South Kesteven is a local government district in Lincolnshire, forming part of the traditional Kesteven division of the county. It covers Grantham, Stamford and Market Deeping; the 2011 census reports 133,788 people at 1.4 per hectare in 57,344 households. The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, from the municipal boroughs of Grantham and Stamford, along with Bourne Urban District, South Kesteven Rural District, West Kesteven Rural District; the district was run by Kesteven County Council, based in Sleaford. In the discussions around 1972 that split off the north of Lindsey, to become South Humberside, there were radical plans to split off the south of Kesteven to make a county based on Peterborough. Neighbouring Rutland would have joined, but instead was consumed by Leicestershire. South Kesteven borders North Kesteven to the north, as far east as Horbling, where the A52 crosses the South Forty-Foot Drain. From there south it borders South Holland along the South Forty-Foot Drain, crossing the A151 just west of Guthram Gowt.
The border follows the River Glen near to Tongue End where at Baston, the boundary crosses north-south over Baston and Langtoft fens. It crosses the A16 at the B1525 junction meets the Welland about two miles west of Crowland at a point called Kennulph's Stone; the parish of Deeping St. James is the south-east corner of the district, where the district borders the unitary authority of City of Peterborough; the boundary follows the Welland to Stamford following the B1443 where it skirts the edge of Burghley Park. At the point where the railway crosses under the A1, is the corner of two other districts – Rutland and East Northamptonshire; the boundary with Rutland follows the east side of the A1. Since 1991, none of the A1 bypass is in South Kesteven; the boundary meets that of Great Casterton, follows the B1081 Ermine Street at Toll Bar. The boundary follows that of Rutland, crossing the East Coast Main Line at Braceborough and Wilsthorpe and again at Carlby. At Castle Bytham, the boundary follows the east side of the A1, crosses the A1 at South Witham, where a little further west is a corner with the district of Melton.
The boundary follows that of Leicestershire along the former Sewstern Lane, now the Viking Way where it crosses the eastern end of Saltby Airfield. The boundary deviates from the Viking Way at Woolsthorpe-by-Belvoir where it follows the River Devon, it crosses the railway at Sedgebrook. This area is part of the Vale of Belvoir; the boundary passes through the former RAF Bottesford, where just north it meets the district of Newark and Sherwood at Three Shire Oak. The boundary crosses the A1 at Shire Bridge, it follows Shire Dyke at Claypole, crossing the East Coast Main Line briefly follows the River Witham. The north-west corner of the district is on the River Witham at Claypole just south of Barnby in the Willows. Further east, a two-mile section of the A17 skirts the district, just east of Byards Leap. A corner of the district is where it meets the former route of Ermine Street, now the Viking Way; this is the point where it meets the corners of Cranwell and Byard's Leap, Temple Bruer with Temple High Grange in North Kesteven.
The boundary follows the Viking Way for three miles south, crossing the A17. It follows the B6403 to just north of Ancaster, it skirts Ancaster rejoins the B6403 south of Ancaster to a point just south of RAF Barkston Heath. It passes just east of Oasby, crosses the A52, passes east of Braceby and Sapperton and Pickworth north of Folkingham. North of Horbling it follows the A52 all the way to Donington High Bridge, it is interesting to add that, since 1965, the border with Northamptonshire is Britain's smallest border at only 10 metres. However, the boundary with Rutland was altered in April 1991. South Kesteven District Council is elected every four years, with 56 councillors being elected at each election. Since the first election in 1973 either the Conservatives have had a majority on the council, or it has been under no overall control. After controlling the council from 1979 to 1991, the Conservatives regained a majority at the 2003 election, which they have held since. After the 2015 election the council is composed of the following councillors:- On Thursday 23 June 2016 South Kesteven voted in only the third major UK-wide referendum on the issue of the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union in the 2016 EU Referendum under the provisions of the European Union Referendum Act 2015 where voters were asked to decide on the question "Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?” by voting for either “Remain a member of the European Union" or "Leave the European Union".
The result saw a decisive vote to "Leave the European Union" by 60% of the electorate on a high turnout of 78%. The result went against the views of the local MP Nick Boles, in favour of a "Remain" vote; the result was declared at Meres Leisure Centre in Grantham early on Friday 24 June by the "Counting officer" Beverly Agass. Allington Ancaster Aslackby and Laughton Barholm and Stowe Barkston Barrowby Baston Belton and Manthorpe Billingborough Bitchfield and Bassingthorpe Boothby Pagnell Bourne Braceborough and Wilsthorpe Braceby and Sapperton Burton Coggles Careby Aunby and Holywell Carlby Carlton Scroop Castle Bytham Caythorpe Claypole Colsterworth Corby Glen Counthorpe and Creeton Deeping St James Denton Dowsby Dunsby Easton Edenham Fenton Folkingham Foston Fulbeck Great Gonerby Great Ponton Greatford Gunby and Stainby Haconby Harlaxton Heydour Honington Horbling Hough-on-the-Hill Hougham Ingoldsby Irnham Kirkby Underwood Langtoft Lenton, Keisby and
Bolsover is a small town near Chesterfield, England. It is 145 miles from London, 18 miles from Sheffield, 26 miles from Nottingham and 54 miles from Manchester, it is the main town in the Bolsover district. The civil parish for the town is called Old Bolsover, it includes the town and the New Bolsover model village, along with Carr Vale, Stanfree and Whaley. Its population at the 2011 UK Census was 11,673. Bolsover, along with several nearby villages, is situated in the north east of the county of Derbyshire, it is the main town in the District of Bolsover, an electoral constituency and part of Derbyshire. The origin of the name is uncertain, it may be derived from Bula's Ofer or Boll's Ofer the Old English for Bull's Ridge or Boll's Ridge, alternatively in the 1650s it was referred to as'Bolsouer'. Bolsover is mentioned in Domesday Book, named as Belesovre, where it is described as the property of William Peverel; the description refers to the villans, the ploughs, 8 acres of meadow and woodland pasture, given as two leagues by a league.
Bolsover became the seat of the Peverel family, in the 12th century a keep was built. The present castle was erected in 1613. In 1657 William Cavendish produced the book'La Methode et Invention nouvelle de Dresser les Chevaux' which he produced in exile in Antwerp during the Cromwellian Protectorate; this was translated in 1743 to'A General System of Horsemanship in All its Branches' this covered the dressage of horses, at his'Bolsouer', Welbeck and Antwerp stables and there are etched prints existing showing the'Monsieur le Marquis a Cheval' amongst many other views of the town. The etches are attributed to Abraham van Diepenbeeck a pupil of Van Dyck; the district of Bolsover is notable for three sites of historical importance: Bolsover Castle, Creswell Crags and Creswell Model Village, an example of early twentieth century design from the Model village movement. Two railway lines once served Bolsover; the Midland Railway, arrived first with their north-south running Doe Lea line from Staveley to Pleasley, opened in September 1890 and thus enabling a through service between Chesterfield and Mansfield to be operated, but services were withdrawn as early as September 1930.
Bolsover Castle station served the town. The other line was the ambitious west-east running Lancashire and East Coast Railway part of the Great Central Railway and subsequently the London & North Eastern Railway. Only the middle section from Chesterfield to Lincoln was built, opening in March 1897, but the section between Chesterfield and Shirebrook was brought to a premature demise in December 1951 by the deteriorating state of its biggest engineering feature, the 2,624-yard Bolsover Tunnel which ran beneath the limestone ridge on which stands the castle; the tunnel was filled in with colliery waste in 1966-67, both ends sealed off. Today both portals are visible, the eastern portal at the end of an unusually deep sheer-sided cutting in the village of Scarcliffe and the western portal is just to the south east side of Bolsover. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the'Bolsovian' derives its name from a geological exposure at the River Doe Lea, Bolsover.
The major industry of the area used to be coal mining, but this has declined throughout all of Britain. Markham Colliery, just outside the town, closed in 1993. Bolsover Colliery Company was one of the original companies in the original FT 30 list of companies; the other main employee was the Coalite and Chemical Company, which produced smokeless fuel and chemicals from coke and was founded in 1937, moved its main headquarters from London to Bolsover in 1952. It was closed in 2004 after a decline in demand for solid fuel, which had left the company and its many subsidiaries in debt, its production of chemicals used to produce Agent Orange in the Vietnam War and its environmental impact on surrounding communities of Duckmanton, New Bolsover and Bolsover itself had rendered it a controversial company. Bolsover has three levels of local government; the civil parish of Old Bolsover is administered by Old Bolsover Town Council. The parish falls within the wider Bolsover District, other functions are exercised by Derbyshire County Council.
