BBC Two is the second television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It covers a range of subject matter, but tending towards more highbrow programmes than the more mainstream. Like the BBCs other domestic TV and radio channels, it is funded by the television licence and it is a comparatively well-funded public service network, regularly attaining a much higher audience share than most public service networks worldwide. Originally styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched, a high-definition version of the channel launched on 26 March 2013, replacing BBC HD. British television at the time of BBC2s launch consisted of two channels, the BBC Television Service and the ITV network made up of regional companies. Both channels had existed in a state of competition since ITVs launch in 1955, the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, and that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britains third television station should be awarded to the BBC, prior to its launch, the new BBC2 was promoted on the BBC Television Service, the soon to be renamed BBC1. The animated adverts featured the campaign mascots Hullabaloo, a mother kangaroo, however, at around 18,45 a huge power failure, originating from a fire at Battersea Power Station, caused Television Centre, and indeed much of west London, to lose all power. BBC1 was able to continue broadcasting via its facilities at Alexandra Palace, associated-Rediffusion, the London weekday ITV franchise-holder, offered to transmit on the BBCs behalf, but their gesture was rejected. At 22,00 programming was officially postponed until the following morning, there was believed to be no recording made of this bulletin, but a videotape was discovered in early 2003. By 11,00 on 21 April, power had restored to the studios and programming began. The launch schedule, postponed from the night before, was successfully shown that evening.
In reference to the cut, the transmission opened with a shot of a lit candle which was sarcastically blown out by presenter Denis Tuohy. To establish the new identity and draw viewers to it. The production chosen was The Forsyte Saga, a adaptation of the novels by John Galsworthy, featuring well-established actors Kenneth More. Unlike BBC1 and ITV, BBC2 was broadcast only on the 625 line UHF system and this created a market for dual standard receivers which could switch between the two systems. On 1 July 1967, during the Wimbledon Championships, BBC2 became the first channel in Europe to begin broadcasts in colour. The thirteen part series Civilisation was created as a celebration of two millennia of western art and culture to showpiece the new colour technology, BBC1 and ITV joined BBC2 on 625-line UHF band, but continued to simulcast on 405-line VHF until 1985
Virgin Media PLC is a British company which provides fixed and mobile telephone and broadband internet services to businesses and consumers in the United Kingdom. Its headquarters are in Hook, United Kingdom, the company has been a subsidiary of Liberty Global plc, an international television and telecommunications company headquartered in London, since June 2013. Virgin Media previously had a listing on the NASDAQ Stock Market and was a constituent of the NASDAQ-100 index. It had a listing on the London Stock Exchange. The company was formed in March 2006 by the merger of NTL and Telewest, in November 2006 the company signed a deal with Sir Richard Branson to license the Virgin brand for the combined business. All of the companys services were rebranded under the Virgin Media name in February 2007. At the same date it had around 3 million mobile telephony customers, Virgin Media competes primarily with Sky, BT Group, EE, O2, TalkTalk and Three. The companys origins lie in both Telewest and NTL, which merged in March 2006, Telewest began in 1984 in Croydon under the name Croydon Cable, and was acquired by United Cable of Denver in 1988.
The company expanded during the 1990s and adopted the Telewest name in 1992 following the merger of its then-parent TCI and US West. It expanded into cable television access in 1999 by purchasing the remaining 50% stake in Cable London, one of the first cable TV companies in the UK, from NTL, adding 400,000 homes in north London. In April 2000 Telewest merged with Flextech, and in November extended its network with the acquisition of Eurobell. NTL was established by Barclay Knapp and George Blumenthal in 1993 as International CableTel, Cabletel acquired local cable franchises covering Guildford, Northern Ireland and parts of Central Scotland and South Wales. In 1996 CableTel acquired National Transcommunications Limited, the privatised UK Independent Broadcasting Authority transmission network, in 1998 CableTel adopted NTL as its new name. NTL purchased the ISP Virgin. net in 2004, having originally operated it as a joint venture with Virgin Group since it launched in November 1996. It sold ADSL broadband services through BT landlines to those living outside areas served by NTLs cable network and offered subscription-based, prior to acquiring Virgin.
net, NTL offered a similar package called NTL Freedom. Telewest and NTL began discussions regarding a merger in late 2003, thanks to their geographically distinct areas, NTL and Telewest had co-operated previously, as in redirecting potential customers living outside their respective areas. On 3 October 2005, NTL announced a US$16 billion purchase of Telewest, to prevent this, Telewest instead acquired NTL. In December 2005 NTL, Telewest and mobile network operator Virgin Mobile UK announced that talks had taken place regarding a merger
Freesat is a free-to-air digital satellite television joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc, serving the United Kingdom. The service was formed as a memorandum in 2007 and has been marketed since 6 May 2008, Freesats main competitors are Freeview and Freesat from Sky. On digital terrestrial, the channels have always been available free-to-air with the appropriate equipment, in 2007 Freeview was available to only 73% of the population. After analogue TV services were replaced in the digital switchover, this increased to 98. 5% for the public service channels, to provide more widespread coverage and a larger number of channels, a digital satellite alternative was felt necessary. The use of encryption meant that anyone wishing to view the channels had to purchase equipment from Sky, similarly, to use the Videoguard encryption, the broadcasters needed to pay a fee to NDS Group. In May 2003 the BBC moved most of its channels from the Astra 2A satellite to Astra 2D and this move allowed the BBC to stop encrypting its broadcasts while continuing to meet its rights obligations.
It dropped the two months later. Two months later, ITV, whose channels had already been located on the Astra 2D satellite since launching on the Sky platform some years earlier, made their channels free-to-air. On 18 November 2008, Channel 5 commenced broadcasting a single channel via Freesat, eventually adding its ancillary services 5USA, viva moved from free-to-view to free-to-air on satellite on 19 March 2013, before launching on Freesat on 2 April 2013. On 2 April 2013, all seven of Box Televisions channels left Skys subscription package, with six becoming free-to-air on satellite, on 15 April four of the channels – The Box, TV, Kiss TV and Smash Hits – were added to the Freesat EPG. This was followed by Heat and Magic on 29 April, the Freesat project aims to provide a managed service with an Electronic Programme Guide and interactive features similar to the Freeview service launched three years earlier. Unlike Freeview, these features are available on approved receivers manufactured under licence from Freesat.
The initial plan was to launch the service in early 2006 and this was postponed to Autumn 2007 as approval from the BBC Trust was only received in April 2007. However, the service was delayed and was officially launched on 6 May 2008. The service launched officially on 6 May 2008, from the launch, Freesat advertised all national television channels from the BBC and ITV as being available on the platform, as well as all national BBC radio networks. Channel 4 managed to make most of its channels free-to-air in preparation for the launch. In addition some channels from other such as Chello Zone, CSC Media Group, Al Jazeera English, Zee Live, Zee News RIA Novosti. BBC HD was the only channel available on Freesat from launch day
BBC HD was a high-definition television channel provided by the BBC. The service was run as a trial from 15 May 2006 until becoming a full service on 1 December 2007 before closing on 26 March 2013. It broadcast only during the afternoon and evening and only broadcast material shot in High Definition, the channel was replaced by a HD simulcast of BBC Two, partly as a result of budget cuts affecting the entire corporation. BBC HD began as a station on 15 May 2006 to test the possibility. The first programme to be broadcast that was made for HD was natural history programme Planet Earth. As a result, the HD service was extended throughout the period which began on 21 May. The channel officially launched on 1 December 2007 although much of the programme makeup and this new channel was nationwide and platform neutral, in that it was carried by all providers as a free to air channel. This channel, as recommended by the BBC Trusts Public Value Test, broadcast only for nine hours a day during prime time.
The channel would air programmes from across the BBC channels and this arrangement continued until 2010, when the increase in HD content saw several changes. 2010 had been the BBCs internal deadline for the majority of new content to be produced in HD and as a result the broadcast space was fast running out. As a result, on 3 November 2010, BBC One HD launched as a separate simulcast of the channel and at approximately the same time, the channel now catered for the programming of the BBCs channels other than BBC One. From 2011, the channel began to experiment with showing select programmes in 3D. The first such broadcasts were the mens and womens finals of the 2011 Wimbledon Championships. Although this was disproved, it caused speculation about the channels future given that the new head of the channel was Janice Hadlow. The channels future was called into question following the BBCs Delivering Quality First review of the corporations spending. The review recommended that BBC HD should close and be replaced with a simulcast of BBC Two, the proposals were approved by the BBC Trust in May 2012 and subsequently, BBC Two HD launched on 26 March 2013, replacing BBC HD.
