George Maxwell Alagiah is a British newsreader and television news presenter. Since 3 December 2007, he has been the presenter of the BBC News at Six and has been the main presenter of GMT on BBC World News since its launch on 1 February 2010, he is the main relief presenter for the BBC Ten O'Clock News and has held this role since its launch in 2000, making him the longest serving presenter of the flagship news programme. Alagiah was born in Ceylon, his parents, Donald Alagiah, an engineer, Therese, were Sri Lankan Tamil. In 1961, his parents moved to Ghana in West Africa, where he had his primary education at Christ the King International School, his secondary education took place at St John's College, an independent Roman Catholic school in Portsmouth, after which he read politics at Van Mildert College, Durham University. Whilst at Durham, he wrote for and became editor of the student newspaper Palatinate and was a sabbatical officer of Durham Students' Union, he worked on South Magazine from 1982 until joining the British Broadcasting Corporation, where he was the Developing World correspondent based in London and Southern Africa correspondent in Johannesburg.
In 2004, he returned to his grandfather's original home in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami to survey the damage. The family's former home had been destroyed, but he was able to recognise an old well where he had played with his sisters, although the well was unsalvageable. Alagiah joined the BBC in 1989 after seven years in print journalism with South Magazine. Before going behind the studio desk, he was one of the BBC's leading foreign correspondents, reporting on events ranging from the genocide in Rwanda to the plight of the Marsh Arabs in southern Iraq to the civil wars in Afghanistan, Sierra Leone and Somalia, he was the presenter of BBC Four News from its launch in 2002. In January 2003 he joined the BBC Six O'Clock News, which he co-presented with Sophie Raworth until October 2005, with Natasha Kaplinsky until October 2007. Since 3 December 2007, he has been the sole presenter of the Six O'Clock News. Prior to that, he had been the deputy anchor of the BBC One O'Clock News and BBC Nine O'Clock News from 1999.
Since 3 July 2006, he has presented World News Today on BBC World News and BBC Two, rebranded GMT on 1 February 2010. He is a relief presenter on BBC News at Ten presenting Monday to Thursday when Fiona Bruce is unavailable. A specialist on Africa and the developing world, Alagiah has interviewed, among others, Nelson Mandela, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan and President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, his other documentaries and features include reports on why affirmative action in America is a'Lost Cause', for the Assignment programme, Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against the Kurds of northern Iraq for the BBC's Newsnight programme and a report on the last reunion of the veterans of Dunkirk. He earns £250,000 - £299,999 as a BBC presenter. In 2000, Alagiah was part of the BBC team which collected a BAFTA award for its coverage of the Kosovo conflict, he has won numerous awards including Best International Report at the Royal Television Society in 1993 and in 1994 was the overall winner of the Amnesty International UK Media Awards.
He was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours. His appearances at literary festivals include Cheltenham, Hay-on-Wye and London, he has spoken at the Royal Geographical Society, the Royal Society of Arts and at the Royal Overseas League, he is on the Board of the Royal Shakespeare Company. From 2002 to 2009, Alagiah was a patron of the Fairtrade Foundation from which in July 2009, he was obliged to resign by BBC Management who claimed professional conflict of interest. Complaints were received at the BBC from the public who were unhappy that Alagiah had been asked to step down; the BBC responded that in keeping with its principles of impartiality, it would be inappropriate for one of its leading journalists to be seen supporting a movement that represents a controversial view of global trade. He has been involved in supporting microfinance as a tool for development, including recent appearances in support of Opportunity International, he has been a patron of Parenting UK since 2000.
In 2010, he received the Outstanding Achievement in Television award at the Asian Awards. He is married to Frances Robathan; the couple have two children and Matthew. On 17 April 2014, it was announced. A statement from the BBC said: "He is grateful for all the good wishes he has received thus far and is optimistic for a positive outcome." On 28 June, Alagiah announced on Twitter that he was making "encouraging progress". In late October 2015, he announced on Twitter that the treatment was over and he subsequently returned to the BBC on 10 November. However, in January 2018 it emerged that the cancer had returned and he would undergo further treatment. In March 2018, in an interview with The Sunday Times, Alagiah noted that his cancer was terminal and could have been caught earlier if the screening programme in England, automatically offered from the age of 60, was the same as that in Scotland, where it is automatically offered from the age of 50. Profile from BBC Newswatch Career BBC World: George Alagiah joins BBC World to present new peak-time news programme
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Richard Baker (broadcaster)
Richard Douglas James Baker OBE RD was an English broadcaster, best known as a newsreader for BBC News from 1954 to 1982, as a radio presenter of classical music. He was a contemporary of Kenneth Kendall and Robert Dougall and was the first reader of the BBC Television News in 1954; the eldest son of a plasterer, Baker was born in Willesden, North London, educated at Kilburn Grammar School and at Peterhouse, Cambridge. Baker's undergraduate years were interrupted by war service in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, he was on a minesweeper that protected the Allied Arctic supply convoys to the USSR. He was awarded the Royal Naval Reserve decoration. In May 2015 he was awarded the Ushakov Medal for his service in the Arctic convoys of World War II. After graduating from Cambridge University, Baker worked as an actor and as a teacher, he wrote to the BBC to ask if they were recruiting, this resulted in his first job for them, presenting classical music on the BBC Third Programme.
He introduced the first BBC television news broadcast on 5 July 1954, although John Snagge read the actual bulletin. A competent pianist, he became associated with classical music broadcasting, presented many music programmes on both television and radio, for many years, the annual live broadcast from the Last Night of the Proms, he was a regular panellist on the classical music quiz show Face the Music. On radio he presented Baker's Dozen, Start the Week on Radio 4 from April 1970 until 1987, These You Have Loved, Melodies for You for BBC Radio 2, he presented the long-running Your Hundred Best Tunes for BBC Radio 2 on Sunday nights, taking over from Alan Keith, who died in 2003, retiring in January 2007 when the programme was dropped by the BBC. Baker narrated Mary and Midge, a children's cartoon produced for the BBC, Teddy Edward, another children's series, as well as Prokofiev's composition for children Peter and the Wolf, he made cameo appearances in three episodes of Monty Python's Flying Circus and in the 1977 Morecambe and Wise Christmas Show.
Baker married Margaret Martin, at St Mary The Boltons in Brompton, London, on 2 June 1961, while both were in their mid-30s. They had known each other from infancy; the couple had two sons. Baker wrote a biography of Vice-Admiral Sir Gilbert Stephenson; the Terror of Tobermory was published by W. H. Allen in 1972. At the time of his 90th birthday Baker was living with his wife at a retirement village in Oxfordshire, he died on 17 November 2018, at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, aged 93. Following his death, fellow BBC broadcast journalist John Simpson tweeted: "Richard Baker, who has just died, was one of the finest newsreaders of modern times: intelligent, gentle, yet tough in defence of his principles." "History of BBC News". BBC
John Simpson (journalist)
John Cody Fidler-Simpson is an English foreign correspondent and world affairs editor of BBC News. He has spent all his working life at the BBC, has reported from more than 120 countries, including thirty war zones, interviewed many world leaders, he was educated at Magdalene College, where he read English and was editor of Granta magazine. Simpson was born in Lancashire, he says in his autobiography. He spent ten years growing up in Dunwich in Suffolk, he was educated at Dulwich College Preparatory School and St Paul's School, followed by Magdalene College, where he read English and was editor of Granta magazine. In 1965 he was a member of the Magdalene University Challenge team. A year Simpson started as a trainee sub-editor at BBC radio news. Simpson became a BBC reporter in 1970. On his first day, the then-prime minister Harold Wilson, angered by what he saw as the sudden and impudent appearance of the novice's microphone, punched him in the stomach. Simpson was the BBC's political editor in 1980–81.
He presented the Nine O'Clock News in 1981–82 and became diplomatic editor in 1982. He had served as a correspondent in South Africa and Dublin, he became BBC world affairs editor in 1988 and presented an occasional current affairs programme, Simpson's World. Simpson's reporting career includes the following episodes: In November 1969 he interviewed the exiled King of Buganda, Mutesa II, hours before death in his London flat from alcohol poisoning; the official cause was suicide but some suspected assassination. Simpson told the police the following day that the king, a fellow-graduate of Magdalene College, had been sober and in good spirits, but this line of enquiry was not pursued, he travelled back from Paris to Tehran with the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini on 1 February 1979, a return that heralded the Iranian Revolution, as millions lined the streets of the capital. In 1989 he avoided bullets at the Beijing Tiananmen Square massacre. Simpson reported the fall of Ceauşescu regime in Bucharest that year.
He spent the early part of the 1991 Gulf War in Baghdad, before being expelled by the authorities. Simpson reported from Belgrade during the Kosovo War of 1999, where he was one of a handful of journalists to remain in the Yugoslav capital after the authorities, at the start of the conflict, expelled those from NATO countries. Two years he was one of the first reporters to enter Afghanistan in 2001, famously disguising himself by wearing a burqa, subsequently Kabul in the US-led invasion of Afghanistan. Simpson was hunted by Robert Mugabe's forces in Zimbabwe. In 2002 he had an interview with the Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn just four days before his assassination. Fortuyn was not happy with Simpson and his questions and so sent him away just five minutes after the start of the interview, he was the first BBC journalist to answer questions in a war zone from internet users via BBC News Online. While reporting on a non-embedded basis from Northern Iraq in the 2003 Iraq war, Simpson was injured in a friendly fire incident when a U.
S. warplane bombed the convoy of American and Kurdish forces. The attack was caught on film: a member of Simpson's crew was killed and he himself was left deaf in one ear. Simpson has admitted to using hallucinogenic drugs offered to him by locals in various jungles of the world; this prompted jibes from other panellists when Simpson appeared on BBC Television's topical quiz show Have I Got News For You. On his first appearance, Simpson revealed that one hallucination involved a six-foot goldfish putting its flipper round his shoulders while wearing dark glasses and a straw hat. In 2008 and 2009, Simpson took part in a BBC programme called Top Dogs: Adventures in War and Ice, it saw Simpson unite with fellow Britons Sir Ranulph Fiennes, the adventurer, Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, the round-the-world yachtsman. The team went on three trips; the first episode, aired on 27 March 2009, saw Simpson and Knox-Johnston go on a news-gathering trip to Afghanistan. The team reported from the Tora Bora mountain complex.
The three undertook a voyage around Cape Horn and an expedition hauling sledges across the deep-frozen Frobisher Bay in the far north of Canada. During the 2011 Libyan civil war, Simpson travelled with the rebels during their westward offensive, reporting on the war from the front lines and coming under fire on several occasions. In 2016, Simpson presented a Panorama special,'John Simpson: 50 Years on the Frontline', revisiting the people and places that have impacted on him most, as he reveals his thoughts on the challenges for the future. In 2018 Simpson described how a previous head of BBC News had tried to force him out of the BBC. "I wasn’t the only one: he did the same to several eminent broadcasters, on the grounds that the news department was clogged at the top by the aged. I was unsighted by being assured how wonderful my contribution to the BBC was. “I’d be distraught if you left,” he said." Simpson has received various awards, including a CBE in the Gulf War honours list in 1991, an International Emmy for his report for the BBC Ten O'Clock News on the fall of Kabul, the Golden Nymph at the Cannes Film Festival, a Peabody award in the US, three Baftas.
He was appointed an honorary fellow of his old college at Cambridge, Magdalene, in 2000, became the first Chancellor of Roehampton University in 2005. Various universities have awarded him honorary doctorates: De Montfort, Suffolk College at the University of East Anglia, Dundee, Sussex, St Andrews, Leeds, he has received the Ischia International Journalism Award and the Bayeux-Calvados Award for
Sophie Jane Raworth is an English journalist and broadcaster. She works for the BBC as a newsreader, she regularly appears on the BBC News at Six and on BBC News at Ten. In 2015, she became the new presenter of consumer affairs programme Watchdog and in 2016, began presenting Crimewatch, both for BBC One. Born in Surrey to a florist mother and a businessman father, Raworth grew up in an exclusive area of Twickenham in south west London and attended the independent Putney High and St Paul's Girls' schools. After completing a degree in French and German at the University of Manchester, Raworth spent a year teaching English to teenagers in Toulouse before studying for a postgraduate course in broadcasting and journalism at City University, London. Raworth joined the BBC in 1992 as a news reporter, first for Greater Manchester Radio and in April 1994, as BBC Regions correspondent in Brussels. In May 1995, she became the regular joint presenter of BBC's Look North programme in Leeds. Raworth moved to national television in 1997, to co-present the BBC's Breakfast News programme on BBC One with Justin Webb, in years, with John Nicolson.
Raworth joined the BBC's early morning news programme Breakfast at its launch in 2000, which she presented alongside Jeremy Bowen and in years, Dermot Murnaghan, on Monday–Thursdays, sometimes with regular relief presenters such as Bill Turnbull and Michael Peschardt. She moved to the BBC Six O'Clock News in January 2003 which she presented alongside George Alagiah. In March 2006 Raworth was named as the main presenter of the BBC News at One, replacing Anna Ford on Monday-Thursdays, she took up the position in June 2006 after returning from maternity leave. She can be seen presenting relief shifts on the rolling news channel BBC News Channel. Raworth has presented several BBC specials, including coverage of the Queen's Golden Jubilee and Our Monarchy – the Next 50 Years, both alongside David Dimbleby. In addition, she has appeared on Tomorrow's World and, in the early 2000s, entertainment programmes such as Dream Lives and the quiz show Judgemental. In 2004, Raworth appeared on the BBC fashion show What Not to Wear, in which she was given a makeover by style advisors Trinny Woodall and Susannah Constantine.