The town falls within the Bolsover parliamentary constituency. The MP for the constituency is the Labour Party's Dennis Skinner, a former miner who has represented the seat since 1970. Bolsover Colliery F. C. used to play in the FA Cup. Current club F. C. Bolsover, founded in 2013, played in the Northern Counties East Football League for the 2018/19 season. In 2007 Bolsover was chosen as the location to shoot the film Summer starring Robert Carlyle and Rachael Blake. Many scenes from the film were filmed on the Castle Estate, affectionately known by the Bolsover residents as the'Wimps' and lies just underneath Bolsover Castle. Other parts of the film were filmed in Whitwell, Bramley Vale and Shirebrook Community school, just a few miles from Bolsover. Summer was released on 5 December 2008; the trailer for Summer was released in late November and contained a few scenes which showed the Castle Estate in Bolsover containing the top of Springfield Crescent and Hyndley Road. In an interview in late November, director Kenneth Glenaan and Robert Carlyle both agreed that Bolsover was the perfect setting for the film
Pebble Mill Studios
Pebble Mill Studios was a television studio complex owned by the BBC located in Edgbaston, England. The nine acre site was opened by Princess Anne on 10 November 1971, in addition to the studios contained two canteens, a post office, gardens, a seven-storey office block, an Outside Broadcasting base; as well as being the home of Midlands Today and BBC Radio WM, programmes produced at Pebble Mill included Pebble Mill at One, The Archers, Top Gear and Gardeners' World. Pebble Mill Studios closed in 2004 and was demolished in 2005. In the 1950s BBC Midlands was based in offices on Edgbaston; the news studio was in a separate building in Broad Street which remained in operation until 1971. In the same complex, the studios recorded drama productions in the former Delicia Cinema in Gosta Green. Over time, these studios were too small for the expanding region and were hampered by being spread out across Birmingham. A change in BBC policy created the BBC Regions, based in Manchester, Cardiff and Belfast.
These locations were created as'National Production Centres', to produce television and radio productions for the areas in which they covered. Pebble Mill was designed to be an addition to London's Wood Lane Television Centre; the lease for the site was acquired from the Calthorpe Estate on a peppercorn rent by the BBC. Plans for Pebble Mill were approved in 1967; this followed construction of the studios, designed by John Madin founder of the John Madin Design Group. The original plan was to contain a Light Entertainment Studio a regional news studio and a drama studio, to be similar in size to TC6. Studio A was the main studio 6,500 square feet in size, with three separate control rooms looking onto the studio floor: a production gallery, a combined vision/lighting gallery and sound control gallery; the studio opened with EMI 2001 cameras and was host to many programmes from London and locally produced programmes. During the early 1990s, the BBC technical resource department toured the UK's other BBC, ITV and Channel 4 studios to find new cameras to replace the ageing Link Electronics Ltd 125 colour cameras.
Sony Broadcast BVP-370s were chosen and during this period asbestos was removed from the studio, gallery spaces and air plant. In November 1997, work began on a major refurbishment of the studio, which included a production control room and a re-equipped sound control room; this £2.2 million upgrade took nine weeks and Studio A re-opened by the end of February 1998 as a digital widescreen facility one of the first in the BBC. Studio B was 40 × 25 ft in size, it had a combined control gallery with lighting, vision and sound all sited next to each other. This studio was used for Midlands Today but produced Network East and other regional programmes. Studio B was located on the first floor looking out over the central quadrangle. There was a cargo lift close to the studio doors but there was a tight right-angle turn to get into the studio. Next to the studio was the presentation suite, used for short morning and evening news opt-outs. Control facilities were provided by Studio B's galleries but in the early 1990s a new presentation suite was built into spare space and provided an island studio with its own full production/lighting/sound control gallery.
The studios were intended to have a third'drama' studio – but this never materialised. Instead, the main foyer became Studio C; the ` foyer' had a scaffold lighting rig installed. Audience seating replaced the reception interview seating installed by the main windows. Pebble Mill at One ended in 1986 but in 1988, Daytime Live was launched, it used the same content. In 1992, Good Morning with Anne and Nick replaced Daytime Live. Construction of a conservatory studio within the courtyard area was completed and was used for cooking items and interviews; the series ended in 1996 and Nick Owen became the main anchor on Midlands Today. The daytime drama series Doctors was made between 2000 and 2004; the windows of the foyer were blacked out, used to record the series. Doctors used an additional space – radio Studio 1. During the 1970s until the general refit in 1983 TAR was part of the technical rooms suite on the first floor adjoining Studio A; this area housed the'Line Up' desks for Studio A and B, as well as a maintenance area, the dimmer room for the studio production lighting systems and TV signal generation equipment.
