GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, outside Cincinnati. GE Aviation is among the top aircraft engine suppliers, offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, one of the world's largest corporations; the division operated under the name of General Electric Aircraft Engines until September 2005. GE Aviation's main competitors in the engine market are Pratt & Whitney. GE operates two joint ventures with Safran Aircraft Engines of France, CFM International and CFM Materials. General Electric had a long history in steam turbine work. In 1903 they hired Sanford Alexander Moss, who started the development of turbosuperchargers at GE; this led to a series of record-breaking flights over the next ten years. At first the role of high-altitude flight was limited, but in the years prior to WWII they became standard equipment on all military aircraft. GE was a world leader in this technology; this work made them the natural industrial partner to develop jet engines when Frank Whittle's W.1 engine was demonstrated to Hap Arnold in 1941.
A production license was arranged in September, several of the existing W.1 test engines shipped to the US for study, where they were converted to US manufacture as the I-A. GE started production of improved versions. Early jet engine work took place at GE's Syracuse, NY and Lynn, MA plants, but soon concentrated at the Lynn plants. On 31 July 1945 the Lynn plant became the "Aircraft Gas Turbine Division". GE was unable to deliver enough engines for Army and Navy demand, production of the I-40 was handed to Allison Engines in 1944. After the war ended, the Army canceled its orders for GE-built J33s and turned the entire production over to Allison, the Syracuse plant closed; these changes in fortune led to debate within the company about carrying on in the aircraft engine market. However, the engineers at Lynn pressed ahead with development of a new engine, the TG-180, designated J35 by the US military. Development funds were allotted in 1946 for a more powerful version of the same design, the TG-190.
This engine emerged as the famed General Electric J47, which saw great demand for several military aircraft. J47 production ran to 30,000 engines by the time the lines closed down in 1956. Further development of the J47 by Patrick Clarke in 1957 led to the J73, from there into the much more powerful J79; the J79 was GE's second "hit", leading to a production run of 17,000 in several different countries. The GE and Lockheed team that developed the J79 and the F-104 Mach 2 fighter aircraft received the 1958 Collier Trophy for outstanding technical achievement in aviation. Other successes followed, including the T58, T64 turboshaft engines, J85 and F404 turbojets; the TF39 was the first high-bypass turbofan engine. Entered into the C-5 Galaxy contest in 1964 against similar designs from Curtiss-Wright and Pratt & Whitney, GE's entry was selected as the winner during the final down-select in 1965; this led to a civilian model, the CF6, offered for the Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 projects.
Although Lockheed changed their engine to the Rolls-Royce RB211, the DC-10 continued with the CF6, this success led to widespread sales on many large aircraft including the Boeing 747. Another military-to-civilian success followed when GE was selected to supply engines for the S-3 Viking and Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, developing a small high-bypass engine using technologies from the TF39; the resulting TF34 was adapted to become the CF34, whose wide variety of models powers many of the regional jets flying today. In the early 1970s, GE was selected to develop a modern turboshaft engine for helicopter use, the T700, it has been further developed as the CT7 turboprop engine for regional transports. In 1974 GE entered into an agreement with Snecma of France, forming CFM International to jointly produce a new mid-sized turbofan, which emerged as the CFM56. A 50/50 joint partnership was formed with a new plant in OH to produce the design. At first sales were difficult to come by, the project was due to be cancelled.
Only two weeks before this was to happen, in March 1979, several companies selected the CFM56 to re-engine their existing Douglas DC-8 fleets. By July 2010, CFM International had delivered their 21,000th engine of the CFM56 family, with an ongoing production rate of 1250 per year, against a four-year production backlog; the success of the CFM led GE to join in several similar partnerships, including Garrett AiResearch for the CFE CFE738, Pratt & Whitney on the Engine Alliance GP7000, more Honda for the GE Honda Aero Engines small turbofan project. GE continued development of their own lines, introducing new civilian models like the GE90, military designs like the General Electric F110. Then-GEAE were selected by Boeing to power its new 787. GE Aviation's offering is the GEnx, a development of the GE90. GE Aviation has a two-year exclusivity on the Boeing 747-8; the Lynn facility continues to assemble jet engines for the United States Department of Defense
A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization which owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. A multinational corporation can be referred to as a multinational enterprise, a transnational enterprise, a transnational corporation, an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.
