies use other terms; the first nuclear-powered attack submarine was the US Navy's USS Nautilus, operational from 1954. This was followed by the four submarines of the Skate class entering service in 1957; the Royal Navy's first nuclear fleet submarine was HMS Dreadnought which by using an American reactor entered service in 1963. The first all-British nuclear submarines were the two Valiant-class submarines; the USN submarine fleet has been all-nuclear powered for over two decades. The bulk of the USN's SSN fleet has been the Los Angeles-class attack submarine. Designed during the Cold War the Los Angeles-class boats' raison d'etre was to protect USN carrier battle groups and to hunt Soviet Navy SSBNs before they could launch a first strike against the United States; the first major combat action involving an SSN was during the 1982 Falklands War.
An Argentinian cruiser, ARA General Belgrano was sunk by torpedoes fired by the Royal Navy fleet submarine HMS Conqueror. After that incident, the Argentinian Navy was confined to port. Since the end of the Cold War, SSNs have evolved into multi-mission submarines, their roles include submarine-launched cruise missile platforms, intelligence gathering platforms and exfiltration of special forces teams in addition to traditional hunter-killer SSN roles. The advantages of an SSN over a conventionally powered SSK are much longer endurance, higher speed. Unlike most SSKs, SSNs do not have to surface periodically for air, which would compromise their stealth; some of the newest conventional submarines approach these advantages: Stirling engine powered vessels can cruise underwater for up to two weeks and, like diesel/electric vessels, are quieter than nuclear submarines, since they do not need to run the powerful pumps associated with the cooling circuits of pressurized water reactors. The main disadvantages of an SSN are the technological challenges and expenses of building and maintaining a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear submarines can have political downsides, as some countries refuse to accept nuclear-powered vessels as a matter of policy. Furthermore, decommissioned nuclear submarines require costly dismantling and long term storage of the radioactive waste; the following navies operate SSNs: People's Liberation Army Navy of China French Navy Indian Navy Russian Navy Royal Navy of the United Kingdom United States Navy Brazilian NavyNuclear Scorpène-class submarine - 1 planned People's Liberation Army Navy of the People's Republic of ChinaHan-class submarine - 3 in service Type 093 submarine - 5 in service, 6 planned in total Type 095 submarine - 2 complete, 5 planned in total French NavyRubis-class submarine - 6 in service Barracuda-class submarine - 6 planned Indian NavyAkula-class submarine - 1 in service, 1 planned Indian Navy SSN programme - 6 planned Russian NavyVictor III-class submarine - 4 in service Sierra I and Sierra II-class submarines - 3 in service Akula-class submarine - 8 in service Yasen-class submarine - 1 in service, 4 under construction, 12 planned in total Royal Navy of the United KingdomKnown as "fleet submarines" in the Royal Navy Trafalgar-class submarine - 4 in service, 3 retired Astute-class submarine - 3 in service, 3 under construction, 1 ordered United States NavyLos Angeles-class submarine - 41 in service, 21 retired Seawolf-class submarine - 3 in service Virginia-class submarine - 14 in service, 5 under construction, 48 planned in total Royal Navy of the United KingdomHMS Dreadnought - the Royal Navy's first nuclear-powered fleet submarine 1963 - 1980 Valiant-class submarine - 2 submarines in service 1966 - 1994 Churchill-class submarine - 3 submarines in service 1970 - 1992 Swiftsure-class submarine - 6 submarines 1973-2010 Soviet / Russian NavyNovember class 1958-1991 K-278 Komsomolets - only member of the "Mike" class, 1984 - 1989 Alfa-class submarine United States NavyUSS Nautilus USS Seawolf Skate-class submarine - 4 submarines in service 1957 - 1989 Skipjack-class submarine - 6 submarines in service 1959 - 1990 USS Triton USS Halibut Permit-class submarine - 14 submarines in service 1961 - 1996 USS Tullibee Sturgeon-class submarine - 37 submarines in service 1967 - 2004 USS Narwhal USS Glenard P. Lipscomb Nuclear submarine Ballistic missile submarine Cruise missile submarine List of submarine classes List of submarine classes of the Royal Navy List of Soviet and Russian submarine classes List of submarine classes of the United States Navy
A shipyard is a place where ships are built and repaired. These can be military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction; the terms are used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has caused them to change or merge roles. Countries with large shipbuilding industries include Australia, China, Denmark, France, India, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Romania, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam; the shipbuilding industry is more fragmented in Europe than in Asia where countries tend to have fewer, larger companies. Many naval vessels are built or maintained in shipyards owned or operated by the national government or navy. Shipyards are constructed near tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships; the United Kingdom, for example, has shipyards on many of its rivers.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities and large areas for fabrication of the ships. After a ship's useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard on a beach in South Asia. Shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages and environmental regulations have resulted in movement of the industry to developing regions. Welding, sandblasting and other maintenance work contribute pollution. Ship hulls have many layers of anti-fouling and anti-corrosion paint. Shipyards around the world paint ships by airtight spraying or by thermal spraying. Studies have shown that painting generates half of the dangerous waste at a shipyard due to using high-pressure equipment to wash or remove any unwanted material, on it like rust; this material will make its way to the water as water pollution. In a study in 2011 samples of sediments were collected from two sites in coastal marine area of Yongho Bay, one from the shipyard and the other 500m away.
Both samples contained metals that included Al, Fe, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, Pb. In addition, it had been confirmed that the concentration was higher in the first sample, by the shipyard the sample taking 500m away and was due to paint fragments applied to the steel ship hulls. After a ship has been used it is scrapped at a shipyard, but the process can release excessive amounts of pollution. Paints used for hulls are anti-fouling paints. Over time weathering from ships will sink to the bottom of the seabed and the most common component, toxic in paint used in shipyards is triphenyl tetrazolium and can be treated by using dolomitic sorbents. In 2005, a study showed the high level of toxicity of TBT compounds to organisms in the ocean and what can be done to reduce the pollution by using dolomitic sorbents. In the study, a sample of shipyard water was used in the experiment in a period over 14 days. At the end the experiment it was concluded that dolomitic and dolomite were successful in reducing the contaminants from the shipyard wastewater.
Welding is the most important factor in ship building and should be performed by qualified welders in order to protect the ship structure. It is achieved by heating the surfaces to the point of melting using oxy-acetylene, electric arc, or other means, uniting them by pressing, etc, but in shipyards, there are times when the welder weld. Welding can produce toxic fumes such as Nitric Oxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen Fluoride, Carbon Dioxide can result in serious damage to human health or death if ventilation is not present. A case study was performed to see where would be most effective place to exhaust the hull cells on the bulkhead in between two spaces using an air horn versus air with an electric blower, they asked them to weld in a specific space. One that had shipyard dilution ventilation and the other had local exhaust ventilation recorded to see which typed of ventilation worked the best. In the results, they found that local exhaust ventilation reduced particulate concentrations but the efficiency of either method depended on equipment maintenance and their own work practices because everyone has a different way of getting things done.
The world's earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal's dockyards connected to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert was a part of the Arabian Sea. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade; the dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the main current of the river to avoid silting, but provided access to ships in high tide as well; the name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means "shipyard". Naupactus' reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus. In the Spanish city of Barcelona, the Drassanes shipyards were active from at least the mid-13th century until the 18th century, although i
Devonshire Dock Hall
Devonshire Dock Hall is a large indoor shipbuilding and assembly complex that forms part of the BAE Systems shipyard in the Barrow Island area of Barrow-in-Furness, England. Constructed between 1982 and 1986 by Alfred McAlpine plc for Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering, DDH was built on land, created by infilling part of Devonshire Dock with 2.4 million tonnes of sand pumped from nearby Roosecote Sands. The purpose of the indoor shipbuilding facility was to protect vessels from external weather conditions and prevent satellites from photographing secret technologies involved. In the late 1980s and early 1990s it was known colloquially as "Maggie's Farm" in reference to the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who opened the facility, whose Conservative Party government were upgrading the UK's submarine-launched nuclear weapons from Polaris to the Trident system on board the Vanguard-class boats. DDH provides a controlled environment for ship and submarine assembly, avoids the difficulties caused by building on the slope of traditional slipways.
Outside the hall, a 24,300 tonne capacity shiplift allows completed vessels to be lowered into the water independently of the tide. Vessels can be lifted out of the water and transferred to the hall; the shiplift was the largest in the world upon completion. The first use of the DDH was for construction of the Vanguard-class submarines; the shipyard is constructing the Astute-class submarines the first four of which were launched in 2007, 2011, 2014 and 2017. As of 2017, the Royal Navy submarines Anson and Agamemnon are all under construction inside Devonshire Dock Hall; the steel frame DDH is the tallest building in Cumbria at 51 metres and could be described as a'Groundscraper' having an overall length of 260 m, width of 58 m and an area of 25,000 square metres - over 6 acres. DDH is the second largest indoor shipbuilding construction complex of its kind in Europe after Dockhalle 2 of Meyer Werft in Germany and is visible from miles around, most notably from the Blackpool Promenade, over 20 miles away.
