Tatsumi Fujinami is a Japanese professional wrestler, who famously used the nickname "The Dragon". He is credited for inventing the dragon suplex, he is the owner and founder of the Dradition wrestling promotion. Fujinami is most well known for his long tenure with New Japan Pro Wrestling, where he was a six-time IWGP Heavyweight Champion. In 2015, Fujinami was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame, while signing on as an ambassador for the company. Bret Hart said of Fujinami: "I always wanted to be the great wrestler that Tatsumi Fujinami was". Fujinami started in the old Japanese Wrestling Association under Antonio Inoki's wing at the age of 17; when Inoki was fired from JWA in 1971, Fujinami and a few others followed him in forming a new promotion, New Japan Pro Wrestling. Inoki, Osamu Kido and Kotetsu Yamamoto are recognized as NJPW's founding fathers. In those early days, he served as opponent for debuting rookies, such as Mr. Pogo, Yoshiaki Fujiwara and Gran Hamada. Fujinami, Fujiwara and three other rookies competed in the 1974 Karl Gotch Cup.
In the late 1970s, Fujinami was sent abroad, to Mexico's Universal Wrestling Association and to Jim Crockett Promotions in the U. S. In the late 1970s he went to the World Wide Wrestling Federation where he first made a name for himself, he won his first title, the WWWF Junior Heavyweight Championship, on January 23, 1978, by defeating José Estrada in Madison Square Garden, brought it to Japan, establishing it as the premier junior heavyweight title in Japan. In 1981, he was moved to the heavyweight division to make room for Tiger Mask in the junior heavyweight division. Fujinami would be the first wrestler to be successful in both the junior heavyweight and heavyweight divisions. 1988 proved to be Fujinami's banner year. On May 8, he defeated Big Van Vader by disqualification. However, within days, the title was held up. In October, he won the NWA Pacific Northwest Heavyweight Championship, he ended the year by winning the WCWA World Heavyweight Championship in December. 1989 proved to be a heartbreaking year for Fujinami.
In April, he vacated the title to be determined in a tournament at New Japan's first Tokyo Dome show. In June, during a match with Vader, Fujinami pulled a hernia, he wouldn't wrestle at all until he returned in September 1990, changing his kanji from "辰巳" to "辰爾". In December 1990, he regained the title, his reign was short-lived. Fujinami rebounded by regaining the title two months later. Within days, Fujinami made history, as he defeated Ric Flair to win the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, making him the first man to hold the IWGP and NWA World titles simultaneously, his "most remembered" match in the U. S. was when he defended his NWA World Heavyweight title against Ric Flair in a title vs. title re-match at the first WCW SuperBrawl I in Florida after a controversial match in Japan that March. Flair retained his WCW Championship and regained Fujinami's NWA title by a school boy pin with a handful of tights. In 1993, Fujinami won the G1 Climax tournament, defeating Yoshiaki Fujiwara, Osamu Kido, Keiji Mutoh, Hiroshi Hase to win the tournament.
In April 1994, he defeated Shinya Hashimoto to win his fifth IWGP Heavyweight title, but lost it back to Hashimoto three weeks later. In January 1997, he reunited with Kengo Kimura to win the IWGP Tag Team titles from Masahiro Chono and Hiroyoshi Tenzan, they would hold onto the belts for over three months before losing them to Riki Choshu and Kensuke Sasaki. In April 1998, Fujinami won his sixth and final IWGP Heavyweight title by defeating Sasaki, he would hold before losing the title to Chono. In recent years Fujinami has decreased his work load upon being named President of NJPW in 1999, his last title reign in NJPW was an IWGP Tag Team Championship with disciple Osamu Nishimura in October 2001, his last title shot was a Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship bout against Keiji Mutoh in December of the same year. In 2006, after nearly 35 years in the company, Fujinami left NJPW, after giving an ultimatum of either Riki Choshu leave or Fujinami leave. New Japan stuck with Choshu. Another veteran and Fujinami's long-time tag team partner, Kengo Kimura, would follow suit.
