The Naked City
The Naked City is a 1948 film noir directed by Jules Dassin. Based on a story by Malvin Wald, the film depicts the police investigation that follows the murder of a young model, incorporating heavy elements of police procedure. A veteran cop is placed in charge of the case and he sets about, with the help of other beat cops and detectives, to find the girl's killer; the movie, shot in documentary style, was filmed on location on the streets of New York City and features landmarks such as the Williamsburg Bridge, the Whitehall Building, an apartment building on West 83rd Street in Manhattan as the scene of the murder. The film received two Academy Awards, one for cinematography for William H. Daniels, another for film editing to Paul Weatherwax. In 2007, The Naked City was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In the late hours of a hot New York summer night, a pair of men subdue and kill Jean Dexter, an ex-model, by knocking her out with chloroform and drowning her in her bathtub.
When one of the murderers, conscience-stricken, gets drunk, the other kills him and throws his body into the East River. Homicide Detective Lt. Dan Muldoon and his young associate, Det. Jimmy Halloran, are assigned to Jean's case, which the medical examination has determined was murder. Muldoon has been a homicide cop for 22 years, Halloran for three months. At the scene, the police interrogate Martha Swenson, Jean's housekeeper, about Jean's boyfriends, she tells them about a "Mr. Henderson", they discover a bottle of sleeping pills and her address book. Halloran questions the doctor who prescribed the pills, Lawrence Stoneman, Ruth Morrison, another model and Jean's friend. Back at the police station, Muldoon questions Frank Niles, Jean's ex-boyfriend, who lies about everything, claiming only a business relationship with Jean and denying knowing Ruth. Muldoon deduces from the bruises on Jean's neck that she was killed by at least two men; that evening, Jean's estranged parents, Mr. and Mrs. Batory, arrive in New York to formally identify the body and tell the detectives that they have no knowledge of Jean's acquaintances.
The next morning, the detectives learn that Frank sold a gold cigarette case stolen from Stoneman purchased a one-way airline ticket to Mexico. They discover that one of Jean's rings was stolen from the home of a wealthy Mrs. Hylton. At Mrs. Hylton's Park Avenue apartment, the police learn that the ring belonged to her daughter, who, to their surprise, turns out to be Ruth. Learning that Ruth's engagement ring is stolen property, that she is engaged to Frank and Halloran take Ruth to Frank's apartment, where they coincidentally interrupt someone trying to murder him; the killer escapes down the fire escape onto the nearby elevated train. When questioned about the stolen jewelry, Frank claims that they were all presents from Jean, which reveals his true relationship with her, much to Ruth's chagrin. Frank is arrested for the jewel thefts, but the murder case remains open. Halloran learns that a body recovered from the East River, that of small-time burglar Peter Backalis, died within hours of the Dexter murder, believes the two incidents are connected.
Muldoon, although skeptical, lets him pursue the lead and assigns two veteran detectives on the squad to help Halloran with the legwork. Through further methodical but tedious investigation, Halloran discovers that Backalis's accomplice on a jewelry store burglary was Willie Garzah, a former wrestler with a penchant for playing the harmonica. While Halloran and his team canvass the Lower East Side of New York using an old publicity photograph of Garzah, Muldoon compels Frank Niles to identify Jean's mystery boyfriend. Dr. Stoneman is "Henderson". At Stoneman's office, Muldoon uses Frank to trap the married physician into confessing that he fell in love with Jean, only to learn that she and Frank were using him in order to rob his society friends. Frank confesses that Garzah killed Jean and Backalis. Halloran and Muldoon, using different approaches, have come up with the same killer. Meanwhile, Halloran locates Garzah and, pretending that Backalis is in the hospital, tries to trick Garzah into accompanying him, but Garzah sees through the ruse.
The ex-wrestler rabbit punches the rookie detective. Garzah attempts to disappear in the crowded city, but as police descend upon the neighborhood, he panics and draws attention to himself when he shoots and kills a blind man's guide dog on the pedestrian walk of the Williamsburg Bridge. Garzah attempts to flee over the bridge but, as police approach from both directions, he starts climbing one of the towers and is shot and wounded. High on the tower, Garzah refuses to surrender; as aerial and street shots of New York are shown, the narration concludes by saying "There are eight million stories in the naked city. This has been one of them." Producer Mark Hellinger, who narrated the film, was only 44 when he died of a heart attack on December 21, 1947, after reviewing the final cut of the film at his home. The visual style of The Naked City was inspired by New York photographer Weegee, who published a book of photographs of New York life entitled Naked City. Weegee was hired as a visual consultant on the film, is credited with helping to craft its imagery.