When the 1983 refit began it was decided that a Central area should be built combining both Studio A and B's island desks and the new Studio C area. The new CAR/TAR was in the comms area which had shrunk due to new technology making switching more compact. Around the late 1980s early 1990s Comms Centre moved again giving Services Department a new centralised service centre in the old vacant comms centre; the new services area contained work benches for all the disciplines, a camera test area and a small mechanical workshop. At the rear of the Outside Broadcast base was a small studio space called BORIS; this space was used as a rehearsal room and for a brief period of time using Studio C's gallery, was used for the early Sunday
Nottingham Trent University
Nottingham Trent University is a public research university in Nottingham, England. It was founded as a new university in 1992 from Trent Polytechnic, its roots go back to 1843 with the establishment of the Nottingham Government School of Design which still exists within the university today. It is the 13th largest university in the UK with 29,370 students split over four different campuses. Nottingham Trent was awarded the 2017 Times Higher Education University of the Year, the 2019 Guardian University of the Year and the Modern University of the Year by the Sunday Times in 2017; the university was formed by the amalgamation of many separate institutions of higher education. It originated from the Nottingham Government School of Design founded in 1843. In 1945, the Nottingham and District Technical College was established. In 1958, Nottingham Regional College of Technology opened and in 1959, the Nottingham College of Education began at Clifton. In 1964, Nottingham Regional College was opened and in 1966, the original Nottingham College of Design was linked with the Regional College.
Together they merged and the institution was upgraded to Polytechnic status in 1970 to become'Trent Polytechnic'. In 1975, it amalgamated with Nottingham College of Education. Under the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 all Polytechnics and some higher education colleges became eligible for full university status; the university has three campuses: Clifton Campus and Brackenhurst. Located just north of Nottingham City Centre, the City site is home to over 17,000 students from Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Law School, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, School of Art & Design, School of Social Sciences and the Centre for Broadcasting & Journalism, which regenerated Newton and Arkwright, two of the university's largest and oldest owned buildings. On 18 May 2011, the two buildings were opened by Sir David Attenborough; the Boots Library is the main library of the university. It is in the centre of the city site and supports the schools of Architecture and the Built Environment, Art & Design, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Law School and Social Sciences.
It is a modern purpose-built building, completed in 1998 at a total cost of £13m. It has 2,500 journals in addition to DVDs, newspapers and magazines, it is set over four levels plus a further level dedicated to 24-hour computing facilities. There are branch libraries on the Clifton and Brackenhurst campuses serving the schools located there, include additional Animal Planet digital facilities; the Recent Advances in Manufacturing database is published by the library and information department. It is a bibliographic indexing service providing information for related areas. Literature covered includes journals, books and conference proceedings with from 1990 to the present. Home to over 9,000 students from the School of Arts and Humanities, School of Science and Technology and School of Education. 4 miles outside the city centre, the Clifton campus is a greenfield site. It hosts an Anthony Nolan Trust Cord Blood Bank, the John van Geest Cancer Research Centre, recipient of the largest research grant awarded to a post-1992 university.
The Clifton campus has benefited from investments including the Lee Westwood Sports Centre and student accommodation. Clifton campus is linked to the City site by a regular student bus service operated by NCTX. Home to over 1,000 students from the School of Animal and Environmental Sciences. About 14 mi from the city centre, Brackenhurst campus is a countryside estate with woodland, a lake and landscaped gardens. Contrasting the country house built in 1828 are facilities including the high-tech glasshouse and new Veterinary Nursing building; the Veterinary Nursing Centre was purpose-built in 2007 and was made a RCVS accredited Veterinary Nursing Centre. It has a simulated Veterinary Practice giving students hands-on experience; the university is composed of three colleges and nine schools: College of Business and Social SciencesNottingham Business School Nottingham Institute of Education Nottingham Law School School of Social SciencesCollege of Art, Architecture and HumanitiesSchool of Art & Design School of Arts and Humanities School of Architecture and the Built EnvironmentCollege of Science and TechnologySchool of Animal and Environmental Sciences School of Science and Technology In June 2008, Sir Michael Parkinson was named as the first Chancellor, responsible for a number of duties, including representing the university on special occasions and conferring degrees at graduation ceremonies.
The official installation as Chancellor of Nottingham Trent University took place in a special ceremony on Tuesday 11 November 2008, at the Royal Concert Hall, Nottingham. Sir Michael Parkinson Kevin Cahill CBE Sir John Peace Edward Peck Neil T Gorman Ray Cowell Neil Gaulden Sir John Peace The university has "one of the best employability records of any university in England and Wales", it maintains close ties to over 6,000 businesses and 94% of students progress to full-time employment or further education within six months of graduating. These companies include Microsoft, Boots and Rolls Royce. Representatives from companies hold talks with prospective placement students or those considering careers after graduation. Across NTU, there are a number of dedicated centres that provide a focus f
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927, it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing; the services are funded by a television licence. As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television being renamed as BBC Content; the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.
John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters; the simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.
After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself, which broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system; the use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00; the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, ended with closedown on Saturday 13 February 1937.
The station's range was a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set. The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning. Many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme; the last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier, followed by test transmissions. According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00.
Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying,'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later. Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios. Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF; when the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service showed popular programming, including comedies, documentaries, game shows, soap operas, covering a wide range
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart