Newhaven, East Sussex
Newhaven is a channel ferry port in East Sussex in England, with regular passenger services to Dieppe. It lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, which has migrated westward from Seaford, one of the Cinque Ports. After a breakwater was built at the village of Meeching, a new outlet cut through the valley, the railway reached the port in 1847, enabling a train-ferry, which brought great activity; the area became known as the'new haven' recognised as'The Port of Newhaven' in 1882. Newhaven lies at the mouth of the River Ouse, in the valley the river has cut through the South Downs. Over the centuries the river has migrated between Newhaven and Seaford in response to the growth and decay of a shingle spit at its mouth. There was a Bronze Age fort on. In about 480 AD, the Saxon people established a village near where Newhaven now stands, which they named "Meeching". Throughout the Middle Ages, the main outlet and port of the Ouse was at Seaford; the growth of the shingle spit hindered the outflow of the river, which flooded the Levels upstream and hindered access to the port.
Therefore, a channel through the shingle spit was cut in the mid-16th century below Castle Hill, creating access to a sheltered harbour, better than that at Seaford. This was the origin of modern Newhaven. However, shingle continued to accumulate and so the mouth of the Ouse began to migrate eastwards again. Under the Ouse Navigation Act, a western breakwater was constructed to arrest longshore drift and so cut off the supply of shingle to the spit. A new outlet was built below Castle Hill. At that time the settlement began to be known as the "new haven"; the present breakwater was built in 1890. It was part of the Holmstrow hundred until the abolition of hundreds in the 19th century. Although there are some signs of the derelict facilities that serviced the former train ferry operations, the port still sees a great deal of freight and passengers movement. International ferries run to the French port of Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, operated by DFDS Seaways. There are two outbound sailings per day, one in the morning and one in the evening, using the 18,654 GT ro-ro ferry MS Côte D'Albâtre.
Rail passengers wishing to connect with the ferries are advised nationally to travel to Newhaven Town, use the free bus service. The port is the proposed main landside site for E. ON's development of the offshore-Rampion Wind Farm; the village was of little maritime importance until the opening of the railway line to Lewes in 1847. In 1848, the exiled French King Louis Philippe I landed here in disguise after abdicating his throne; the London Brighton and South Coast Railway constructed their own wharf and facilities on the east side of the river, opened the Newhaven harbour railway station. The railway funded the dredging of the channel and other improvements to the harbour between 1850 and 1878, to enable it to be used by cross channel ferries, in 1863 the LB&SCR and the Chemin de Fer de l'Ouest introduced the Newhaven-Dieppe passenger service; the harbour was recognised as'The Port of Newhaven' in 1882. Imports included French farm products and manufactures, timber and slates. Newhaven harbour was designated as the principal port for the movement of men and materiel to the European continent during World War I and was taken over by the military authorities and the ferries requisitioned for the duration of the war.
Between 22 September 1916 and 2 December 1918, the port and town of Newhaven were designated a'Special Military Area' under the'Defence of the Realm Regulations', the Harbour station was closed to the public. The port and harbour facilities, rail sidings and warehousing were enlarged at this time and electric lighting installed to allow for 24-hour operation. During World War II, large numbers of Canadian troops were stationed at Newhaven, the ill-fated Dieppe Raid in 1942 was launched from the harbour; when Lord Lucan vanished in 1974, his car was found in Newhaven, in Norman Road, with two types of blood in it. The Newhaven Lifeboat, the first of, commissioned in 1803, is among the oldest in Britain, was established some 20 years before the Royal National Lifeboat Institution; the town established the rescue lifeboat in response to the wreck of HMS Brazen in January 1800 when only one man of her crew of some 105 men could be saved. The town used a combination of funds raised locally and contributed by Lloyd's of London to purchase a lifeboat built to Henry Greathead's "Original" design.
Newhaven has one of the Watch stations of the National Coastwatch Institution. To the east, in the neighbouring parish of Seaford was the village of Tide Mills, built in 1761, now derelict. Here are the remains of workers' cottages, the tide mill itself, a large saline lagoon, the storage pond for high water to power the mills on the outgoing tide; the Newhaven Marconi Radio Station was established in 1904, started running in 1905. The station was owned and operated by the Marconi Radio Company and achieved regular ship to shore radio communications in 1912. To the east of Newhaven is the 50,000-foot production factory of King and McGaw, the UK's largest online Art provider; the company employs around 70 people and its contribution to the area was recognised in April 2014 with a visit from local MP Norman Baker. The Heritage Marine Hospital was built in 1924 to cater for disabled boys, it became a casualty of wartime defence work during World War II
Worthing is a large seaside town in England, district with borough status in West Sussex. It is situated at the foot of the South Downs, 10 miles west of Brighton, 18 miles east of the county town of Chichester. With an estimated population of 104,600 and an area of 12.5 square miles the borough is the second largest component of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, which makes it part of the 15th most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Since 2010 northern parts of the borough, including the Worthing Downland Estate, have formed part of the South Downs National Park. In April 2019, the Art Deco Worthing Pier was dubbed the best in Britain; the area around Worthing has been populated for at least 6,000 years and contains Britain's greatest concentration of Stone Age flint mines, which are some of the earliest mines in Europe. Lying within the borough, the Iron Age hill fort of Cissbury Ring is one of Britain's largest. Worthing means " Worth/Worō's people", from the Old English personal name Worth/Worō, -ingas "people of".
For many centuries Worthing was a small mackerel fishing hamlet until in the late 18th century it developed into an elegant Georgian seaside resort and attracted the well-known and wealthy of the day. In the 19th and 20th centuries the area was one of Britain's chief market gardening centres. Modern Worthing has a large service industry in financial services, it has one of Britain's oldest cinemas Dome cinema. Writers Oscar Wilde and Harold Pinter worked in the town. Worthing means " Worth/Weorð/Worō's people", from the Old English personal name Worth, Weorð or Worō, -ingas; the name was first recorded as Weoroingas in Old English. Worthen was used as late as 1720; the modern name was first documented in 1297. Another village with a similar name near Emmen in Drenthe in the Northeastern part of the Netherlands is Weerdinge. Older local people sometimes claim that the name of Worthing is derived from a natural annual phenomenon. Seaweed beds off nearby Bognor Regis are ripped up by summer storms and prevailing Atlantic currents deposit it on the beach.
A rich source of nitrates, it makes good fertiliser. The decaying weed was sought by farmers from the surrounding area, thus the town would have become known as Wort -inge. From around 4000BC, the South Downs above Worthing was Britain's earliest and largest flint-mining area. With four of the UK's 14 known flint mines lying within 7 miles of the centre of Worthing. An excavation at Little High Street dates the earliest remains from Worthing town centre to the Bronze Age. There is an important Bronze Age hill fort on the western fringes of the modern borough at Highdown Hill. During the Iron Age, one of Britain's largest hill forts was built at Cissbury Ring; the area was part of the civitas of the Regni during the Romano-British period. Several of the borough's roads date from this era and lie in a grid layout known as'centuriation'. A Romano-British farmstead once stood at a site close to the town hall. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area became part of the kingdom of Sussex; the place names of the area, including the name Worthing itself, date from this period.
Worthing remained an agricultural and fishing hamlet for centuries until the arrival of wealthy visitors in the 1750s. Princess Amelia stayed in the town in 1798 and the fashionable and wealthy continued to stay in Worthing, which became a town in 1803; the town expanded and elegant developments such as Park Crescent and Liverpool Terrace were begun. The area was a stronghold of smugglers in the 19th century and was the site of rioting by the Skeleton Army in the 1880s. Oscar Wilde holidayed in the town in 1893 and 1894, writing the Importance of Being Earnest during his second visit; the town was home to several literary figures in the 20th century, including Nobel prize-winner Harold Pinter. During the Second World War, Worthing was home to several allied military divisions in preparation for the D-Day landings. Worthing became the world's 229th Transition Town in October 2009. Transition Town Worthing, the project exploring the town's transition to life after oil, was established by local residents as a way of planning the town's Energy Descent Action Plan.