But film historian William Park, despite Weegee's work on the film and its title coming from Weegee's earlier work, has argued that the film owes its visual style more to Italian neorealism rather than Weegee
Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, was an English actor and director who, along with his contemporaries Ralph Richardson, Peggy Ashcroft and John Gielgud, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. He worked in films throughout his career, playing more than fifty cinema roles. Late in his career, he had considerable success in television roles, his family had no theatrical connections, but Olivier's father, a clergyman, decided that his son should become an actor. After attending a drama school in London, Olivier learned his craft in a succession of acting jobs during the late 1920s. In 1930 he had his first important West End success in Noël Coward's Private Lives, he appeared in his first film. In 1935 he played in a celebrated production of Romeo and Juliet alongside Gielgud and Ashcroft, by the end of the decade he was an established star. In the 1940s, together with Richardson and John Burrell, Olivier was the co-director of the Old Vic, building it into a respected company.
There his most celebrated roles included Sophocles's Oedipus. In the 1950s Olivier was an independent actor-manager, but his stage career was in the doldrums until he joined the avant garde English Stage Company in 1957 to play the title role in The Entertainer, a part he played on film. From 1963 to 1973 he was the founding director of Britain's National Theatre, running a resident company that fostered many future stars, his own parts there included the title role in Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. Among Olivier's films are Wuthering Heights, a trilogy of Shakespeare films as actor-director: Henry V, Richard III, his films included The Shoes of the Fisherman, Marathon Man, The Boys from Brazil. His television appearances included an adaptation of The Moon and Sixpence, Long Day's Journey into Night, Love Among the Ruins, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Brideshead Revisited and King Lear. Olivier's honours included a life peerage and the Order of Merit. For his on-screen work he received four Academy Awards, two British Academy Film Awards, five Emmy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards.
The National Theatre's largest auditorium is named in his honour, he is commemorated in the Laurence Olivier Awards, given annually by the Society of London Theatre. He was married three times, to the actresses Jill Esmond from 1930 to 1940, Vivien Leigh from 1940 to 1960, Joan Plowright from 1961 until his death. Olivier was born in Dorking, the youngest of the three children of the Reverend Gerard Kerr Olivier and his wife Agnes Louise, née Crookenden, their elder children were Sybille and Gerard Dacres "Dickie". His great-great-grandfather was of French Huguenot descent, Olivier came from a long line of Protestant clergymen. Gerard Olivier had begun a career as a schoolmaster, but in his thirties he discovered a strong religious vocation and was ordained as a priest of the Church of England, he practised high church, ritualist Anglicanism and liked to be addressed as "Father Olivier". This made him unacceptable to most Anglican congregations, the only church posts he was offered were temporary deputising for regular incumbents in their absence.
This meant a nomadic existence, for Laurence's first few years, he never lived in one place long enough to make friends. In 1912, when Olivier was five, his father secured a permanent appointment as assistant rector at St Saviour's, Pimlico, he held the post for six years, a stable family life was at last possible. Olivier was devoted to his mother, but not to his father, whom he found a remote parent, he learned a great deal of the art of performing from him. As a young man Gerard Olivier had considered a stage career and was a dramatic and effective preacher. Olivier wrote that his father knew "when to drop the voice, when to bellow about the perils of hellfire, when to slip in a gag, when to wax sentimental... The quick changes of mood and manner absorbed me, I have never forgotten them." In 1916, after attending a series of preparatory schools, Olivier passed the singing examination for admission to the choir school of All Saints, Margaret Street, in central London. His elder brother was a pupil, Olivier settled in, though he felt himself to be something of an outsider.
The church's style of worship was Anglo-Catholic, with emphasis on ritual and incense. The theatricality of the services appealed to Olivier, the vicar encouraged the students to develop a taste for secular as well as religious drama. In a school production of Julius Caesar in 1917, the ten-year-old Olivier's performance as Brutus impressed an audience that included Lady Tree, the young Sybil Thorndike, Ellen Terry, who wrote in her diary, "The small boy who played Brutus is a great actor." He won praise in other schoolboy productions, as Maria in Twelfth Night and Katherine in The Taming of the Shrew. From All Saints, Olivier went on to St Edward's School, from 1920 to 1924, he made little mark until his final year, when he played Puck in the school's production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. In January 1924, his brother left England to work in India as a rubber planter. Olivier missed him and asked his father how soon he could follow, he recalled in his memoirs that his father replied, "Don't be such a fool, you're not going to India, you're going on the stage."
In 1924 Gerard Olivier, a habitually fru
Mark John Hellinger was an American journalist, theatre columnist and film producer. Hellinger was born into an Orthodox Jewish family Mildred "Millie" and Pol Hellinger in New York City, although in life he became a non-practicing Jew; when he was fifteen, he organized a student strike at Townsend Harris High School and was expelled for his actions. This proved to be the end of his formal education. In 1921, Hellinger began working as a waiter and cashier at a Greenwich Village night club in order to meet theatre people, he was employed by Lane Bryant to write direct mail advertising for clothing for larger and pregnant women. The following year he began his journalistic career as a reporter for Zit's Weekly, a theatrical publication, where he remained for eighteen months. In 1923, Hellinger moved to the city desk of the New York Daily News, he wrote. In July 1925, he was assigned About Town, a Sunday column his editors intended him to fill with news and gossip about Broadway theatre. Instead, he filled the space with short stories in the style of O. Henry.
When his columns drew a considerable amount of fan mail, he was permitted to continue in this vein. Three years he graduated to a daily feature called Behind the News, he numbered such personalities as Walter Winchell, Florenz Ziegfeld, Texas Guinan, Dutch Schultz, Legs Diamond among his friends. In November 1929, Hellinger moved to the New York Daily Mirror. While continuing to write daily and Sunday columns, he contributed sketches to the Ziegfeld Follies, wrote plays, published magazine articles, produced two collections of short stories, Moon Over Broadway and The Ten Million, co-wrote the screenplay for Broadway Bill with Robert Riskin; some films were based on his works including Justice for Sale, the short I Know Everybody and Everybody's Racket, Broadway Bill, Walking Down Broadway. By 1937, Hellinger was a syndicated columnist featured in 174 newspapers; that same year he was hired as a writer/producer by Jack L. Warner, he worked on the story for Racket Busters and Comet Over Broadway and provided the story for the 1939 Jimmy Cagney/Raoul Walsh gangster film The Roaring Twenties, basing it on his own experiences during that decade.
In his onscreen foreword to the film, he wrote: It may come to pass that, at some distant date, we will be confronted with another period similar to the one depicted in this photoplay. If that happens, I pray. In this film, the characters are composites of people I knew, the situations are those that occurred. Bitter or sweet, most memories become precious as the years move on; this film is a memory - and I am grateful for it. Hellinger began worked as a producer on B pictures such as The Adventures of Jane Arden, Women in the Wind, Hell's Kitchen and The Cowboy Quarterback. Hellinger helped produce The Roaring Twenties, his first "A" film, he produced Bs for a little bit longer: Kid Nightingale, British Intelligence. Hellinger established himself as a top level producer with It All Came True starring Ann Sheridan, he followed it with Torrid Zone starring Cagney and Sheridan, Brother Orchid with Edward G. Robinson and Sheridan. Hellinger made two classics with Raoul Walsh: They Drive by Night with Bogart, George Raft and Ida Lupino.
He made a comedy, Affectionately Yours with Merle Oberon did a melodrama with Raft and Robinson, Manpower. Hellinger went over to 20th Century Fox to make two films: Rise and Shine, a musical, Moontide with Lupino and Jean Gabin. Due to a congenital heart condition, Hellinger was rejected for active service during World War II. Instead, he worked as a war correspondent, writing human interest stories about the troops. Back at Warners, he produced the all-star musical revue Thank Your Lucky Stars and made Between Two Worlds, The Doughgirls, The Horn Blows at Midnight. Hellinger set up at Universal, he had a big hit with The Killers which made a star of Ava Gardner. He followed it with Swell Guy with Sonny Tufts, The Two Mrs. Carrolls with Bogart back at Warners,Brute Force, The Naked City, which he narrated; the film was released several weeks after Hellinger's death, in his review for the New York Times, Bosley Crowther called it "a virtual Hellinger column on film" and "his appropriate valedictory" and observed, "The late Mark Hellinger's personal romance with the City of New York was one of the most ecstatic love affairs of the modern day — at least, to his host of friends and readers who are skeptics regarding l'amour.
Before he became a film producer and was still just a newspaper scribe, Mr. Hellinger went for Manhattan in a blissfully uninhibited way — for its sights and sounds and restless movements, its bizarre people and its bizarre smells, and he made quite a local reputation framing his fancies in flowery billets doux which stirred the hearts and the humors of readers of the tabloid press." Hellinger won the 1947 Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture for The Killers. In 1926, Hellinger was one of the judges for a beauty contest sponsored by the Daily News; the winner was Ziegfeld showgirl Gladys Glad, on July 11, 1929, the two were wed. She divorced him in 1932, but after a year the two remarried on the same date as their original wedding, they remained wed until his death from a coronary thrombosis in Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Los Angeles, he was buried in a private mausoleum
Crossfire is a 1947 film noir drama film which deals with the theme of anti-Semitism, as did that year's Academy Award for Best Picture winner, Gentleman's Agreement. The film was directed by Edward Dmytryk and the screenplay was written by John Paxton, based on the 1945 novel The Brick Foxhole by screenwriter and director Richard Brooks; the film stars Robert Mitchum, Robert Young, Robert Ryan, Gloria Grahame. It received five Academy Award nominations, including Ryan for Best Supporting Actor and Gloria Grahame for Best Supporting Actress, it was the first B movie to receive a best picture nomination. After he is called in to investigate the brutal killing of Joseph Samuels, found dead at his home, police investigator Finlay discovers there may be a murderer among a group of demobilized soldiers, seen with Samuels and his female friend at a hotel bar that night. Meanwhile, Sergeant Keeley, concerned that his friend Mitchell may be the prime suspect, decides to investigate the murder to clear his friend's name.
To both investigators, each suspected soldier relays his version of that night through flashback. The first to step up is Montgomery and the rest are Floyd, a possible witness named Ginny; as Finlay and Keeley piece together the fragments of that night, they realize there is one possible motive that may have driven the killer to beat an innocent to death, which prompts Finlay to set up a trap to expose the killer. Robert Young as Capt. Finlay Robert Mitchum as Sgt. Peter Keeley Robert Ryan as Montgomery Gloria Grahame as Ginny Tremaine Paul Kelly as Mr. Tremaine Sam Levene as Joseph Samuels Jacqueline White as Mary Mitchell Steve Brodie as Floyd Bowers George Cooper as Cpl. Arthur Mitchell Richard Benedict as Bill Williams Tom Keene as Dick, detective William Phipps as Leroy Lex Barker as Harry Marlo Dwyer as Miss Lewis Kenneth McDonald as the Major The film's screenplay, written by John Paxton, was based on director and screenwriter Richard Brooks's 1945 novel The Brick Foxhole. Brooks wrote his novel while he was a sergeant in the U.
S. Marine Corps making training films at Quantico and Camp Pendleton, California. In the novel, the victim was a homosexual; as told in the film The Celluloid Closet, in the documentary included on the DVD edition of the Crossfire film, the Hollywood Hays Code prohibited any mention of homosexuality because it was seen as a sexual perversion. Hence, the book's theme of homophobia was changed to one about anti-Semitism; the book was published. A fellow Marine by the name of Robert Ryan met Brooks and told him he was determined to play in a version of the book on screen; the film premiered at the Rivoli Theatre in New York City on July 22, 1947. The U. S. Army only showed the film at its U. S. bases. The U. S. Navy would not exhibit the film at all; when first released, the staff at Variety magazine gave the film a positive review, writing, "Crossfire is a frank spotlight on anti-Semitism. Producer Dore Schary, in association with Adrian Scott, has pulled no punches. There is no skirting such relative fol-de-rol as intermarriage or clubs.
Here is a hard-hitting film whose whodunit aspects are fundamentally incidental to the overall thesis of bigotry and race prejudice... Director Edward Dmytryk has drawn gripping portraitures; the flashback technique is effective as it shades and colors the sundry attitudes of the heavy, as seen or recalled by the rest of the cast."The New York Times film critic, Bosley Crowther, lauded the acting in the drama, wrote, "Mr. Dmytryk has handled most excellently a superlative cast which plays the drama. Robert Ryan is frighteningly real as the hard, loud-mouthed and vicious murderer, Robert Mitchum, Steve Brodie, George Cooper are variously revealing as his pals. Robert Young gives a fine taut performance as the patiently questioning police lieutenant, whose mind and sensibilities are revolted—and eloquently expressed—by what he finds. Sam Levene is affectingly gentle in his brief bit as the Jewish victim, Gloria Grahame is believably brazen and pathetic as a girl of the streets."Critic Dennis Schwartz questioned the noir aspects of the film, discussed the cinematography in his review.
He wrote, "This is more of a message film than a noir thriller, but has been classified by most cinephiles in the noir category... J. Roy Hunt, the 70-year-old cinematographer, who goes back to the earliest days of Hollywood, shot the film using the style of low-key lighting, providing dark shots of Monty, contrasted with ghost-like shots of Mary Mitchell as she angelically goes to help her troubled husband Arthur."The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 83% of critics gave the film a positive review, based on twelve reviews. The film made a profit of $1,270,000. Wins Cannes Film Festival: Award, Best Social Film.
Wanda Jakubowska was a Polish film director. During World War II, she was a prisoner in Auschwitz. After the war, she made the movie Ostatni etap in 1947; the film was shot on location at Auschwitz concentration camp. The film is based on her personal experiences as a prisoner at Auschwitz, she claimed that what helped her to survive Auschwitz was thinking about the documentation of her experiences. She was a professor at the National Film School in Łódź. Biały mazur Żołnierz zwycięstwa The Last Stage The Sea Grand Prix - Crystal Globe for The Last Stage at the 3rd Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in 1948. International Peace Prize for The Last Stage in 1950. Wanda Jakubowska on IMDb Wanda Jakubowska at the www.filmpolski.pl
Alessandro Blasetti was an Italian film director and screenwriter who influenced Italian neorealism with the film Quattro passi fra le nuvole. Blasetti was one of the leading figures in Italian cinema during the Fascist era, he is sometimes known as the "father of Italian cinema" because of his role in reviving the struggling industry in the late 1920s. Blasetti was born in Rome, where he died. After studying law at university, Blasetti chose to become a film critic, he worked for several film magazines and led a campaign for national film production, which had ceased by this point. In 1919 he made a brief foray into acting when he appeared as an extra in Mario Caserini's Tortured Soul. In 1929 Blasetti made his directorial debut with Sun, a fictional story set against the ongoing draining of the Pontine Marshes; the film was well received at a time. Benito Mussolini described it as "the dawn of the Fascist film". Like many of his early productions, it had elements; the strong reception for Sun, led to Blasetti receiving an offer from Stefano Pittaluga, the only significant commercial producer left working in Italy at the time.
Pittaluga had converted his Rome studios for sound films. Blasetti directed what would have been the first Italian sound film Resurrection, but delays meant that it was released after Gennaro Righelli's The Song of Love. In 1934 Blasetti directed the play 18 BL a "mass theatre" performed outdoors with 2,000 amateur actors. Blasetti was a driving force in the revival of the Italian film industry in the 1930s, having lobbied for greater state funding and support. One outcome was the construction of the large Cinecittà studios in Rome, he played himself in Luchino Visconti's film Bellissima starred by Anna Magnani, a Roman mother who desires to make her daughter a filmstar in Cinecittà where Blasetti makes the screen test for the child actors. He was President of the Jury at the 1967 Cannes Film Festival, his 1969 film Simón Bolívar was entered into the 6th Moscow International Film Festival. Moliterno, Gino. Historical Dictionary of Italian Cinema. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810860732. Alessandro Blasetti on IMDb
Monsieur Vincent is a 1947 French film about Vincent de Paul, the 17th-century priest and charity worker. It depicts his struggle to help the poor in the face of obstacles such as the Black Death. In 1949, it won an honorary Academy Award as the best foreign language film released in the United States in 1948; the Vatican placed it amongst their list of approved films under the category of Religion due to its thematic nature in 1995. Pierre Fresnay portrayed Vincent. Guy Lefranc was assistant director on the movie. Monsieur Vincent on IMDb