DDH is at the centre of a £300 million redevelopment of the shipyard that commenced in late 2014. A large extension to the hall is planned to enable construction of the Dreadnought-class submarines, the replacement for the existing class of SSBNs in Royal Navy service; the project is the largest investment at the shipyard since the construction of DDH itself. Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines UK Trident programme Gray, Tony; the Road to Success: Alfred McAlpine 1935 - 1985. Rainbird Publishing
Amphibious transport dock
An amphibious transport dock called a landing platform/dock, is an amphibious warfare ship, a warship that embarks and lands elements of a landing force for expeditionary warfare missions. Several navies operate this kind of ship; the ships are designed to transport troops into a war zone by sea using landing craft, although invariably they have the capability to operate transport helicopters. Amphibious transport docks perform the mission of amphibious transports, amphibious cargo ships, the older LSDs by incorporating both a flight deck and a well deck that can be ballasted and deballasted to support landing craft or amphibious vehicles; the main difference between LSDs and LPDs is that while both have helicopter landing decks, the LPD has hangar facilities for protection and maintenance. In the United States Navy, the newer class of LPD has succeeded the older classes of LSDs, both the Navy and U. S. Marine Corps are looking to the LPD to be the basis of their new LX program to replace their LSDs.
Amphibious warfare ship Dock landing ship Landing Platform Helicopter List of amphibious warfare ships
Ottoman submarine Abdül Hamid
The submarine Abdül Hamid was an early steam powered submarine built in England in 1886 at the Barrow Shipyard. It was bought and put in service by the Ottoman Navy and named after Sultan Abdülhamid II, it was the first submarine in the world to fire a live torpedo underwater. The Ottoman Empire carried out various military modernizations as a result of emergence of new technologies in the 19th century. Sultan Abdul Hamid I instructed the Minister of the Navy, Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Paşa, to acquire these new boats for the navy; the Greek interest in buying submarines was a factor that prompted Sultan Abdul Hamid II to purchase these boats to establish a more powerful navy to protect Aegean assets. Barrow Shipyard built two steam-engine powered boats, designed by Swedish industrialist and arms dealer Thorsten Nordenfelt; these were sold to the Ottoman Empire and Russia. The submarine for Russia never reached her customer, foundering on the Jutland coast on her delivery voyage. Abdul Hamid, was dismantled for delivery by ship and re-assembled at Taşkızak Naval Shipyard along the Golden Horn in Constantinople under the supervision of its English designer, George William Garrett.
Another boat of Nordenfelt class, Abdul Mecid was built at the same time and delivered to the Ottoman Navy. Abdul Hamid was first launched on September 6, 1886 in front of many international dignitaries lined along the Golden Horn. Initial diving tests were carried out in February 1887. Three dives were attempted 20 seconds each, with only the hemispherical navigator cockpit remaining above the water. On another test run in early 1888, the submarine was able to navigate through the strong currents around the Seraglio Point, making up to 10 knots of speed, sank an old target ship with a single torpedo. After more tests and trial at Izmit naval base, they joined the Ottoman Navy in a flag ceremony on 24 March 1888. Abdül Hamid was powered by a coal-fired 250 hp Lamm steam engine turning a single screw, it carried two 35 mm machine guns. It could dive to a depth of 160 feet, it was 30.5m long and 6m wide, weighed 100 tons. It had a normal crew of 7, it had a maximum surface speed of 6 knots, a maximum speed of 4 knots while submerged.
In preparation for the dive, the crew had to pull down the funnel. Air tanks that were pressurized while sailing on the surface were used to propel the boats a short distance under water, allowing them to remain submerged for only a few minutes, they had a first, all on the deck. The boats turned out to not be battle-worthy, as their speed and range were limited at best, they were poorly balanced, made worse when firing off a torpedo. After a few more trials that showed their limitations, the Abdul Hamid and Abdul Mecid were withdrawn from active service in 1910 and were scrapped not far from where they were first assembled. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Jones, Robert W.. "The Garrett-Nordenfeldt Submarines". Warship International. V: 26–38. Turkish Submarine Command Ottoman ships