He and Nishimura began running their Muga promotion again, focusing on pure catch wrestling which seems to have been relegated by NJPW. In a tag team dream match, along with his close friend Nishimura beat Mitsuharu Misawa and Go Shiozaki in the main event of the first "Muga World" show; the name of Fujinami's new promotion has since been changed to Dradition, after the departure of Nishimura. On August 18, 2012, Fujinami won his first title in eleven years, when he took part in Dramatic Dream Team's 15th anniversary event in Nippon Budokan, during which he and Mikami defeated Kudo and Makoto Oishi for the KO-D Tag Team Championship. Fujinami remains an active competitor at the age of 63 and shows little sign of slowing down. On March 19, 2015, it was announced that Fujinami would be inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame as part of the class of 2015. Fujinami was inducted by Ric Flair at the ceremony, which took place on March 28
Osamu Nishimura is a Japanese professional wrestler working for All Japan Pro Wrestling as a freelancer. Nishimura worked for New Japan Pro-Wrestling and MUGA World Pro Wrestling. Nishimura debuted for New Japan Pro-Wrestling in April 1991 after training in their Dojo. In 1994, he embarked on a tour of the United States, entering the Global Wrestling Federation in Dallas, winning its Light Heavyweight Championship on August 26, becoming the promotion's final champion. A day Nishimura was one of eight men chosen to take part in a tournament for the vacant NWA World Heavyweight Championship. In the infamous tournament promoted by Eastern Championship Wrestling, Nishimura was eliminated in the first round by Dean Malenko. In a second tournament hosted by Smoky Mountain Wrestling in November, Nishimura battled Lou Perez to a draw and both men were eliminated. Nishimura returned to Japan when his mentor Tatsumi Fujinami was forming an offshoot promotion called MUGA, which would base its style around traditional catch-as-catch-can wrestling.
The promotion did not catch on and Nishimura left the country once again, targeting Otto Wanz's Catch Wrestling Association, touring throughout Austria and Germany winning its Submission Shootfighting Championship. He returned to New Japan in 1998 and teamed with Shinya Hashimoto in the struggle against NWO Japan's Keiji Mutoh and Masahiro Chono, who held the IWGP Tag Team Championship, but they were unsuccessful. Nishimura failed to unseat IWGP Heavyweight Champion Kensuke Sasaki, Nishimura was diagnosed with cancer in the year. Nishimura was inactive until the cancer went into remission following treatment. In 2001, he went to the United States again to polish his skills at the Funking Conservatory in Florida, under the eye of Dory Funk, Jr.. He blossomed again. After returning to Japan, Nishimura's star was bright enough to warrant an earnest push, he won the IWGP tag team titles with Fujinami. Nonetheless, the bi-promotional duo of Mutoh and All Japan Pro Wrestling's Taiyō Kea were on the rise, the two teams clashed over both the IWGP title and AJPW's World Tag Team Championship, both of which ended up around the waists of Mutoh and Kea.
In 2002 he teamed with Manabu Nakanishi under the name Gotch-ism. As Nakanishi began teaming more with Yutaka Yoshie, Nishimura engaged in a feud with the returning Minoru Suzuki, with whom he had a MUGA-style feud that showcased the traditional, scientific skills of both wrestlers, he found a better partner in Hiroyoshi Tenzan, with whom he won another IWGP tag team title in late 2003. They held the belts until February 2004 when they were defeated by Yoshihiro Takayama; as Tenzan focused on the IWGP Heavyweight title, Nishimura aimlessly was relegated to the mid-card. In January 2006, Nishimura left the company altogether. In February, he and old MUGA comrade Katsushi Takemura took part in American promotion Chikara's 2006 Tag World Grand Prix, where they made it to the semi-finals, before being defeated by Milano Collection A. T. and Skayde. He participated in the NWA Reclaiming the Glory tournament, where he attempted to win the NWA World title for a third time, but was defeated in the first round by Brent Albright on Saturday, June 2, 2007.
