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BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards

The BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards, Premios Fundación BBVA Fronteras del Conocimiento, in Spanish, are an international award programme recognizing significant contributions in the areas of scientific research and cultural creation. The categories that make up the Frontiers of Knowledge Awards respond to the knowledge map of the present age; as well as the fundamental knowledge, at their core, they address developments in information and communication technologies, interactions between biology and medicine and conservation biology, climate change, economics and social sciences, contemporary musical creation and performance. Specific categories are reserved for developing knowledge fields of critical relevance to confront central challenges of the 21st century, as in the case of the two environmental awards; the awards were established in 2008, with the first set of winners receiving their prizes in 2009. The BBVA Foundation – belonging to financial group BBVA – is partnered in the scheme by the Spanish National Research Council, the country’s premier public research organization.

In their eleven editions, as many as seven winners of BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards have gone on to win the Nobel Prize. They are: Robert J. Lefkowitz, 2009 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Laureate in Biomedicine and winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2012. There are eight award categories: basic science and biomedicine, climate change and conservation biology and communications technologies, economics and management, music and opera and social sciences. In the first 10 editions, there was a category in development cooperation. Eight juries, one for each category, analyze the nominations put forward by international academic and research institutions. To reach their decision, the juries meet during January and February in the Marqués de Salamanca Palace, Madrid headquarters of the BBVA Foundation; the day after the jury’s decision, the name of the winners and the achievements that earned them the award are revealed at an announcement event in the same location. Ceremony The awards are presented in June each year at a ceremony held, from the 11th edition, in the Euskalduna Palace at Bilbao, in the Basque Country.

The BBVA Foundation engages in the promotion of research, advanced training and the transmission of knowledge to society, focusing on the emerging issues of the 21st century in five areas: Environment and Health, Economy and Society, Basic Sciences and Technology, Arts and Humanities. The BBVA Foundation designs and finances research projects in these areas; each BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge laureate receives a commemorative artwork, a diploma and a cash prize of 400,000 euros per category. Awards may not be granted posthumously, when an award is shared, its monetary amount is divided among the recipients; the commemorative artwork is created by Madrid sculptor Blanca Muñoz, B. A. in Fine Arts from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Holder of scholarships at Calcografia Nazionale, awarded by the Italian Government, at the Spanish Royal Academy in Rome, in Mexico City, awarded by the Mexican Department of Foreign Affairs, her numerous distinctions include the 1999 National Print Prize.

BBVA Foundation

Colleferro Calcio 1937

The Sports Association Football Colleferro is an Italian football club based in Colleferro, which plays in the non-professional league Eccellenza in the Latium region. The team was formed in 1937 under the name "Group Company Colleferro BPD", taken from the industrial center of the town; the uniforms reflect the town crest and black. After WW2, BPD Colleferro made its name in Italian football climbing all the way to the top of Serie C. In the'50s, during its tenure in Serie C, BPD Colleferro met several times with A. S. Roma in training matches. Several players wore the rossoneri jersey coming from notable teams such as Egidio Guarnacci from Rome and the Fiorentina who can caount and two caps in National, Caslino by'Atalanta, Corrado Bernicchi by Sampdoria. Other players like Faliero Mucci, Bruno Di Giulio, Franco Matrigiani Enzo Bovani Franco Papi, Guido Moretti Andrea Caslino became coaches and went into other teams managements. At that time Colleferro played at the BPD ground named after Maurizio Natali, a footballer who died November 1, 1957, in a car accident after returning from an away game versus Foggia.

Up to 4,000 fans could fill the small ground to admire BPD Colleferro taking on giants such as Lecce, Perugia and Cagliari. BPD Colleferro won the regional amatorial league Promozione in the 1949/50 season after beating Formia in the final in Arezzo, Tuscany; this final had to be repeated causing the game suspension. The rossoneri were promoted in serie C; the newly promoted underdogs played their best season of their history, missing out the Serie B for just 9 points. The team was top of the league up to the arrival of the influential Hungarian midfielder Tibor Garay former Inter Milan, who created discontents inside the dressing room causing poor results. Colleferro with the most prolific attack. In the following season BPD Colleferro ended in a respectable mid table position but it was relegated to the newly formed Fourth Division as Serie C reduced its groups; the season 1954/55 saw Colleferro winning the "Amateur Championship" beating Mestrina after two repeats held at Stadio Flaminio in Rome.