Worthing was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1890, when the towns absorbed the neighbouring civil parish of Heene. Subsequent enlargements took place in 1902, 1929 and 1933 before being reincorporated as a borough in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Since its inception as a borough, the authority has granted freedom of the town to some 18 individuals; the borough's coat of arms includes three silver mackerel, a Horn of Plenty overflowing with corn and fruit on a cloth of gold, the figure of a woman, considered to be Hygieia, the ancient Greek goddess of health, holding a snake. The images represent the health given from the seas, the fullness and riches gained from the earth and the power of healing. Worthing's motto is the Latin Ex terra copiam e mari salutem, which translates as'From the land plenty and from the sea health'. On 31 March 1930 Charles Bentinck Budd was elected to the Offington ward of the West Sussex County Council; that year, who lived at Greenville, Grove Road, was elected to the town council as the independent representative of Ham Ward in Broadwater.
At an election meeting on 16 October 1933, Budd revealed he was now
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
BBC South East
BBC South East is the BBC English region serving Kent, East Sussex, part of West Sussex and a small part of Surrey. The BBC region was created in September 2001 by the joining of the Heathfield transmitter with the Bluebell Hill and Dover transmitters to form a new regional TV service. Unlike ITV Meridian, it does not serve southern Essex, this area being part of the BBC London region instead. BBC South East's television output consists of the flagship regional news service South East Today and the topical magazine programme Inside Out. A 25-minute opt-out during Sunday Politics is produced by an independent production company. A late night football magazine show; the region is the controlling centre for BBC Surrey and BBC Sussex. Radio Kent carries local programming between 6 am and 7 pm from the Tunbridge Wells studio simulcasts networked programming along with stations in the BBC South and South East regions until 1 am every night. BBC Sussex and BBC Surrey each carry three hours a day of local programming for each county from 6 am to 9 am, sharing the remainder of their output between 9 am and 7 pm joining with other stations in the BBC South and BBC South East regions at 7 pm.
BBC South East produces regional news and local radio pages for BBC Red Button and BBC Local websites for each county. It provided regional information for the BBC Ceefax service until its closure in October 2012. Prior to 2001, the South East and the south Midlands had been considered part of the same editorial region by the BBC, as a result, received a single regional service, including news programmes London Plus and Newsroom South East. London had not been afforded the same'regional' status as the other BBC regions as the bulk of the national content was produced in the capital; this was reflected in the fact that since the launch of regional TV news bulletins in 1957, there was no specialist division within the BBC tasked with producing South East opt-outs. As a result, the region had fewer local bulletins. Town and Around, the BBC's first attempt at a South East news programme, was integrated into Nationwide, whose production team produced the local bulletins, presented for many years by Bob Wellings.
This issue was addressed to a degree with the launch of South East at Six on Monday 4 January 1982 and on Monday 3 September 1984, by London Plus – which saw the introduction of short daytime bulletins of the type seen in other BBC regions. Production teams based within the BBC's Current Affairs department continued to produce London Plus until a dedicated South East operation was introduced on Tuesday 28 March 1989 with the launch of Newsroom South East from a dedicated news centre at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire. Despite the changes throughout the decade, the large region and fewer regional operatives meant the service was still far from ideal; the size of the region was reduced in stages, starting in 1993 when the Heathfield transmitter serving East Sussex was switched from BBC South East to BBC South, reducing the region to just London and the south Midlands. On 16 October 2000, the areas served by the Oxford transmitter were transferred from BBC South East to a new opt out service from BBC South's South Today.
Following the BBC's South East Review of 2001, the London and South East arrangements changed, with BBC London split off as a separate entity and Heathfield viewers rejoining Bluebell Hill and Dover in a new smaller BBC South East region, launched on Monday 3 September 2001 and based in Royal Tunbridge Wells. Following digital switchover in the south on 7 March 2012, the Whitehawk transmitter in Brighton transferred from the BBC South region to BBC South East; the network had been broadcasting around the fringes of Brighton and Hove prior to switchover and has always been part of the region's remit since 2001. The regional broadcasting centre is based in Tunbridge Wells, Kent with local radio studios and television bureaux located in Brighton and Guildford and smaller offices in Hastings and Dover. BBC South East is the only one of the BBC regions not based in a major city; the Tunbridge Wells studios are located in The Great Hall, a historic building used as public rooms, photography studios, a performance venue, a cinema, a dancing school and until 1980, a nightclub called Carriages.
In 1980, the building was damaged by fire. It was renovated and bought and now contains an arcade of shops, a hidden car park and the headquarters of BBC South East and BBC Radio Kent; the studios, as is now the trend with most modern developments, can be viewed by the public through tours or through the display windows into the offices from the public areas. Until late 2015, the complex contained a BBC Shop. BBC Oxford News BBC London BBC Local News at BBC Online BBC South East Today at BBC Online
Medium wave is the part of the medium frequency radio band used for AM radio broadcasting. For Europe the MW band ranges from 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz, using channels spaced every 9 kHz, in North America an extended MW broadcast band ranges from 525 kHz to 1705 kHz, using 10 kHz spaced channels. The term is a historic one, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was divided on the basis of the wavelength of the waves into long wave, medium wave, short wave radio bands. Wavelengths in this band are long enough that radio waves are not blocked by buildings and hills and can propagate beyond the horizon following the curvature of the Earth. Practical groundwave reception extends to 200–300 miles, with greater distances over terrain with higher ground conductivity, greatest distances over salt water. Most broadcast stations use groundwave to cover their listening area. Medium waves can reflect off charged particle layers in the ionosphere and return to Earth at much greater distances.
At night in winter months and at times of low solar activity, the lower ionospheric D layer disappears. When this happens, MW radio waves can be received many hundreds or thousands of miles away as the signal will be reflected by the higher F layer; this can allow long-distance broadcasting, but can interfere with distant local stations. Due to the limited number of available channels in the MW broadcast band, the same frequencies are re-allocated to different broadcasting stations several hundred miles apart. On nights of good skywave propagation, the skywave signals of a distant station may interfere with the signals of local stations on the same frequency. In North America, the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement sets aside certain channels for nighttime use over extended service areas via skywave by a few specially licensed AM broadcasting stations; these channels are called clear channels, they are required to broadcast at higher powers of 10 to 50 kW. Broadcasting in the United States was restricted to two wavelengths: "entertainment" was broadcast at 360 meters, with stations required to switch to 485 meters when broadcasting weather forecasts, crop price reports and other government reports.
This arrangement had numerous practical difficulties. Early transmitters were technically crude and impossible to set on their intended frequency and if two stations in the same part of the country broadcast the resultant interference meant that neither could be heard clearly; the Commerce Department intervened in such cases but left it up to stations to enter into voluntary timesharing agreements amongst themselves. The addition of a third "entertainment" wavelength, 400 meters, did little to solve this overcrowding. In 1923, the Commerce Department realized that as more and more stations were applying for commercial licenses, it was not practical to have every station broadcast on the same three wavelengths. On 15 May 1923, Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover announced a new bandplan which set aside 81 frequencies, in 10 kHz steps, from 550 kHz to 1350 kHz; each station would be assigned one frequency, no longer having to broadcast weather and government reports on a different frequency than entertainment.
Class A and B stations were segregated into sub-bands. Today in most of the Americas, mediumwave broadcast stations are separated by 10 kHz and have two sidebands of up to ±5 kHz in theory. In the rest of the world, the separation is 9 kHz, with sidebands of ±4.5 kHz. Both provide adequate audio quality for voice, but are insufficient for high-fidelity broadcasting, common on the VHF FM bands. In the US and Canada the maximum transmitter power is restricted to 50 kilowatts, while in Europe there are medium wave stations with transmitter power up to 2 megawatts daytime. Most United States AM radio stations are required by the Federal Communications Commission to shut down, reduce power, or employ a directional antenna array at night in order to avoid interference with each other due to night-time only long-distance skywave propagation; those stations which shut down at night are known as "daytimers". Similar regulations are in force for Canadian stations, administered by Industry Canada. In Europe, each country is allocated a number of frequencies.
In most cases there are two power limits: a lower one for omnidirectional and a higher one for directional radiation with minima in certain directions. The power limit can be depending on daytime and it is possible, that a station may not work at nighttime, because it would produce too much interference. Other countries may only operate low-powered transmitters on the same frequency, again subject to agreement. For example, Russia operates a high-powered transmitter, located in its Kaliningrad exclave and used for external broadcasting, on 1386 kHz; the same frequency is used by low-powered local radio stations in the United Kingdom, which has 250 medium-wave transmitters of 1 kW and over. International mediumwave broadcasting in Europe has decreased markedly with
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex to the east, Hampshire to the west and Surrey to the north, to the south the English Channel. West Sussex is the western part of the historic county of Sussex a medieval kingdom. With an area of 1,991 square kilometres and a population of over 800,000, West Sussex is a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Chichester in the south-west is the only city in West Sussex. West Sussex has a range of scenery, including wealden and coastal; the highest point of the county is at 280 metres. It has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark, castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking and other recreational opportunities. Although the name Sussex, derived from the Old English'Sūþsēaxe', dates from the Saxon period between AD 477 to 1066, the history of human habitation in Sussex goes back to the Old Stone Age; the oldest hominin remains known in Britain were found at Boxgrove.
Sussex has been occupied since those times and has succumbed to various invasions and migrations throughout its long history. Prehistoric monuments include the Devil's Jumps, a group of Bronze Age burial mounds, the Iron Age Cissbury Ring and Chanctonbury Ring hill forts on the South Downs; the Roman period saw the building of Fishbourne Roman Palace and rural villas such as Bignor Roman Villa together with a network of roads including Stane Street, the Chichester to Silchester Way and the Sussex Greensand Way. The Romans used the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale; the foundation of the Kingdom of Sussex is recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year AD 477. The foundation story is regarded as somewhat of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century; the Kingdom of Sussex became the county of Sussex. With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex, the county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes.
By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions. These were administered by a separate county council from 1888, the county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes into the administrative counties of East and West Sussex. In 1974, West Sussex was made a single ceremonial county with the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time a large part of the eastern rape of Lewes was transferred into West Sussex; until 1834 provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From 1835 until 1948 eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. Most settlements in West Sussex are either along the south coast or in Mid Sussex, near the M23/A23 corridor; the town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population of 106,600. The coastal settlement of Worthing follows with a population of 104,600; the seaside resort of Bognor Regis and market town Horsham are both large towns.
Chichester, the county town, has a cathedral and city status, is situated not far from the border with Hampshire. Other conurbations of a similar size are Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and Haywards Heath in the Mid Sussex district, Littlehampton in the Arun district, Lancing and Shoreham in the Adur district. Much of the coastal town population is part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements in the county. There are several more towns in West Sussex; the smaller towns of the county are Arundel, Petworth and Steyning. The larger villages are Billingshurst, Crawley Down, Henfield, Hurstpierpoint, Lindfield and Storrington; the current total population of the county makes up 1.53% of England's population. West Sussex is bordered by Hampshire to Surrey to the north and East Sussex to the east; the English Channel lies to the south. The area has been formed from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock strata, part of the Weald–Artois Anticline.
The eastern part of this ridge, the Weald of Kent and Surrey has been eroded, with the chalk surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Wealden Group. In West Sussex the exposed rock becomes older towards the north of the county with Lower Greensand ridges along the border with Surrey including the highest point of the county at Blackdown. Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald leaving a north facing scarp slope of the chalk which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the River Arun and River Adur. In addition to these two rivers which drain most of the county a winterbourne, the River Lavant, flows intermittently from springs on the dip slope of the chalk downs north of Chichester; the county makes up 1.52% of the total land of England, making it the 30th largest county in the country. West Sussex is the sunniest county in the United Kingdom, according to Met Office records. Over the last 29 years it has averaged 1902 hours of sunshine per year.
Sunshine totals are highest near the coast wi