At the time of the launch, BBC HD was available universally on all HD broadcasters as a free-to-air station. Satellite viewers could watch the channel on Freesat or Sky, who received their signal from the Astra 1N satellite, the channel was available to cable television customers through Virgin Medias basic package
The BBC had been wanting to expand into the digital television market for a number of years prior to BBC Knowledges launch. Originally this was by their association with Flextech, which spawned the UKTV network, both companies had different ideas on how the new channels would be run, the BBC wanted the channels branded as BBC channels, but Flextech wanted the channels to contain advertising. The BBC refused, stating that no domestic BBC channel should carry advertising, prior to the launch, the channel changed name from BBC Learning to BBC Knowledge. The channel launched on 1 June 1999, broadcasting for six hours each day, the new channel had plans to be new, multimedia channel, operating across television, online and on interactive television, and showing educational and informative programming. A few years into the existence, it was becoming clear that the channels original format was not working in its aim of interacting with viewers. The channel was receiving consistently poor ratings, and the BBC decided to relaunch the channel.
The relaunched channel was given a new identity, and became from 17 November 2001. In addition to this, the format was changed to a serious, the real reason for the shift in programming was because the incumbent government delayed approving new BBC digital plans. BBC Three and Four were planned to have launched in 2001 but because of the plans being delayed and it had been planned since October 2000 that Knowledge would be replaced with BBC Four. Eventually the new plans were approved, and BBC Knowledge closed down on 2 March 2002. BBC Knowledge from mid-2001 was essentially a test platform for the style of the new channel, versions of BBC Knowledge were launched in other countries from 2007 onwards. The launch identity consisted of cartoon characters climbing ladders of learning between clouds against an orange background, illustrator Michael Sheehy designed the idents. A white, BBC logo with Knowledge after it in capital letters was located at the bottom of the screen. The ident image would be present in the background of the end promotions, channel menus advertising upcoming programmes, on, the idents changed to follow a strand layout, with different idents for each strand.
These featured an object, before a fact about it related to the strand appears and ends on an image with the name shown clearly on screen. Following the relaunch in 2001, all different idents were dropped in favour of a single ident, featuring numerous circles made out of different structures reflecting the new strands
BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the BBC. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Threes output originated from the United Kingdom, 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, current affairs, and drama. The former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year. The TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016, replaced by an online-only version, in late 2001 the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more closely linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two. Their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three, the channel was eventually given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, and launched on 9 February 2003.
The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who previously ran BBC Choice, and before that UK Play, on 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229. It was moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, for the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9,00 am to 4,00 am for the duration of the games, on 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014. The channel launched on 10 December 2013, there was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change. org has gathered over 300,000 signatures, there was some support from media commentators, and those who backed a slimmer BBC. When the BBC revealed the detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers.
They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels, the Save BBC Three campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three. The BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. The Trust approved related proposals to allow first-run and third-party content on iPlayer, the BBC One timeshift service was rejected, citing limited public value. They had previously offered to buy the channel to keep it on television, BBC Three signed off during the early morning of 16 February 2016. The final programme was an episode of Gavin & Stacey, introduced by co-star James Corden from the Los Angeles studio of The Late Late Show, the channel thereafter carried promotional information regarding the BBC Three internet service until it officially went dark.
The channels target audience was 16–34-year-olds, and it faced competition from rivals including ITV2 and E4. In 2008 it reached 26. 3% of 16–34-year-olds in digital homes—the channels highest ever such reach and above that of E4, ITV2, despite several official complaints from the BBC, BARB continues to publish figures which the BBC argues are unrepresentative
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. A client end-user can use their player to begin to play the data file before the entire file has been transmitted. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popularly available streaming media, the term streaming media can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, and real-time text, which are all considered streaming text. As of 2017, streaming is generally taken to refer to cases where a user watches digital video content or listens to audio content on a computer screen. With streaming content, the user does not have to download the digital video or digital audio file before they start to watch/listen to it. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet, as of 2016, two popular streaming services are the video sharing website YouTube, which contains video and audio files on a huge range of topics and Netflix, which streams movies and TV shows.
Live streaming refers to Internet content delivered in real-time, as events happen, Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, in the early 1920s, George O. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century, little progress was made for several decades, primarily due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to various media. These technological improvement facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to users in their homes and workplaces. The band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to live on the Internet. On June 24,1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, as proof of PARCs technology, the bands performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application which was compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite, realNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995. The first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, the concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, and Barrett Martin. When Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet.4 in 1999, in June 1999 Apple introduced a streaming media format in its QuickTime 4 application. It was widely adopted on websites along with RealPlayer. In 2000 Industryview. com launched its worlds largest streaming video archive website to help promote themselves
Lawrence Gene Larry David is an American comedian, actor and television producer. He and Jerry Seinfeld created the television series Seinfeld, where he served as its head writer, David has subsequently gained further recognition for the HBO series Curb Your Enthusiasm, which he created, in which he stars as a semi-fictionalized version of himself. He is worth an estimated $900 million US dollars, Davids work won him a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1993. Formerly a stand-up comedian, David went into comedy and starring in ABCs Fridays. He has won two Primetime Emmy Awards, and was voted by fellow comedians and comedy insiders as the 23rd greatest comedy ever in a 2004 British poll to select The Comedians Comedian. David was born in the neighborhood of Sheepshead Bay, in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Rose and Morty David and he graduated from Sheepshead Bay High School, and from the University of Maryland, College Park with a bachelors degree in History. After college, he enlisted in the United States Army Reserve, while a stand-up comedian, Larry David worked as a store clerk, limousine driver, and historian.
David became a writer for and cast member of ABCs Fridays from 1980 to 1982, during his time at SNL, he was able to get only one sketch on the show, which aired at 12,50 AM, the last time slot on the show. David quit his job at SNL in the first season. That event inspired an episode of Seinfeld entitled The Revenge. David met his future Seinfeld stars during that stage of his career, he worked with Michael Richards on Fridays. Entertainment Weekly ranked it the third-best TV show of all time, David made occasional uncredited appearances on the show, playing such roles as Frank Costanzas cape-wearing lawyer and the voice of George Steinbrenner. He was the inspiration for the shows character George Costanza. David left Seinfeld on friendly terms after the season but returned to write the series finale in 1998. He continued to provide the voice for the Steinbrenner character, syndication of Seinfeld earned David an estimated US$250 million in 1998 alone. This amount has been steadily decreasing each year, but payments will continue until the full $1.7 billion from the deal has been paid.
In 2008 David made $55 million from Seinfeld syndication, DVD sales and he was nominated for an Emmy award 19 times for Seinfeld, winning twice – once for best comedy and once for writing. The HBO cable television channel aired Davids 1-hour special, Larry David, Curb Your Enthusiasm and this was followed by Curb Your Enthusiasm, a television series on HBO that aired its first episode on October 15,2000
Eircom Limited, trading as Eir, is a fixed and broadband telecommunications company in Ireland, and a former state-owned monopolist. It is the largest telecommunications operator in the Republic, with a division to service the business and corporate telecom markets in Northern Ireland, as Bord Telecom Éireann, the company was state-owned until 1999, when it was floated on the Irish and New York Stock Exchanges. Eir operates the fixed-line telephone network, an LTE, HSDPA and GSM/EDGE mobile telephone network Meteor, as of Q12013, Eircom had 54% market share of fixed voice lines, 40% market share of fixed broadband, 11% of mobile broadband, and 17% of mobile. By late 2007 Eircom added their 500, 000th DSL subscriber but broadband share may have fallen to 44% due to growth of fixed wireless and fibre services. Its main competitors are Virgin Media Ireland, Vodafone Ireland, Imagine Communications and Magnet Networks and Smart Telecom, with a mix of LLU/GLUMP from Eircom, Eir operates the largest fixed-line telecommunications network in the Republic of Ireland, under licence from the Commission for Communications Regulation.
Most homes and businesses in the state are dependent on their network, a range of telecommunications services is provided on the network including Business IP, its MPLS platform. Eir have completed a wholly owned fibre network ring around Northern Ireland and their ISP division, Eir Net, provides dial-up services, as well as broadband services. Any alarm-monitoring products using SMS are hardcoded to work with Eirs SMSC, so will not work on Digiweb, BT, Smart, DECT SMS handsets are preprogrammed for Eirs SMSC. Eirs mobile arm, provides a range of HSPA. Its GSM network operates at 1800 MHz and 900 MHz ranges, GPRS and EDGE data services are available. Meteor have launched HSPA services in Dublin, Dundalk, Meteor provides both bill-pay and pre-pay plans and has approximately 19% of the Irish mobile market, with 1,032,000 cellular subscribers on the Meteor network. The company has used EDGE technology on its network and has received a 3G license, formally removed from Eirs competitor, as an operator with significant market power, Eir is required to provide a number of wholesale products to other operators and to switch calls onto other phone networks.
Many broadband products offered by other operators are resales of the Eir product, a series of telephone directories is distributed annually to all households in the Republic of Ireland. The six annual directories list numbers in the local dialling area, the company was formed in 1984 as Bord Telecom Éireann, under the Posts and Telecommunications Act 1983. In May 2013, it announced that Phonewatch had been sold to Oslo-based company, from 2000 to 2008, Eircom sponsored the League of Ireland. Although EU laws required the opening of the Irish telecommunications market, Telecom Éireann was privatised, this was very controversial and subject to much debate. The process began in 1995, and by July 1999 the government had disposed of all of its shareholding. Eircom plc was floated on the Irish and New York Stock Exchanges on 8 July 1999
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
Swisscom AG is a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland. Its headquarters are located at Worblaufen near Bern, the Swiss Confederation owns 51.0 percent of Swisscom AG. As of the end of 2015, Swisscom had around 21,000 employees, the Swiss telegraph network was first set up in 1852, followed by telephones in 1877. The two networks were combined with the service in 1920 to form the PTT. The Swiss telecommunications market was deregulated in 1997, Telecom PTT was spun off and rebranded Swisscom ahead of a partial privatisation in 1998 which has left the Swiss government with a 51% stake. Besides pioneering the first mobile telephone network NATEL A, the present-day Swisscom owns the protected brand NATEL, 25% of Swisscom Mobile was sold to Vodafone in 2001. Since Swisscom has bought a majority stake in Italys second-biggest telecom company Fastweb and invested in such as hospitality support, cloud services, mobile solutions. Switzerlands entry into the era came in 1851, with the passage of legislation giving the Swiss government control over development of a telegraph network throughout the country.
The governments initial plans called for the creation of three primary lines, as well as a number of secondary networks. In order to build equipment for the system, the government established the Atelier Fédéral de Construction des Télégraphs, in July 1852, the first leg of the countrys telegraph system—between St. Gallen and Zurich—was operational. By the end of year, most of the countrys main cities had been connected to the telegraph system. In 1855, the network was extended with the first underwater cable, connecting Winkel-Stansstad, night service was launched that year, starting in Basel, St. Gallen and Bellinzona. Telegraph traffic took off in the late 1860s after the government reduced the cost of a 20-word message in 1867, while telegraph traffic continued to rise in the following decade, the technology was soon to be replaced by the telephone. The following year, the government passed legislation establishing a monopoly on the telephone network. Nonetheless, private operators were allowed to bid for licenses in order to develop their local concessions, by 1880, Switzerlands first private network had been created in Zurich.
This was a system with the capacity for 200 lines. The first directory was published that year and listed 140 subscribers. Basel and Geneva all launched their own local networks between 1881 and 1882, one year later, the first inter-city telephone line was established, linking Zurichs private exchange with Winterthurs public system
The name is used to brand the free-to-air domestic British channel, and is used for international variants supported by advertising, subscription or both. The channel was first launched on 11 February 2002, the channel has won a number of awards. At the BAFTA Childrens Awards, it won awards in 2002 and it has won Best Schools Programme – 0–6 years awards from the Royal Television Society from 2002 to 2008. CBeebies is the childrens channel in the UK and is the 8th most watched channel overall. CBeebies HD officially launched on 10 December 2013, the CBeebies channel launched on 11 February 2002. The domestic CBeebies channel broadcasts from 6,00 a. m. to 7,00 pm each day– a result of the channel sharing bandwidth with the channel BBC Four on the Freeview platform, on they launched a weekly publication called CBeebies Weekly. Since 27 March 2013, CBeebies has been carried by the British Forces Broadcasting Service, the international CBeebies channel is advert-free and wholly owned by BBC Worldwide.
The first international launch for the CBeebies channel was in India in May 2007, the channel is available in the Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Colombia, Africa and the United States. In March 2011, the on demand version of the network was launched in the US and is available on Xfinity. On 13 May 2011, CBeebies was launched as a block on the channel BBC Kids in Canada. It is serving a similar schedule to the main channel, in the UK, CBeebies is operated by the BBC Childrens division and part of BBC North. The division is responsible for CBBC and overall strategic responsibility for all of the BBCs domestic services for children rests with the Director of Childrens. She took over from the first controller Michael Carrington in 2010, internationally, CBeebies is owned by BBC Worldwide, who operate the brand. CBeebies offers a mix of mostly UK-produced entertainment and educational output designed to encourage learning through play and these goals are realised through a range of programmes about simple science, natural history and movement, make up and make do, puzzle programmes and animation.
The channels schedule is deliberately the same every weekday, with a different schedule at weekends, the schedule includes signed programmes, shown in the UK between 14,00 and 17,00 on weekends. The international channels show many programmes broadcast on the UK channel, inversely however, shows that air on CBeebies in the UK may air on networks other than CBeebies worldwide. Also, the international CBeebies airs 24 hours a day, unlike the UK variant, the following is a list of the ten most watched shows on CBeebies, based on Live +7 data supplied by the Broadcasters Audience Research Board. The links between programmes on CBeebies are primarily achieved through the use of in-vision continuity, using presenters to interact with the children, in the UK, links are pre-recorded rather than broadcast live, as is the case on sister channel CBBC