That same year, managed by Masetti, Bpd Colleferro was back in Serie C, overcoming Siena in two legged games which saw 2,000 Colleferro fans travelling to Tuscany. Colleferro closed the next season level with Pavia in 14th place. One of them had to be relegated. Colleferro lost to Pavia in the play-out final in Florence and returned to Serie D. In the 1960s the team navigated again in Serie D missing out a return in Series C several times by losing crucial play off games. In the 70s the industrial group of BPD abandoned the administration of the team which changed its name to "Sport Group Colleferro Football" and continued to play in inter-regional division. While the first team declined, the youth sector developed with homegrown players leaving to top teams such as Mark Sangiorgi, Massimo Sciarra, Mauro Raffin and Claudio Brai and Maurizio Girardi. During the 80s and 90s, the team played in the regional championship of Promozione, continuing to maintain a strong youth development with the likes of Giampaolo Saurini Simone Lucchini, Natale Gonnella and Cristian Biancone.

The youth team in the category "students won the regional championships and one in category "Junior ", coached by Faliero Mucci, did the same season in 1986/87 and 1987/88, until reaching the semifinals of national championship in their class. The following decades see Colleferro stagnating in the regional leagues with the lowest point reached by being relegated in 1a Categoria bouncing back going through Promozione and up in Eccellenza. In the Season 1999/2000 Colleferro was promoted again in Eccellenza and 2001/02 was close to playoffs for a promotion Serie D. In 2003 the team changed its name again, this time as "S. S. Colleferro Football" and is taken over by the Mandova, who revamped the management team and introduced players with experience; the club continues to play animportant role in the youth leagues and it includes two teams of Football 5 a side. Silverwares filled the club cabinet at the beginning of this decade. Under the ownership of Amerigo Talone and the managing of Enrico Baiocco, in 2010 Colleferro wins the Promozione Italian Cup beating La Sabina in Guidonia.

In 2013 the more prestigious Eccellenza Italian Cup is won, after a tense final played in Cisterna which saw the rossoneri prevailing over a nervous Atletico Boville Ernica. These two wins in three seasons made Colleferro the only club in the region to have won both Promozione and Eccellenza Italian Cup; the latter win allowed Colleferro to play the national amatorial Italian cup competition. A historic moment since Colleferro hadn't played outside the region for 30 years.'20s – mid'30s: Colleferro Scalo BPD ground Mid'30s – 1989: Stadio BPD named Natali, holding about 4,000 spectators. It was built with an uncovered stand opposite. Demolished and now used as car park. 1989–1993: Stadio Via degli Atleti, grass with running track, covered stands, holding about 2,500 fans. Ground shared with the local rugby team. 1993–1998: Campo Colle Sant'Antonino, holding up to 1,000 people. Nowadays it is used by youth football and minirugby teams and it has artificial turf. 1998–current: Campo Caslini, artificial turf, 963 seats, covered stands.

Scudetto Dilettanti: 11954–1955 Coppa Italia Promozione Lazio: 12010-2011 Coppa Italia Eccellenza Lazio: 12012-2013 Prima Divisionethird: 1940–1941Serie

Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the Sudanese and southern Egyptian Nile Valley. The Kushite era of rule in Nubia was established after the Late Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt. Kush was centered at Napata during its early phase. After Kashta invaded Egypt in the 8th century BC, the monarchs of Kush were the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, until they were defeated by the Neo-Assyrian Empire under the rule of Ashurbanipal a century and expelled from Egypt by Psamtik I. During classical antiquity, the Kushite imperial capital was located at Meroë. In early Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Aethiopia; the Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Meroe persisted until the 4th century AD, when it weakened and disintegrated due to internal rebellion. The seat was captured and burnt to the ground by the Kingdom of Aksum. Afterwards the Nubians established the three Christianized, kingdoms of Nobatia and Alodia.

