The Assad-class corvette were built for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, by Fincantieri in Italy. Six ships were ordered in 1981, they were completed just before Operation Desert Storm, were never delivered because of the UN arms embargo. Four of the six ships were sold to the Malaysian Navy as Laksamana-class corvettes in 1995; the two remaining ships were laid up in La Spezia from 1990, but in 2005 it was announced they would be delivered to the New Iraqi Navy. The deal, however was cancelled due to the condition of the ships upon inspection. On 19 May 2017, it was reported that the remaining two vessels would be delivered to the Iraq Navy after 26 years, they left La Spezia on a semi-submersible carrier Eide Trader on 22 May and reached Iraq in June 2017. The Libyan Navy operated. Al Tadjier is believed to have been destroyed by US Navy aircraft; the other ships that served with the Libyan navy were Al Kalij and Al Hudud. All the ships entered service between 1977 and 1979. All the remaining ships were scrapped in 1993.
Conway's All the Worlds Fighting Ships 1947-1995
General Electric LM2500
The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine; the LM2500 is available in 3 different versions: The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions; the improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions; the latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions. As of 2004, the U. S. Navy and at least 29 other navies had used a total of more than one thousand LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbines to power warships.
Other uses include hydrofoils and fast ferries. In 2012, GE developed an FPSO version to serve the oil and gas industry's demand for a lighter, more compact version to generate electricity and drive compressors to send natural gas through pipelines; the LM2500 was first used in US Navy warships in the Spruance class of destroyers and the related Kidd class, which were constructed from 1970. In this configuration it was rated to 21,500 shp; this configuration was subsequently used into the 1980s in the Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates, Ticonderoga class cruisers. It was used by one of People's Republic of China's Type 052 Luhu Class Missile Destroyer acquired before the embargo; the LM2500 was uprated to 26,500 shp for the Arleigh Burke class destroyers, which were initiated in the 1980s and started to see service in the early 1990s, the T-AOE-6 class of fast combat tanker. In 2001 the LM2500 was installed in a sound-proof capsule in the South African Navy Valour class frigates as part of a CODAG propulsion system with two MTU 16V 1163 TB93 Propulsion Diesels.
The current generation was uprated in the late 1990s to over 30,000 shp. LM2500 installations place the engine inside a metal container for sound and heat isolation from the rest of the machinery spaces; this container is near the size of a standard 40-foot intermodal shipping container - but not the same, the engine size slightly exceeds those dimensions. The air intake ducting may be designed and shaped appropriately for easy removal of the LM2500 from their ships; the LM2500+ is an evolution of the LM2500, delivering up to 40,200 shp or 28.6 MW of electric energy when combined with an electrical generator. Two of such turbo-generators have been installed in the superstructure near the funnel of Queen Mary 2, the world's largest transatlantic ocean liner, for additional electric energy when the ship's four diesel-generators are working at maximum capacity or fail. Celebrity Cruises uses two LM2500+ engines in their Millennium-class ships in a COGAS cycle; the LM2500 is license-built in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima, in India by HAL BHEL L&T BEL, South Korea Hanwha Techwin Doosan, MTU Aero Engines in Germany and in Italy by Avio Aero.
The LM2500/LM2500+ can be found as turbine part of CODAG or CODOG propulsion systems or in pairs as powerplants for COGAG systems. Aircraft carrier: Italian aircraft carrier Cavour HTMS Chakri Naruebet Spanish aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias INS Vikrant Amphibious assault ship: USS Makin Island Spanish ship Juan Carlos I Canberra-class landing helicopter dock Cruiser: Ticonderoga-class cruiser Destroyer: Arleigh Burke-class destroyer Hobart-class destroyer Atago-class destroyer Durand de la Penne-class destroyer Gwanggaeto the Great-class destroyer Kidd-class destroyer Sejong the Great-class destroyer Kongō-class destroyer Spruance-class destroyer Type 052 destroyer Frigate: Adelaide-class frigate Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate Anzac-class frigate Baden-Württemberg-class frigate Barbaros-class frigate Brandenburg-class frigate Bremen-class frigate Cheng Kung-class frigate FREMM multipurpose frigate Fridtjof Nansen-class frigate Halifax-class frigate Horizon-class frigate Hydra-class frigate Naresuan-class frigate Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate Sachsen-class frigate Santa María-class frigate Shivalik-class frigate Valour-class frigate Vasco da Gama-class frigate Ulsan-class frigate Fast Combat Support Ship: Supply-class fast combat support ship Maritime Prepositioning Force: Watson-class vehicle cargo ship Littoral combat ship: Independence-class littoral combat ship Corvette: Ada-class corvette Niels Juel-class corvette Sa'ar 5-class corvette Inhauma-class corvette Fast Attack Patrol boat Pegasus-class hy
Italian destroyer Caio Duilio
Caio Duilio is a destroyer of the Italian Navy. She and her sister Italian destroyer Andrea Doria form the Andrea Doria class. Caio Duilio is marked by hull number D 554 according to NATO classification; the ship takes her name from admiral Gaius Duilius. Duilius ordered the construction of 120 ships that were armed with hooked bridges called corvus, Latin for “crow”; this innovation allowed the Romans to defeat the powerful enemy fleet of Carthage transforming the naval battle into a melee combat. After the victory over the Carthaginians at the Battle of Mylae in 260 BC, Duilius was honored with a triumphal parade and the erection in the Roman Forum of a column adorned with the beaks of captured Carthaginian warships; the destroyer Caio Duilio is the fourth Italian warship with this historical name. The first, the ironclad Caio Duilio, was commissioned in 1886 and served until 1909. Fitted with the largest guns available, 100-ton 450 mm calibre muzzle-loading guns, she was regarded as the most powerful warship afloat in her day.
The second unit, the Andrea Doria-class battleship Caio Duilio, was commissioned on 24 April 1913 and was subsequently refitted in 1937, serving in the Regia Marina during World War I and World War II. Caio Duilio was launched on October 23, 2007 and transported to Muggiano shipyard on October 29 for the mounting of the combat system. Caio Duilio's motto refers to the ancient Roman tradition, in which the name acquires religious connotations; some ancient fragments point up this intimate meaning. "Nomen Numen" can be translated as "the name means power". On February 12, 2008 she made the first sea trial and, after the admission into military fleet which took place on April 3, 2009, in Gulf of La Spezia she took part, together with Andrea Doria and French ships Forbin and Chevalier Paul, in a joint exercise which brought together the whole Horizon class on May 5, 2009. Caio Duilio was, along with the aircraft carrier Cavour and the training ship Amerigo Vespucci, one of the Navy Units visitable in Civitavecchia harbour on the Day of the Unification of Italy and the Armed Forces on November 4, 2009.
She participated in the naval parades for the celebrations of the Italian Navy Day in Naples on June 10, 2010 and in La Spezia on June 10, 2011, in the presence of President Giorgio Napolitano. During the development of many complex systems on board, during the trials that led her many times in the Naval Station of Taranto, she made her debut in the international arena during NATO exercise Proud Manta 2011 from February 4 to February 17, 2011, in the waters of the Ionian Sea before the delivery of the Battle Ensign, working together with ships and aircraft of nine allied nations. Nowadays Caio Duilio is the only destroyer based in La Spezia harbour, flagship of the Commander of First Naval Group and under the command of Captain Gaetano Virgilio. Caio Duilio is a multirole ship, with a bias towards anti-aircraft warfare and short and medium-range defence capabilities, she is highly capable in anti-submarine and anti-surface warfare. The ship has been designed to take and operate with Rotary wing aircraft of much higher performance and more autonomy than previous generation helicopters.
The handling of wheeled helicopters on the flight deck is guaranteed up to sea state 6 by the semi-automatic Canadian system TC-ASIST of Indal Technologies committing to these operations a single operator. By type of ship and technology aboard Caio Duilio is able to cover a broad spectrum of maritime activities, ranging from high-intensity military operations to Maritime Security operations; the missions that the unit can perform are: Escort role in an aircraft carrier battle group or naval convoy. The ship was designed to be as little detectable by radar as possible, by using stealth technology for the hull and superstructure. Sea-keeping in unfavorable weather conditions is granted by two pairs of stabilizers; the acoustic signature was reduced with an appropriate choice of machinery and engineering solutions and verifying the intensity of the radiated noise, since the design phase. Equal attention has been directed in the infrared signature branch, by lowering the temperature of engine gases through coaxial exhausts.
After the abandonment of the old system of command and control SADOC, used in the latest modernized version in the Durand de la Penne and Maestrale classes, an integrated type CMS based on Linux OS was installed by EuroSysNav. This is provided with 10 redundant servers and 24 consoles named MFC, of which 19 are located in the Primary CIC, 3 in the secondary CIC in a remote area from the primary CIC, 1 in the Admiral CIC and 1 in the bridge for the officer of the watch. With a MFC each operator, once logged in with own user name and password, can access to all relevant tactical data to his role and has the possibility to us
Diciotti-class offshore patrol vessel
The Diciotti class is an Italian-designed offshore patrol vessel, presently in use with the Italian Coast Guard, Iraqi Navy, Armed Forces of Malta and Panama SENAN. These ships are designed and built by Fincantieri on the bay of La Spezia to Muggiano and Riva Trigoso shipyards. Based on the earlier experimental Saettia class, the Diciotti class is an advanced and improved version with a longer length, more power and hence greater patrol endurance. In 2003, the Armed Forces of Malta ordered a replacement for the former East German Kondor class patrol boats P29, P30 and P31, due to the increase in flow of refugees from North Africa to Europe; the design for P61 provides a clear rear half to the ship, providing sufficient space with reinforcement to land a helicopter, up to the size of an AW139. P61 has the capability of carrying out patrols up to Sea State 5, withstand sea conditions up to Sea State 7, it can launch a rib patrol boat via a rear launch ramp up to Sea State 4. This combination of modifications increases vessel weight to 450-tonnes, reduces standard crew capacity to 25.
Maximum unrefueled patrol length at 20 knots is 3,000 nautical miles. The €17m Euros contract, financed from the 5th Italo-Maltese Financial Protocol, covered the construction of the vessel together with an associated training and logistic support package; the ship was commissioned on October 1, 2005 and operational from November 5, 2005. P61 acts as the flagship of the Armed Forces of Malta; the vessel has been updated in 2017 with overhaul and engine refit, by Fincantieri, to a cost around €7 million. In 2006, the new Iraqi Navy signed a contract with the Italian Government to purchase four modified Diciotti class vessels to patrol its 58 kilometre coast line; the vessels are to be built by Fincantieri at Riva Trigoso, with modifications including increased crew capacity of 38. The contract comprises the provision of logistical support and crew training with each crew completing a 7-week training course. In cooperation with the Marina Militare, each commissioning crew is provided with a week’s bridge simulator course at the Naval Academy in Livorno.
In May 2009, the first vessel, Patrol Ship 701 named Fatah, was handed over at the Muggiano, La Spezia shipyard. The crew had been training since January 2009, now headed for Umm Qasr, a 20 day/5,000 nautical mile journey via the Mediterranean, Suez Canal and Red Sea. There, additional training was completed, before the vessel took over duties from the British Royal Marine patrols, who reverted to training the new crew; the vessels are used to patrol the exclusive economic zone, control maritime traffic, for search and rescue and fire fighting. Following an agreement reached in June 2010, Italy delivered CP 902 Ubaldo Diciotti and CP 903 Luigi Dattilo to SENAN - National Air and Navy Service of Panama as P 901 and P 902 in April 2014. Falaj 2-class patrol vessel - a more armed patrol vessel based on the Diciotti
A gas turbine called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine. There are three main components: An upstream rotating gas compressor. Above. A fourth component is used to increase efficiency, to convert power into mechanical or electric form, or to achieve greater power to mass/volume ratio; the basic operation of the gas turbine is a Brayton cycle with air as the working fluid. Fresh atmospheric air flows through the compressor. Energy is added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it so the combustion generates a high-temperature flow; this high-temperature high-pressure gas enters a turbine, where it expands down to the exhaust pressure, producing a shaft work output in the process. The turbine shaft work is used to drive the compressor; the purpose of the gas turbine determines the design so that the most desirable split of energy between the thrust and the shaft work is achieved. The fourth step of the Brayton cycle is omitted, as gas turbines are open systems that do not use the same air again.
Gas turbines are used to power aircraft, ships, electrical generators, gas compressors, tanks. 50: Earliest records of Hero's engine. It most served no practical purpose, was rather more of a curiosity. 1000: The "Trotting Horse Lamp" was used by the Chinese at lantern fairs as early as the Northern Song dynasty. When the lamp is lit, the heated airflow rises and drives an impeller with horse-riding figures attached on it, whose shadows are projected onto the outer screen of the lantern. 1500: The Chimney Jack was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci: Hot air from a fire rises through a single-stage axial turbine rotor mounted in the exhaust duct of the fireplace and turning the roasting spit by gear-chain connection. 1629: Jets of steam rotated an impulse turbine that drove a working stamping mill by means of a bevel gear, developed by Giovanni Branca. 1678: Ferdinand Verbiest built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power. 1791: A patent was given to John Barber, an Englishman, for the first true gas turbine.
His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines. The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage. 1861: British patent no. 1633 was granted to Marc Antoine Francois Mennons for a "Caloric engine". The patent shows that it was a gas turbine and the drawings show it applied to a locomotive. Named in the patent was Nicolas de Telescheff, a Russian aviation pioneer. 1872: A gas turbine engine designed by Berlin engineer, Franz Stolze, is thought to be the first attempt at creating a working model, but the engine never ran under its own power. 1894: Sir Charles Parsons patented the idea of propelling a ship with a steam turbine, built a demonstration vessel, the Turbinia the fastest vessel afloat at the time. This principle of propulsion is still of some use. 1895: Three 4-ton 100 kW Parsons radial flow generators were installed in Cambridge Power Station, used to power the first electric street lighting scheme in the city. 1899: Charles Gordon Curtis patented the first gas turbine engine in the US.
1900: Sanford Alexander Moss submitted a thesis on gas turbines. In 1903, Moss became an engineer for General Electric's Steam Turbine Department in Lynn, Massachusetts. While there, he applied some of his concepts in the development of the turbosupercharger, his design used a small turbine wheel, driven by exhaust gases. 1903: A Norwegian, Ægidius Elling, built the first gas turbine, able to produce more power than needed to run its own components, considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp. 1906: The Armengaud-Lemale turbine engine in France with a water-cooled combustion chamber. 1910: Holzwarth impulse turbine achieved 150 kilowatts. 1913: Nikola Tesla patents the Tesla turbine based on the boundary layer effect. 1920s The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal theory of gas flow past airfoils by A. A. Griffith resulting in the publishing in 1926 of An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design.
Working testbed designs of axial turbines suitable for driving a propellor were developed by the Royal Aeronautical Establishment proving the efficiency of aerodynamic shaping of the blades in 1929. 1930: Having found no interest from the RAF for his idea, Frank Whittle patented the design for a centrifugal gas turbine for jet propulsion. The first successful use of his engine occurred in England in April 1937. 1932: BBC Brown, Boveri & Cie of Switzerland] starts selling axial compressor and turbine turbosets as part of the turbocharged steam generating Velox boiler. Following the gas turbine principle, the steam evaporation tubes are arranged within the gas turbine combustion chamber. 1934: Raúl Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas gener
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
Italian submarine Scirè (S 527)
Scirè is a Todaro-class submarine of the Italian Navy. The submarine was laid down on 27 July 2000 at the Muggiano shipyard by Fincantieri. Scirè was launched on 18 December 2004 and commissioned on 19 February 2007. Scirè's earlier namesake, the submarine Scirè, was launched in 1938 and served during the Second World War, she participated in some of the operations of the Decima Flottiglia MAS, including the raid on Alexandria in 1941 using human torpedoes, before her loss in 1942. Scirè spent over five months deployed to the U. S. in 2009, participating in the CONUS 2009 exercise with the United States Navy