On October 20, 2007, Nishimura announced that he and trainee Manabu Soya have signed with All Japan Pro Wrestling as full-time wrestlers, citing unhappiness with the erratic MUGA World scheduling. From November 23 to December 9, 2007, Nishimura teamed with Masanobu Fuchi to compete in the World's Strongest Tag Determination League, finishing the league with 7 points and placing 5th overall. In November 2007, Nishimura announced plans to form a tag team with Dory Funk, Jr. in 2008, along with claiming that All Japan is planning a retirement ceremony for Funk. On March 31, 2013, Nishimura made his debut for Wrestling New Classic, defeating Zeus to become the number one contender to the WNC Championship. On April 25, he defeated Akira to become the second WNC Champion. A month Nishimura joined Akira's villainous Synapse stable. On August 8, Nishimura lost the WNC Championship to Tajiri in his first defense. Catch Wrestling AssociationCWA Submission Shootfighting Championship Funking Conservatory!
Bang! TV World Heavyweight Championship FC United States Heavyweight Championship Global Wrestling FederationGWF Light Heavyweight Championship Independent Wrestling World IWW One Night Tournament New Japan Pro-WrestlingIWGP Tag Team Championship – with Tatsumi Fujinami and Hiroyoshi Tenzan The Catch of Lancashire Tournament G1 Tag League – with Hiroyoshi Tenzan Triathlon Survivor – with Manabu Nakanishi & Yutaka Yoshie Tag Team Best Bout with Manabu Nakanishi vs. Hiroyoshi Tenzan and Masahiro Chono on June 5 Technique Award Nikkan Sports Technique Award New Korea Pro-Wrestling AssociationNKPWA World Heavyweight Champion Pro Wrestling IllustratedPWI ranked him #213 of the top 500 singles wrestlers in the PWI 500 in 2010Wrestling New ClassicWNC Championship Official Blog Profile at Strong Style Spirit Profile at Puroresu Central
The G1 Climax is a professional wrestling tournament held each August by the New Japan Pro-Wrestling promotion. Though it has sometimes been held as a single-elimination tournament, it is held as a round-robin, with winners from two blocks wrestling in the final to decide that year's winner. In its current format, the tournament lasts four weeks; the winner of each block is determined by a points system. NJPW had an annual tournament since 1974 under various names: the World League. Most of these tournaments were dominated by NJPW's founding top star Antonio Inoki. Although the 1983 winner, Hulk Hogan, was awarded a championship belt, this is not the beginning of the IWGP Heavyweight Championship, but an its early version, defended annually against the winner of the IWGP League of the year; the current IWGP Heavyweight Championship arrived only in 1987. In 1989, there was a World Cup Tournament. No tournament was held in 1990. With Inoki's dominance over NJPW gone, the promotion established the G1 Climax tournament in 1991 as a platform to showcase the company's top heavyweights and have them compete in round-robin matches where the winners of the two divisions would square off in the tournament finals.
NJPW's president Seiji Sakaguchi named the tournament after the G1 horse race. Though considered a continuation of the previous tournaments NJPW does not recognize the earlier tournaments as part of the G1 Climax lineage; the first G1 was held from August 7 to August 1991, at Tokyo's Ryōgoku Kokugikan. The winner of the tournament, assuming they are not the champion, has traditionally earned a shot at the IWGP Heavyweight Championship. Since 2012, the winner has earned the "Tokyo Dome IWGP Heavyweight Championship challenge rights certificate", a contract for a title shot at NJPW's largest event, Wrestle Kingdom in Tokyo Dome, held annually on January 4. Much like WWE's Money in the Bank contract, the certificate is kept in a briefcase that the wrestler has to defend until the end of the year. Since its inception, the contract has never changed hands in these matches. In 2015, the tournament format was changed with NJPW reducing the number of G1 Climax matches per show, giving the participating wrestlers more time to rest between matches.
This increased the tournament's length to four weeks. In 2016, Kenny Omega became the first gaijin wrestler to win the tournament; the G1 Climax tournament has been used as a platform for NJPW to push their rising stars. Wins by young up-and-comers over Japanese legends would take their respective careers to new heights; the first tournament was created to make stars out of Keiji Mutoh, Masahiro Chono and Shinya Hashimoto, three NJPW wrestlers who had just returned to the promotion from their overseas learning excursions. Past winners include Mutoh, Hashimoto, Yuji Nagata, Hiroshi Tanahashi, others who have gone on to become wrestling superstars. Unlike the New Japan Cup, the G1 Climax features the then-reigning IWGP Heavyweight Champion as one of the participants, except in 1992, 2001, 2004 and 2008, when then-champions Riki Choshu, Kazuyuki Fujita, Keiji Mutoh did not compete in the tournament. Being labeled as a favorite to win the tournament, the IWGP Heavyweight Champion has reached the final five times, the first one being in 1995 when Keiji Mutoh won the tournament.
Mutoh would lose the final to Manabu Nakanishi. Other then-reigning champions to reach the final include Kensuke Sasaki in 2000, Kazuyuki Fujita in 2005 and Yuji Nagata in 2007. Mutoh and Sasaki are the only two wrestlers to have won the G1 Climax while holding the IWGP Heavyweight Championship. Overall, Antonio Inoki holds the record for most tournament wins with ten, while Masahiro Chono with his five wins holds the record for most tournament wins under its G1 Climax name. Hiroyoshi Tenzan has taken part in the G1 Climax tournament a record 21 times; the opening night of the 2019 G1 Climax will take place on July 6 at the American Airlines Center in Dallas, marking the first time any G1 Climax show has taken place outside Japan. The 1974 World League ran from April 5 to May 8, 1974; the tournament began with 16 wrestlers, eight Japanese and eight Internationals, placed into groups accordingly. All first round matches featured the Japanese against the International; the top four finishers from both groups advanced to a second round of round-robin competition.
The 1975 World League ran from April 4 to May 16, 1975. The tournament featured 16 wrestlers; the top five finishers advanced to a knockout round, with the top finisher receiving a bye to the final. The 1976 World League ran from April 2 to May 11, 1976; the tournament featured 14 wrestlers. The top finisher advanced to the final match of the tournament, to face the winner of a three-wrestler round-robin semifinal round; the 1977 World League ran from April 21 to May 30, 1977. The tournament featured 11 wrestlers; the 1978 MSG League ran from April 21 to May 30, 1978. The tournament featured nine wrestlers; the 1979 MSG League ran from April 27 to June 7, 1979. The tournament featured 10 wrestlers; the 1980 MSG League ran from April 25 to June 5, 1980. The tournament featured 10 wrestlers; the 1981 MSG League ran from May 8 to June 4, 1981
Glossary of professional wrestling terms
Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms. A-show A wrestling event where a company's biggest draws wrestle. Compare B-show and C-show. A-team A group of a wrestling promotion's top stars who wrestle at an A-show. Compare B-team. Abort To discontinue a feud, angle, or gimmick due to a lack of fan interest without explanation. Ace A term only used in Japanese puroresu for a wrestler designated as the face of the promotion. Not the same as the top champion. Examples of aces include Hayabusa in Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling, Hiroshi Tanahashi in New Japan Pro Wrestling and Suwama in All Japan Pro Wrestling.
Agent Also producer. A management employee a former wrestler, who helps wrestlers set up matches, plan storylines, give criticisms on matches, relay instructions from the bookers. Agents act as a liaison between wrestlers and higher-level management and sometimes may help in training younger wrestlers, they are referred to by WWE as "producers". Alliance A cooperative relationship developed between two or more wrestlers, whether wrestling as a tag team or in individual matches. Differentiates from a stable and a faction as the wrestlers are not packaged together, but are presented as a group of individuals working together for a common short term goal. Alliances are formed for the specific purpose of retaining titles between the members of the alliance, or to counter a specific foe or group of foes; the formation of an alliance can be a storyline of its own. Angle A fictional storyline. An angle begins when one wrestler attacks another, which results in revenge. An angle may be as small as a vendetta that lasts for years.
It is not uncommon to see an angle become retconned due to it not getting over with the fans, or if one of the wrestlers involved in the angle is fired. Apter mag An old-style professional wrestling magazine; the term refers to the magazines at one time connected to journalist Bill Apter, such as Pro Wrestling Illustrated. B-show A wrestling event featuring the middle and lower-level talent of a wrestling promotion. Sometimes includes well-known wrestlers making a return or finishing up their career. Compare A-show and C-show. B-team The group of wrestlers on a B-show; the B-team will wrestle at a venue the same night wrestlers on the A-team are wrestling in a different event, although a promotion will sometimes schedule an event with B-team wrestlers to test a new market. Compare A-team. Babyface See face. Beat down An angle in which a wrestler or other performer is the recipient of a one-sided beating by a group of wrestlers. Blading Also juicing and getting color. A wrestler intentionally cutting themselves to provoke bleeding to sell the opponent's offense.
Blind tag 1. A tag made in a tag team match where the wrestler on the apron tags his partner unbeknownst to them or without their consent. 2. A tag where the tagger's opponent is unaware a tag has occurred, leaving them open to a blindside attack. Most occurs when the partner in the ring is thrown against the ropes or backed into their own corner. Blown spot See missed spot. Blow off The final match in a feud. While the involved wrestlers move onto new feuds, sometimes it is the final match in the promotion for one or more of the wrestlers. Blow up To become exhausted during a match. Book Also booking. To determine and schedule the events of a wrestling card; the person in charge of setting up matches and writing angles is a "booker". It is the wrestling equivalent of a screenwriter. A booker can be described as someone who recruits and hires talent to work in a particular promotion; the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa defined a booker in 1956 as " any person who, for a fee or commission, arranges with a promoter or promoters for the performance of wrestlers in professional wrestling exhibitions".
Booking is the term a wrestler uses to describe a scheduled match or appearance on a wrestling show. Botch Something which does not go as planned due to a mistake. Bret's rope The second rope of a wrestling ring, the middle rope. Broadway Also going broadway. A match that ends in a time limit draw. Bump To fall on the mat or ground. A flat back bump is a bump in which a wrestler lands solidly on their back with high impact, spread over as much surface as possible. A "phantom bump" occurs when a referee takes a bump without a plausible reason. Burial Also buried; the worked lowering of a wrestler's status in the eyes of the fans. The opposite of a push, it is the act of a promoter or booker causing a wrestler to lose popularity and credibility through means such as forcing them to lose in squash matches, losing continuously, allowing opponents to no-sell or kick out of said wrestler's finisher, or forcing them to participate in unentertaining or degrading storylines. A burial is used a form of punishment due to real-life backstage disagreements between the wrestler and the booker, the wrestler falling out of favor with the company, or sometimes to demote an unpopular performer or gimmick.
Business Professional wrestling. Bust
Keiji Mutoh is a Japanese professional wrestler who first gained international fame in the National Wrestling Alliance. He is known for his work as The Great Muta in New Japan Pro Wrestling during the 1990s, but he has worked in the United States, Puerto Rico and Taiwan, he is a former president of All Japan Pro Wrestling, as well as being a full-time wrestler for the promotion from 2002 to 2013. Mutoh is credited as one of the first Japanese wrestlers to achieve a fan base outside of his native Japan; the Great Muta gimmick is one of the most influential gimmicks in puroresu, having been emulated by many wrestlers including Satoshi Kojima, Kazushi Miyamoto, Atsushi Onita, Seiya Sanada. In addition, countless other wrestlers have paid tribute to Muta through imitation. Mutoh is one of three wrestlers to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship, the AJPW Triple Crown Heavyweight Championship, the IWGP Heavyweight Championship, he is a former five-time AJPW World Tag Team Champion and a six-time IWGP Tag Team Champion.
He is famous for taking part in what was considered to be the bloodiest professional wrestling match of all time against Hiroshi Hase, leading to the creation of the "Muta scale". Mutoh is the owner and founder of Wrestle-1, where he also wrestles semi-regularly, Mutoh made special appearances for American promotion Total Nonstop Action Wrestling as part of the TNA/W-1 talent exchange partnership. Between AJPW, NJPW, World Championship Wrestling and W-1, Mutoh has held a total of 22 championships. Mutoh was a judo black belt with experience in many national competitions prior to being trained by Hiro Matsuda in the New Japan Pro Wrestling Dojo, he debuted on October 1984 against Masahiro Chono. In 1985, Mutoh was sent on his first learning excursion to the United States. Wrestling in Florida as the "White Ninja", Mutoh teamed with Kendo Nagasaki before returning to New Japan in 1986, where he was nicknamed "Space Lone Wolf", a space-age type character, revived in 2005 by NOSAWA Rongai. In March 1987, Mutoh won the IWGP Tag Team Championship with Shiro Koshinaka, before losing the titles to Akira Maeda and Nobuhiko Takada six days later.
In the summer of 1987, Mutoh took part in the NOW vs. NEW feud, in which he aligned himself with Antonio Inoki and his group, teaming with the likes of Inoki, Seiji Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki Fujiwara, Kantaro Hoshino, battling the likes of Tatsumi Fujinami, Riki Choshu, Akira Maeda, Kengo Kimura, Super Strong Machine. In January 1988, Mutoh went on another excursion, this time in Puerto Rico for the World Wrestling Council under his new ring name, "The Super Black Ninja", he feuded with Miguel Perez Jr. with whom he lost a hair vs. hair match to that April. It was in Puerto Rico he formed The Three Musketeers with Shinya Hashimoto, he wrestled only one match in New Japan during this period on July 29, before returning to Puerto Rico. In the fall of 1988, Mutoh moved to the Dallas, Texas-based World Class Championship Wrestling, where he reunited with Kendo Nagasaki and had a short lived feud with Kevin Von Erich before departing the organization in March 1989. Mutoh's personality and ring skills shown in his early American matches earned him a high billing within the National Wrestling Alliance.
Mutoh first appeared as "The Great Muto" in the NWA on the March 18, 1989 edition of WCW Saturday Night, although announcer Jim Ross pronounced the name as "The Great Muta". His manager Gary Hart introduced him as the son of the Great Kabuki, whom Gary Hart had managed years earlier, he wrestled his first match under the new persona on April 2 against Scott Casey. Muta would feud with stars like Lex Luger, Ric Flair, Sting, from whom he would capture the NWA World Television Championship on September 3, 1989. Mutoh lost the championship to Arn Anderson on January 2, 1990, which aired on the January 12, 1990 edition of WCW Power Hour, some time after the Clash of the Champions on February 6, Mutoh would return to New Japan, going between his real name and his Muta gimmick as he pleased. Mutoh rose in the ranks upon returning to New Japan in March 1990, his Great Muta persona would make its NJPW debut six months later. In April 1990, he won his second IWGP Tag Team title with Masahiro Chono, defeating Shinya Hashimoto and Masa Saito.
He and Chono would hold the titles for over six months, before losing them to Hiroshi Hase and Kensuke Sasaki. Meanwhile in World Championship Wrestling, it was announced on Clash of the Champions XIII that The Great Muta would be returning at Starrcade'90 to team with Mr. Saito. Less than a month Mutoh teamed with Saito in the Pat O'Connor Memorial Tag-Team Tournament at Starrcade; the duo defeated The New Zealand Militia in the quarterfinals Victor Zangiev and Salmon Hasimikov in the semi-finals. Muta and Saito were defeated by US Tag Team Champions The Steiner Brothers in the finals. Muta continued to make sporadic appearances within WCW during 1991 while wrestling in New Japan, he was shown in attendance at WrestleWar 91, defeated old rival Sting at the combined New Japan/WCW Starrcade event on March 21, 1991 in Tokyo, Japan. Mutoh was entered into a match with United States Heavyweight Champion Lex Luger to determine the Number One Contender for the WCW World Heavyweight Championship. On June 12 at Clash of the Champions XV, Muta was pinned by Luger to ear
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t