They have become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities. A multinational corporation is a large corporation incorporated in one country which produces or sells goods or services in various countries; the two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies. Importing and exporting goods and services Making significant investments in a foreign country Buying and selling licenses in foreign markets Engaging in contract manufacturing — permitting a local manufacturer in a foreign country to produce their products Opening manufacturing facilities or assembly operations in foreign countriesMNCs may gain from their global presence in a variety of ways. First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.
Furthermore, MNCs can use their global presence to take advantage of underpriced labor services available in certain developing countries, gain access to special R&D capabilities residing in advanced foreign countries. The problem of moral and legal constraints upon the behavior of multinational corporations, given that they are "stateless" actors, is one of several urgent global socioeconomic problems that emerged during the late twentieth century; the best concept for analyzing society's governance limitations over modern corporations is the concept of "stateless corporations". Coined at least as early as 1991 in Business Week, the conception was theoretically clarified in 1993: that an empirical strategy for defining a stateless corporation is with analytical tools at the intersection between demographic analysis and transportation research; this intersection is known as logistics management, it describes the importance of increasing global mobility of resources. In a long history of analysis of multinational corporations we are some quarter century into an era of stateless corporations - corporations which meet the realities of the needs of source materials on a worldwide basis and to produce and customize products for individual countries.
One of the first multinational business organizations, the East India Company, was established in 1601. After the East India Company, came the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1603, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years; the main characteristics of multinational companies are: In general, there is a national strength of large companies as the main body, in the way of foreign direct investment or acquire local enterprises, established subsidiaries or branches in many countries. Multinational corporations can select from a variety of jurisdictions for various subsidiaries, but the ultimate parent company can select a single legal domicile. Corporations can engage in tax avoidance through their choice of jurisdiction, but must be careful to avoid illegal tax evasion. Multinational corporations may be subject to the laws and regulations of both their domicile and the additional jurisdictions where they are engaged in business. In some cases, the jurisdiction can help to avoid burdensome laws, but regulatory statutes target the "enterprise" with statutory language around "control".
For small corporations, registering a foreign subsidiary can be expensive and complex, involving fees and forms.
Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom
The aerospace industry of the United Kingdom is the third-largest national aerospace industry in the world and the third largest in Europe, with a global market share of 6.4% in 2016. In 2013, the industry employed 84,000 people. Domestic companies with a large presence in the British aerospace industry include BAE Systems, Britten-Norman, Cobham, GKN, Hybrid Air Vehicles, QinetiQ, Rolls Royce and Ultra Electronics. Foreign companies with a major presence include Boeing, Airbus, General Electric, Lockheed Martin, MBDA, Safran and Thales Group. Current manned aircraft in which the British aerospace industry has a major role include the AgustaWestland AW101, AgustaWestland AW159, Airbus A320 family, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A380, Airbus A400M, BAE Hawk, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787, Bombardier CRJ700, Bombardier CSeries, Bombardier Learjet 85, Britten-Norman Defender, Britten-Norman Islander, Eurofighter Typhoon, Hawker 800, Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules and Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II.
Current unmanned aerial vehicles in which the British aerospace industry has a major role include BAE Taranis, HAV 304 Airlander 10, QinetiQ Zephyr and Watchkeeper WK450. The British aerospace industry has made many important contributions to the history of aircraft and was or jointly, responsible for the development and production of the first aircraft with an enclosed cabin, the first jet aircraft to enter service for the Allies in World War II, the first commercial jet airliner to enter service, the first aircraft capable of supercruise, the first supersonic commercial jet airliner to enter service, the first fixed-wing V/STOL combat aircraft to enter service, the first twin-engined widebody commercial jet airliner, the first digital fly-by-wire commercial aircraft, the largest commercial aircraft to enter service to date. 1862: First flight of an observation balloon in Aldershot, Hampshire 1875: First flight of the Aerial Steamer, a tethered aeroplane 1879: First flight of the British Army's first balloon, the Pioneer 1890: British Army Balloon Factory is established 1893: First experimentation by British Army of a Man-lifting kite 1896: First flight of Frost Airship Glider 1907: First flight of British Army Dirigible No 1 1908: First flight of British Army Aeroplane No 1 1909: First flight of De Havilland Biplane No. 1 The desire by private individuals amateur gentlemen, to fly as a hobby provided the initial stimulus to the UK aviation industry.
By October 1913 there were over 80 private airworthy aeroplanes, more than the airworthy planes in the formed Royal Flying Corps. Before the First World War there were no regular air services and commercial aviation only started in 1919 after the development of suitably sized aircraft during the First World War. Whilst it was the military market, the source of aviation development, in the years leading up to 1914 it was, in the UK, rather sporadic. In 1909 development on behalf of the Government was stopped as being too costly. In April 1911 Britain had only 6 military aeroplanes; the French War Department owned 208. However, by the start of WW1 the Naval Wing of the R. F. C. had 93 and the Military Wing had 179. As a new technology, there was a great deal of interest from a variety of sources but it was individuals just enthused by aviation. Between 1909 and 1914 there were about 200 active constructors, although many of them only made one or two planes, but the production of the larger firms was not substantial and Colonial Aeroplane Company, one of the largest produced just over 200 planes between 1910 and 1914.
Most of the aviation pioneers, such as Geoffrey de Havilland, Thomas Sopwith, Richard Fairey, Robert Blackburn, Frederick Handley Page, A. V. Roe and the Short Brothers had a training in engineering and their companies were privately financed. There were several large engineering companies who got involved, such as Vickers in 1911, Armstrong Whitworth in 1912 British and Colonial Aeroplane Company in 1910 and Aircraft Manufacturing Company in 1912. Along with these companies there was the early development of seaplanes near Southampton, by companies such as S. E. Saunders and Pemberton-Billing. There were several French subsidiary companies who built aero-engines. Unsurprisingly the run up to and onset of the First World War led to a massive increase in the number of companies engaged in aircraft production. Between 1912 and 1916 aircraft production was moved on to a mass production basis, but it was only by 1917 that production problems and procedures were sorted out such that there was a steady flow of aircraft and spares.
By October 1918 there were 1,529 companies involved in the manufacture of aircraft. As well as aviation companies making aeroplanes there were other engineering companies involved in making aircraft and engines. Companies such as shipbuilders Harland and Wolff in Belfast, engineering manufacturer, G & J Weir in Glasgow; the motor industry had a capability to manufacture aeroplane
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing. For aircraft it is both, it was formerly called alighting gear by some manufacturers, such as the Glenn L. Martin Company. For aircraft, the landing gear supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take off and taxi without damage. Wheels are used but skids, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed depending both on the surface and on whether the craft only operates vertically or is able to taxi along the surface. Faster aircraft have retractable undercarriages, which fold away during flight to reduce air resistance or drag. For launch vehicles and spacecraft landers, the landing gear is designed to support the vehicle only post-flight, are not used for takeoff or surface movement. Aircraft landing gear includes wheels equipped with simple shock absorbers, or more advanced air/oil oleo struts, for runway and rough terrain landing; some aircraft floats for water, and/or skids or pontoons.
It represents 2.5 to 5% of the MTOW and 1.5 to 1.75% of the aircraft cost but 20% of the airframe direct maintenance cost. The undercarriage is 4–5% of the takeoff mass and can reach 7%. Wheeled undercarriages come in two types: conventional or "taildragger" undercarriage, where there are two main wheels towards the front of the aircraft and a single, much smaller, wheel or skid at the rear; the taildragger arrangement was common during the early propeller era, as it allows more room for propeller clearance. Most modern aircraft have tricycle undercarriages. Taildraggers are considered harder to land and take off, require special pilot training. Sometimes a small tail wheel or skid is added to aircraft with tricycle undercarriage, in case of tail strikes during take-off; the Concorde, for instance, had a retractable tail "bumper" wheel, as delta winged aircraft need a high angle when taking off. Both Boeing's largest WWII bomber, the B-29 Superfortress, the 1960s-introduced Boeing 727 trijet airliner each have a retractable tail bumper.
Some aircraft with retractable conventional landing gear have a fixed tailwheel, which generates minimal drag and improves yaw stability in some cases. Another arrangement sometimes used is central nose gear with outriggers on the wings; this may be done where there is no convenient location on either side to attach the main undercarriage or to store it when retracted. Examples include the Harrier Jump Jet; the B-52 bomber uses a similar arrangement, except that each end of the fuselage has two sets of wheels side by side. To decrease drag in flight some undercarriages retract into the wings and/or fuselage with wheels flush against the surface or concealed behind doors. If the wheels rest protruding and exposed to the airstream after being retracted, the system is called semi-retractable. Most retraction systems are hydraulically operated, though some are electrically operated or manually operated; this adds complexity to the design. In retractable gear systems, the compartment where the wheels are stowed are called wheel wells, which may diminish valuable cargo or fuel space.
] Pilots confirming that their landing gear is down and locked refer to "three greens" or "three in the green.", a reference to the electrical indicator lights from the nosewheel/tailwheel and the two main gears. Blinking green lights or red lights indicate the gear is in transit and neither up and locked or down and locked; when the gear is stowed up with the up-locks secure, the lights extinguish to follow the dark cockpit philosophy. Multiple redundancies are provided to prevent a single failure from failing the entire landing gear extension process. Whether electrically or hydraulically operated, the landing gear can be powered from multiple sources. In case the power system fails, an emergency extension system is always available; this may take the form of a manually operated crank or pump, or a mechanical free-fall mechanism which disengages the uplocks and allows the landing gear to fall due to gravity. Some high-performance aircraft may feature a pressurized-nitrogen back-up system; as aircraft grow larger, they employ more wheels to cope with the increasing weights.
The earliest "giant" aircraft placed in quantity production, the Zeppelin-Staaken R. VI German World War I long-range bomber of 1916, used a total of eighteen wheels for its undercarriage, split between two wheels on its nose gear struts, a total of sixteen wheels on its main gear units — split into four side-by-side quartets each, two quartets of wheels per side — under each tandem engine nacelle, to support its loaded weight of 12 metric tons. Multiple "tandem wheels" on an aircraft — for cargo aircraft, mounted to the fuselage lower sides as retractable main gear units on modern designs — were first seen during World War II, on the experimental German Arado Ar 232 cargo aircraft, which used a row of elev
GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire. The company was known as Guest and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins to 1759 and the birth of the Industrial Revolution; the origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767. In 1786 Guest was succeeded by his son, Thomas Guest, who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. Guest introduced the works prospered. Under Guest's leadership, alongside his manager John Evans, after his death in 1852 that of his wife Lady Charlotte Guest, the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being "one of the World's great industrial concerns". Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856, nine years of detailed planning and project management were needed before the first steel was produced; the company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods, forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp.
By 1857 G. T. Clark and William Menelaus, his manager, had constructed the "Goat Mill", the world's most powerful rolling mill. By the mid-1860s, Clark's reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus, his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest. Clark continued to direct policy, building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company, he formally retired in 1897. On 9 July 1900, the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keen's Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest, Keen & Co. Ltd. Nettlefolds Limited, a leading manufacturer of fasteners, established in Smethwick, West Midlands in 1854, was acquired in 1902 leading to the change of name to Guest and Nettlefolds -. In 1920 John Lysaght and Co. was acquired. Steel production remained under increasing profit margin pressure. In 1930 the company combined its steel production business with that of rival Baldwins to form Guest Keen Baldwins, which now held: Baldwins: Coke ovens at Margam.
Due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron, in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. All of the sites were bombed by the Nazi Luftwaffe during the war, the required investment meant that all of these assets were nationalised as part of the 1951 Iron and Steel Act, resultantly becoming part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. GKN were still reliant on the supply of good quality steel, so in 1954 negotiated from the asset realisation company the repurchase of key assets from ISC, which were renamed Guest Keen Iron and Steel Co. In 1961 the company's name changed again to GKN Steel Company; these mergers heralded half a century in which GKN became a major manufacturer of screws, nuts and other fasteners. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction, iron and steel making to manufacturing finished goods. After the First World War it became apparent that Britain was to follow France and more the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry.
GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer, F. W. Cotterill Ltd. in 1919. Cotterill owned; the forgings produced at the Garrington Darlaston plant supplemented by a large plant at Bromsgrove, enabled GKN to become a major supplier of crankshafts, connecting rods, half-shafts and numerous smaller forged components to the UK auto-industry during and beyond the period of massive expansion between the two world wars. In 1920, GKN purchased their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.. After training as an engineer, Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, he became friends with Herbert Austin, becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry. By 1914, the company's customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin, Humber, Rover and Argyll. Due to complaints from motor manufacturers about the propensity of the then-wooden wheels on early cars to disintegrate on the slightest encounter with any roadside kerb, using his experience from tea trays Sankey developed an alternate pressed-steel wheel.
Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and William Morris. In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, devoted to wheel production. By the time the business was acquired by GKN, the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers. By 1969 the highly-automated Wellington plant was producing over 5½ million wheels a year at a maximum rate of 30,000 per day; the business undertook other automotive related works, including supplying the chassis for the Triumph Herald and its derivatives. They were at this time building the versatile GKN developed GKN FV432 armoured personnel carrier; the postwar government nationalised the steel industry under Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. The act of parliament of 1949 took effect in February 1951. In 1951, a new subsidiary Blade Research & Development was formed at Aldridge, Staffordshire, to produce aero
Cobham plc is a British manufacturing company based in Wimborne Minster, England. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. According to Defense News it is the 49th largest defence firm in the world, the third largest in the UK, based on 2013 revenue. Cobham was founded as Flight Refuelling Limited at RAF Ford in Sussex by Sir Alan Cobham in 1934, it moved to Tarrant Rushton in Dorset in 1947. It developed the'probe and drogue' method of air-to-air refuelling in 1949 and Michael Cobham took over the leadership of the business from his father in 1969. In September 1997 it acquired ML Aviation for £37 million, which had taken over Nash & Thompson, a major competitor, the previous year. In early 2008 Cobham purchased S-TEC Corporation, maker of general aviation autopilots for $38 million, in February 2008 Cobham bought the sensor and antenna systems division of BAE Systems for $240 million. In June 2008 Cobham acquired Sparta Inc. a US defence business, for $416 million.
In September 2008 Cobham completed the purchase of the radio frequency components business of M/A-COM for $425 million. In April 2009 Cobham agreed to purchase Argotek Inc. a provider of high-end information assurance services to the United States Intelligence Community, for $36 million. In June 2009 a Cobham – Northrop Grumman 50–50 joint venture won the US Army's US$2.4 billion competition to supply Vehicular Intercom Systems. In October 2011 Cobham Analytic Solutions was sold for $350 million to the owned Parsons Corporation. In June 2012 Cobham acquired Danish satellite communications company Thrane & Thrane A/S, making it the core of Cobham's new SATCOM strategic business unit, to include SeaTel marine, TracStar land and Omnipless airborne SATCOM product lines. In May 2013 Cobham acquired antenna systems business, Axell Wireless. In July 2013 Cobham bought out FB Heliservices joint venture partner Bristow Helicopters. In April 2014, Cobham sold Chelton Flight Systems and S-TEC Corporation to Genesys Aerosystems.
In May 2014, Cobham acquired wireless communications company, Aeroflex Holding Corporation for $1.46 billion. In August 2016, David Lockwood was named replacing Bob Murphy. Cobham is organised into divisions: The Cobham Mission Systems division is the world market leader in aerial refuelling; the Cobham Advanced Electronic Solutions division specializes in radar and electronic warfare systems, is the world leader in advanced tactical military vehicle intercom systems. The Cobham Communications and Connectivity division is a world leading supplier of satellite and wireless mobile connectivity products; the Cobham Aviation Services division provides a range of aviation services including Search & Rescue and Flight training to military and civilian customers. At the UK's Defence Helicopter Flying School, it trains all UK helicopter pilots for British Armed Forces. Carleton Life Support, a subsidiary of Cobham based in Davenport, makes the MK 16 rebreather used by the United States Navy; the company produces the Guardian ST820, a battery-operated tracing device used by the American FBI.
The device is secured under a car by a strong magnet. It is only available to law enforcement agencies. In his 2015 book Data and Goliath, American security expert Bruce Schneier wrote that Cobham sells a system enabling buyers to send "blind calls" to mobile phones: calls that don't ring, are undetectable by the recipient; as described by Schneier, the blind call allows the sender to track the phone's location to within one metre. Schneier noted that Cobham's customers include the governments of Algeria, Ghana, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and the United States. 2007: Cobham Defense Communications, based in Blackburn, received a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category. The business was awarded the award for its ability to supply leading edge intercom systems to customers around the world. 2009: Cobham Surveillance, based in Segensworth, England, received a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category. The business – known as Domo Ltd – tripled its export sales in three years.
2010: Cobham Surveillance, based in Segensworth, received a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the Innovation category. The award was for the development of its Solo4 wireless digital audio and video link technology that improves safety for bomb disposal teams and law enforcement personnel by increasing the range at which they can operate their robotic bomb disposal equipment. 2010: Cobham Antenna Systems, based in Marlow, received a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category. The business – known as Chelton Ltd – continuously increased export revenues over six years and sells over 80% of its production overseas; the company created Cobham Sports and Social Club, a members' club in Merley, near the main manufacturing site in Wimborne, used as the ground for Merley Cobham Sports F. C. Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Cobham Aviation Services Australia Sargent Fletcher Cobham Technical Services ERA Technology Ltd Official website A 1950 Flight Refuelling Limited advert A picture of a Flight Refuelling Lancaster refuelling another using the early looped-hose method "Gas Station In The Sky" 1947 article on FLR's first in-flight refueling system "F.
R. Equipment Speeds Refuelling!", a 1951 advert for Flight Refuelling's pressure refuelling system as used on the de Havilland Comet