In 2006 she was part of the television coverage of the Children's Party at the Palace, an event to celebrate the Queen's 80th birthday. Along with Huw Edwards, she presented some fake news updates for the programme, which led to many complaints from viewers. Raworth had a cameo role as a newsreader in the last series of the BBC comedy series My Hero. At the end of the One O'Clock News on 31 January 2008, she announced that she would be leaving the programme until the summer, confirmed Kate Silverton as presenting the bulletin during her absence. Raworth returned on 25 August 2008, after the birth of her third child, with the presentation of the Bank Holiday edition of the BBC News at One, BBC News at Six and BBC News at Ten. Raworth ran the Great North Run on 5 October 2008. Since early 2009, Raworth has been the main relief presenter on the BBC News at Six and a regular relief presenter on the BBC News at Ten presenting when regular presenters Huw Edwards, Fiona Bruce and George Alagiah are not available.
She has appeared in place of Andrew Marr on The Andrew Marr Show, presented on the BBC News Channel. In May 2009, she presented The Trouble with Working Women with reporter and father-of-three Justin Rowlatt on the BBC; the programme looked at the role of the working woman. In 2009, she presented Crimewatch Roadshow on BBC One on weekday mornings. In 2013, Raworth had a cameo appearance at the start of the film A Good Day to Die Hard as herself. On 16 July 2013, Raworth was given an Award of Doctor of Arts honoris causa by City University London. Raworth presented Watchdog Daily in 2012 and Watchdog Test House in 2014 and 2015, before landing the role of main presenter on Watchdog in September 2015, she replaced Anne Robinson. In February 2016, Raworth replaced Kirsty Young as main anchor of Crimewatch, she guest presented the programme in 2012. In 2017 it was reported. In 2018, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Royal Air Force, Raworth presented a documentary called RAF 100: Into the Blue, where she talked about her grandfather, Cpt. Edwin Raworth, a pilot in the First World War.
Raworth lives in London. In March 2017, the genealogy programme, Who Do You Think You Are? on BBC television, featured Sophie Raworth's family story. It revealed that she was descended from non-conformist ancestors who were members of an idealistic religious community called the New Jerusalem Church, they lived in Birmingham at a time when the city was rocked by religious riots in 1791 with people like her ancestors being the targets. In the aftermath of the riots, Sophie's ancestors and Martha Mott, took a great risk and uprooted their young family and moved to America. However, within two years of arriving, the parents had died of yellow fever and the children were sent back to England. Raworth discovers in the programme that she was not descended from the line that she had believed, but from Samuel Mott, sent to live with a bankrupt and ended up taking his own life. Investigating another branch of her paternal family tree, she found a long line of horticultural heritage stretching back to the 1700s, beginning with her great-grandfather, Edgar Cussons Crowder, who once worked in the Palm House at Kew Gardens.
Further research reveals that her five times great-grandfathe
Susan Lawley is an English broadcaster. From 1988–2006, Lawley was the presenter of Desert Island Discs on BBC Radio 4. Born in Sedgley, Dudley and brought up in the Black Country, she was educated at Dudley Girls High School, she graduated in modern languages from the University of Bristol where, due to peer pressure, she changed her Dudley accent to one closer to received pronunciation. She began her professional career as a trainee reporter on the Western Mail and South Wales Echo between 1967 and 1970, during which she shared a house in Cardiff with Michael Buerk, she moved to BBC Plymouth as a subeditor and freelance reporter from 1970 until 1972. In 1972, she gained prominence as one of the reporters/presenters of the BBC TV's news magazine Nationwide which she appeared on until 1975, when she was offered the main anchor role on the nightly news show Tonight. Lawley left Tonight on maternity did not return to the show. Instead she rejoined Nationwide alongside Frank Bough. Lawley remained with the show until it came to a close in 1983.
After Nationwide, Lawley became the anchor of the Nine O'Clock News bulletin on BBC1, moved to the newly launched Six O'Clock News in 1984. Lawley was praised after a broadcast on 23 May 1988, when the studio was invaded by protesters opposed to Section 28: she continued to read the news whilst co-presenter Nicholas Witchell restrained one of them. In 1981, she made a guest appearance in the Yes Minister episode "The Quality of Life", playing herself. Throughout the 1980s and into the early 1990s, Lawley was the regular stand-in for Terry Wogan on his BBC1 thrice-weekly chat show Wogan. From 1988 to 26 August 2006 Lawley was the presenter of Desert Island Discs on BBC Radio 4. In 1989, the BBC launched Lawley in her own Saturday night talk show titled Saturday Matters with Sue Lawley, panned by the critics and was cancelled after one series; the first guest interviewed was the HRH The Duchess of York, Sarah Ferguson. Lawley left the BBC to work for ITV, but did little work for them, other than an occasional series of high-profile interviews, which included British Prime Minister John Major.
She returned to BBC1 in 1993 to host the show Biteback. Lawley was part of ITN's presenting team in its ITV Election 97 coverage. Lawley introduces the BBC Radio 4 Reith Lectures and is a board member of the English Tourism Council and the English National Opera, her second marriage was to Hugh Williams, a television executive. Her first husband was a lawyer, she was awarded the OBE in 2001
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram