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Ivica Petanjak

Ivica Petanjak is a Croatian franciscan friar who serves as a bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Krk since March 22, 2015. Ivica Petanjak was born in a small village of Drenje near Osijek on August 29, 1963 to Stjepan and Kata Petanjak, his parents are from Zrin out of which they were expatriated by the Yugoslav Partisans on September 9, 1943. He has three sisters, two brothers. Petanjak finished elementary school in Drenje in year 1972, after which he attended Electro-metal vocational high school center in Osijek from which he graduated in 1982. After graduation he entered the Capuchin novitiate in Karlobag which he briefly interrupted due to obligatory conscription in army. On November 4, 1984 he laid temporary vows. At the same year he began his study of theology and philosophy at the Catholic Theological Faculty of the University of Zagreb. Petanjek took his lifetime vows on October 4, 1988, was ordained a priest on June 24, 1990 in Zagreb Cathedral by Ccardinal Franjo Kuharić. After his ordination, Petanjak served as a Deputy Prefect of seminarians in Varaždin, hospital chaplain at Clinical Hospital Centre Firule and parish vicar in the parish of Our Lady of Pojišan in Split.

From 1995 to 2002 he attained postgraduate studies at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. He studied history of the Church. In 2002, he gained his PhD with thesis Michelangelo Bosdari from Dubrovnik, OFM. Cap. Preacher, man of administration, spiritual leader. From 2002 to 2005 he served as Master of seminarians in Zagreb. From 2005 to 2011, Petanjak served as a Minister Provincial of the Croatian Capuchin Province of St. Leopold Bogdan Mandić. In 2011, he was transferred to Rijeka where served as a pastor of parish of Our Lady of Lourdes, educator of postulants. From August 2014 until his appointment as bishop of Krk in March 2015, he served as a superior of the Capuchin monastery in Osijek and provincial definitor. On January 24, 2015, on the feast of St. Francis de Sales, it was announced that Pope Francis, in accordance with canon 401 Article 1 of the Law of Canon Law, accepted the resignation of Bishop of Krk, Msgr. Valter Župan, that Ivica Petanjak would replace him. Petanjak was enthroned as bishop on March 2015 in the Krk Cathedral.

The main consecrator was Cardinal Josip Bozanić, while co-consecrators were Archbishop of Hyccarum Alessandro D'Errico, Emeritus bishop of Krk Valter Župan. Bishop Petanjak is described as humble and simple bishop, he gave his phone number, e-mail and home address to his people, admonishing them in his homily on the day of his consecration to never forget to visit him if they are nearby, to never hesitate to call him if they need anything. Petanjak's crosier, given to him as a present by priests and the lay people of the Diocese of Krk, is made out of olive wood, is intersected by three rectangular protrusions which contain stones from Zrin, Drava river, Krk Cathedral

Kurid┼ża's Rebellion

Kuridža's Rebellion was a rebellion against the Republic of Venice due to taxation on newly conquered territory, which included a large peasant Orthodox Christian population, led by Serbian Orthodox priest Petar Jagodić "Kuridža" in Bukovica and Ravni kotari that took place in 1704. The Venetian government implemented a tax of a tenth of yield on all lands that were conquered from the Ottoman Empire with the Great Turkish War. With special decrees or investments, lands were assigned to natural and legal persons, with regular payment of an annual tenth collected by tenants; the tenth was introduced in Venetian Dalmatia during the Morean War around 1690. Orthodox priest Petar Jagodić organized the poor population in a rebellion against Venetian taxation. Breaking out in Bukovica, it expanded into Ravni kotari. Apart from Kuridža, Žegar chieftain Ilija Nanić and Biograd chieftain Matija Žabetić were involved. Despite Kuridža's calling to the population of the Knin, Drniš, Skradin and Šibenik areas to rise up, the rebellion did not expand eastwards from the Krka river.

The rebels attacked the tax collectors, those who did not join the rebellion. Food imports from the Zadar hinterlands to the cities were banned, money was collected from the people for the needs of further rebellion. Venetian provveditore generale of Dalmatia, Marino Zane, was at the time of the outbreak at Split, he ordered his deputy, the captain of Zadar, to make threats of most severe punishment and invite the rebels to stop violence and present their problems to the authorities. Responding to the invitation, some 7,000 armed rebels under the leadership of some seventy village chieftains arrived outside Zadar and called the Kotari colonel and count Posedarski, the serdars Radasović, Smiljanić and Spingaroli to negotiate at Crno. After the talks, Zane received a report from the serdars, after which he sent them back to threaten the rebels with the most severe punishments; the Venetian government had insufficient armed forces in Dalmatia to suppress the rebellion. Zane ended his office as governor of Dalmatia in 1705, succeeded by Justinian da Riva.

Kuridža, from exile, requested him to hear the exiles. After receiving the three leaders, they were left in peace. However, the next governor Vincenzo Vendramino issued for the arrest of Kuridža in 1706, threw him in jail for the next decades. Nanić and Žabetić were pardoned, most due to Venice needing them for future wars with the Ottomans. Kuridža died shortly after his release in old age; the events are included in the historical novel Most uzdisaja by Yugoslav author Mirko Žeželj. A poem dedicated to him is included in Put Morlaka. Kuraica, Milorad. Бесмртни Куриџа. Subotica

Pleochroic halo

Pleochroic halos are microscopic, spherical shells of discolouration within minerals such as biotite that occur in granite and other igneous rocks. The shells are zones of radiation damage caused by the inclusion of minute radioactive crystals within the host crystal structure; the inclusions are zircon, apatite, or titanite which can accommodate uranium or thorium within their crystal structures. One explanation is. Uranium-238 follows a sequence of decay through thorium, radon and lead; these are the alpha-emitting isotopes in the sequence. The final characteristics of a pleochroic halo depends upon the initial isotope, the size of each ring of a halo is dependent upon the alpha decay energy. A pleochroic halo formed from U-238 has theoretically eight concentric rings, with five distinguishable under a lighted microscope, while a halo formed from polonium has only one, two, or three rings depending on which isotope the starting material is. In U-238 haloes, U-234, Ra-226 rings coincide with the Th-230 to form one ring.

These rings are indistinguishable from one another under a petrographic microscope. Collins, L. G.. "Polonium Halos and Myrmekite in Pegmatite and Granite". In Hunt, C. W.. A.. Expanding Geospheres, Energy And Mass Transfers From Earth's Interior. Calgary: Polar Publishing Company. Pp. 128–140. Durrani, S. A.. H.. A.. "Polonium Haloes in Mica". Nature. 278: 333–335. Bibcode:1979Natur.278..333H. Doi:10.1038/278333a0. Henderson, G. H.. "A Quantitative Study of Pleochroic Haloes, I". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 145: 563–581. Bibcode:1934RSPSA.145..563H. Doi:10.1098/rspa.1934.0120. JSTOR 2935523. "A quantitative study of pleochroic haloes. V; the genesis of haloes". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 173: 250–264. 1939. Doi:10.1098/rspa.1939.0143. Lide, David R. ed.. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. London: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0482-2. Moazed, C.. "Polonium Radiohalos: An Alternate Interpretation". Science. 180: 1272–1274. Doi:10.1126/science.180.4092.1272. Odom, A. L.. "Giant Radiation-Induced Color Halos in Quartz: Solution to a Riddle".

Science. 246: 107–109. Doi:10.1126/science.246.4926.107. Schnier, C. "Indications for the existence of superheavy elements in radioactive halos". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry. 253: 209–216. Doi:10.1023/A:1019633305770. York, Derek. "Polonium halos and geochronology". Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union. 60: 617. Doi:10.1029/EO060i033p00617. Geology of Gentry's "Tiny Mystery", J. Richard Wakefield, Journal of Geological Education, May 1988. Polonium Halo FAQs, TalkOrigins Archive

Scotch pie

A Scotch pie or mutton pie is a small, double-crust meat pie filled with minced mutton or other meat. It may be known as a shell pie or mince pie to differentiate it from other varieties of savoury pie, such as the steak pie and kidney pie, steak-and-tattie pie, so forth; the Scotch pie is believed to originate in Scotland, where it is called “a pie” but can be found in other parts of the United Kingdom, is sold all over Canada. They are sold alongside other types of hot food in football grounds, traditionally accompanied by a drink of Bovril, resulting in the occasional reference to football pies; the traditional filling of mutton is highly spiced with pepper and other ingredients and is placed inside a shell of hot water crust pastry. An individual piemaker's precise recipe, including the types and quantities of spice used, is kept a close secret, for fear of imitations, it is baked in a round, straight-sided tin, about 8 cm in diameter and 4 cm high, the top "crust" is placed about 1 cm lower than the rim to make a space for adding accompaniments such as mashed potatoes, baked beans, brown sauce, gravy or an egg.

Scotch pies are served hot by take-away restaurants, bakeries and at outdoor events. The hard crust of the pie enables it to be eaten by hand with no wrapping. There is a round hole of about 7.5mm in the centre of the top crust. Every year, since 1999, Scottish Bakers, a trade association, hold the World Championship Scotch Pie Awards; the winner of the Scotch pie section of the competition is judged World Champion. Rabbit pie List of lamb dishes List of pies and flans Food portal "Dumfries bakery lands World Scotch Pie title". BBC News.</ref> "Aiming high for the best Scotch pie". BBC News Online. November 18, 2004. "World Scotch Pie champion named". BBC News Online. November 30, 2004


Jirgalang or Jirhalang was a Manchu noble and political and military leader of the early Qing dynasty. Born in the Aisin Gioro clan, he was the sixth son of Šurhaci, a younger brother of Nurhaci, the founder of the Qing dynasty. From 1638 to 1643, he took part in many military campaigns that helped bring down the fall of the Ming dynasty. After the death of Huangtaiji in September 1643, Jirgalang became one of the young Shunzhi Emperor's two co-regents, but he soon yielded most political power to co-regent Dorgon in October 1644. Dorgon purged him of his regent title in 1647. After Dorgon died in 1650, Jirgalang led an effort to clean the government of Dorgon's supporters. Jirgalang was one of ten "princes of the first rank" whose descendants were made "iron-cap" princes, who had the right to transmit their princely titles to their direct male descendants perpetually. In 1627, Jirgalang took part in the first Manchu campaign against Korea under the command of his older brother Amin. In 1630, when Amin was stripped of his titles for having failed to fight an army of the Ming dynasty, Huangtaiji gave Jirgalang control of the Bordered Blue Banner, under Amin's command.

As one of "four senior beile", Jirgalang participated in many military campaigns against the Ming and the Chahar Mongols. In 1636 he was granted the title "Prince Zheng of the First Rank", with rights of perpetual inheritance. In 1642, Jirgalang led the siege of Jinzhou, an important Ming city in Liaodong that surrendered to Qing forces in April of that year after more than one year of resistance. While Dorgon was staying in Mukden, in November or December 1643 Jirgalang was sent to attack Shanhai Pass, a fortified Ming position that guarded access to the plain around Beijing. In January or February 1644, Jirgalang requested that his name be placed after Dorgon's in all official communications. On February 17, 1644, a capable military leader but looked uninterested in managing state affairs, willingly yielded control of all official matters to Dorgon, he was not present when Qing forces entered Beijing in early June 1644. In 1647 he was replaced by Dorgon's brother Dodo. Despite his removal, Jirgalang continued to serve as a military leader.

In March 1648, Dorgon ordered the arrest of Jirgalang on various charges and had Jirgalang degraded from a qinwang to a junwang. In the same year, Jirgalang was sent to southern China to fight troops loyal to the Southern Ming. In early 1649, after one of his military victories, he ordered a six-day massacre of the inhabitants of the city of Xiangtan in present-day Hunan, he returned victorious to Beijing in 1650 after having defeated the forces of the Yongli Emperor, the last ruler of the Southern Ming regime. The group led by Jirgalang that historian Robert Oxnam has called the "Jirgalang faction" was composed of Manchu princes and nobles who had opposed Dorgon and who returned to power after the latter died on December 31, 1650. Concerned that Dorgon's brother Ajige may try to succeed Dorgon and his group arrested Ajige in early 1651. Jirgalang remained a powerful figure at the Qing imperial court until his death in 1655; the four future regents of the Kangxi Emperor - Oboi, Ebilun and Suksaha - were among his supporters.

Soon after Jirgalang died of illness on June 11, 1655, his second son Jidu inherited his princely title, but the name of the princehood was changed from "Zheng" to "Jian". The title "Prince Zheng" was re-established in 1778 when the Qianlong Emperor praised Jirgalang for his role in the Qing defeat of Ming and granted Jirgalang a place in the Imperial Ancestral Temple. Jirgalang's second son Jidu and Jidu's second son Labu participated in military campaigns in the second half of the Shunzhi Emperor's reign and the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor, notably against Koxinga and Wu Sangui. Jirgalang's 13th generation descendants Duanhua and Sushun were politically active during the reign of the Xianfeng Emperor, they were appointed as two of eight regents for the infant Tongzhi Emperor, but were overthrown in 1861 in the Xinyou Coup that brought Empress Dowager Cixi and the young emperor's uncle Prince Gong to power. Prince Zheng Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty Ranks of imperial consorts in China#Qing Kennedy, George A. "Jirgalang".

In Hummel Sr. Arthur W.. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office. Pp. 397–398. Kennedy, George A. "Daišan". In Hummel Sr. Arthur W.. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office. P. 214. Kennedy, George A. "Jidu". In Hummel Sr. Arthur W.. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office. P. 397. Kennedy, George A. "Labu". In Hummel Sr. Arthur W.. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office. Pp. 439–440. Li Zhiting 李治亭.. Qingchao tongshi: Shunzhi juan 清朝通史: 順治卷. Beijing: Zijincheng chubanshe. Oxnam, Robert B.. Ruling from Horseback: Manchu Politics in the Oboi Regency, 1661-1669. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Wakeman, Frederic; the Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press