The native name of the Kingdom was recorded in Egyptian as k3š pronounced or in Middle Egyptian, when the term was first used for Nubia, based on the New Kingdom-era Akkadian transliteration as the genitive kūsi. It is an ethnic term for the native population who initiated the kingdom of Kush; the term is displayed in the names of Kushite persons, such as King Kashta. Geographically, Kush referred to the region south of the first cataract in general. Kush was the home of the rulers of the 25th dynasty; the name Kush, since at least the time of Josephus, has been connected with the biblical character Cush, in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ham. Ham had four sons named: Cush, Put and Mizraim. According to the Bible, Nimrod, a son of Cush, was the founder and king of Babylon, Erech and Calneh, in Shinar; the Bible makes reference to someone named Cush, a Benjamite. In Greek sources Kush was known as Aithiopia. Mentuhotep II, the 21st century BC founder of the Middle Kingdom, is recorded to have undertaken campaigns against Kush in the 29th and 31st years of his reign.

This is the earliest Egyptian reference to Kush. Under Thutmose I, Egypt made several campaigns south; this resulted in their annexation of Nubia c. 1504 BC. After the conquest, Kerma culture was Egyptianized, yet rebellions continued for 220 years until c. 1300 BC. Nubia became a key province of the New Kingdom, economically and spiritually. Indeed, major pharonic ceremonies were held at Jebel Barkal near Napata; as an Egyptian colony from the 16th century BC, Nubia was governed by an Egyptian Viceroy of Kush. With the disintegration of the New Kingdom around 1070 BC, Kush became an independent kingdom centered at Napata in modern northern Sudan; the extent of cultural/political continuity between the Kerma culture and the chronologically succeeding Kingdom of Kush is difficult to determine. The latter polity began to emerge around 500 years after the end of the Kingdom of Kerma. By 1200 BC, Egyptian involvement in the Dongola Reach was nonexistent. By the 8th century BC, the new Kushite kingdom emerged from the Napata region of the upper Dongola Reach.

The first Napatan king, dedicated his sister to the cult of Amun at the rebuilt Kawa temple, while temples were rebuilt at Barkal and Kerma. A Kashta stele at Elephantine, places the Kushites on the Egyptian frontier by the mid-eighteenth century; this first period of the kingdom's history, the'Napatan', was succeeded by the'Meroitic', when the royal cemeteries relocated to Meroë around 300 BC. The Kushites buried their monarchs along with all their courtiers in mass graves. Archaeologists refer to these practices as the "Pan-grave culture"; this was given its name due to the way. They would put stones around them in a circle. Kushites built burial mounds and pyramids, shared some of the same gods worshiped in Egypt Ammon and Isis. With the worshiping of these gods, the Kushites began to take some of the names of the gods as their throne names; the Kush rulers were regarded as guardians of the state religion and were responsible for maintaining the houses of the gods. Some scholars believe; the state would redistribute to the people.

Others believe that most of the society worked on the land and required nothing from the state and did not contribute to the state. Northern Kush seems to have been wealthier than the Southern area. Dental trait analysis of fossils dating from the Meroitic period in Semna, northern Nubia, found that they displayed traits similar to those of populations inhabiting the Nile, Horn of Africa, Maghreb; the Meroitic skeletons and these ancient and recent fossils were phenotypically distinct from those belonging to recent Niger–Congo and Khoisan-speaking populations in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as from the Mesolithic inhabitants of Jebel Sahaba in Nubia. Resistance to the early eighteenth Dynasty Egyptian rule by neighbouring Kush is evidenced in the writings of Ahmose, son of Ebana, an Egyptian warrior who served under Nebpehtrya Ahmose, Djeserkara Amenhotep I and Aakheperkara Thutmose I. At the end of the Second Intermediate Period, Egypt faced the twin existential threats—the Hyksos in the North and the Kushites in the So

Manuel Doblado, Guanajuato

City Manuel Doblado is a Mexican municipality located in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico. Its municipal seat is the city of the same name. City Manuel Doblado has an area of 810.43 square kilometres and is bordered to the north by Romita, Purísima del Rincón and San Francisco del Rincón, to the southeast by Cuerámaro, to the south by Pénjamo, to the west by the state of Jalisco. The municipality had a population of 38,309 inhabitants according to the 2005 census; the municipality has been known at various times as Piedra Gorda, San Pedro Piedra Gorda, since 1899 as City Manuel Doblado, in honor of a distinguished lawyer born in the municipality. The Municipal President of City Manuel Doblado and its many smaller outlying communities is politician PRI Gustavo Adolfo Alfaro Reyes. Official Web Site:

Fiendish Codex II: Tyrants of the Nine Hells

Fiendish Codex II: Tyrants of the Nine Hells is an optional supplemental source book for the 3.5 edition of the Dungeons & Dragons roleplaying game. Tyrants of the Nine Hells expands on previous editions of Dungeons & Dragons supplement books, namely the Book of Vile Darkness, it describes origins of devils, the rise of the most powerful devil and the mystery of how he came to the Nine Hells of Baator in the first place. It describes in detail each layer of the Hells, such as their physical features, social structure and the personalities of those who rule over each layer respectively; this chapter describes the economy and society of the devils in hell, their relationship with demons, their origins, their soul harvesting of mortals. This chapter describes the nine layers of hell; the Hellbreaker specializes in infiltrating the strongholds of devils and relieving them of their treasures. They develop a number of techniques useful for combating the forces of hell. Hellbreakers are always chaotic-good, chaotic-neutral, or chaotic-evil and start out as rogues or ninjas.

Hellfire warlocks belong to a secretive group of specialist warlocks who have mastered hellfire, a dangerous energy found only in hell. As warlocks begin this prestige class and advance in it, they attain greater options in the uses of hellfire. Hellreavers are warriors who are outraged by the actions of devils and their abilities to corrupt and seduce without consequence, they become tremendously effective combatants against devils. Hellreavers are always good-aligned and start out in a combat-oriented class such as a barbarian, fighter, ranger, or as a cleric or monk. Soulguards are opposed to the practices of the devils and are outraged by their foul bargains with mortals and their stealing of souls, they go to great lengths to protect those beset by the power of the Baatezu. Soulguards are always paladins or clerics, but they can be druids or favored souls. Soulguards always have the alignment of either Lawful-neutral; this chapter introduces new types of devils including Abishai, Assassin Devil, Ayberobos Swarm, Harvester Devil, Hellfire Engine, Legion Devil, Narzugon, Orthon, Pain Devil, Pleasure Devil, Spined Devil, Steel Devil, Xerfilstyx.

The lords of the nine layers of Hell are described in this chapter. Each layer has an archdevil; the ruler of Avernus is Bel, the ruler of Dis is Dispater, the ruler of Minauros is Mammon, the ruler of Phlegethos is Belial and Fierna, the ruler of Stygia is Levistus, the ruler of Malbolge is Glasya, the ruler of Maladomini is Baalzebul, the ruler of Cania is Mephistopheles, the ruler of Nessus is Asmodeus. Fiendish Codex II was written by Robin D. Laws and Robert J. Schwalb, was published in December 2006. Cover art was by Raven Mimura, with interior art by Dave Allsop, Thomas M. Baxa, Eric Deschamps, Carl Frank, David Griffith, Warren Mahy, Wayne Reynolds, Anne Stokes, Kieran Yanner, James Zhang. Robert Schwalb explains how he became involved with this book: "Ever since I became a freelance game designer, I've had a knack for landing jobs that dealt with evil subjects. Chris Perkins pinged me to work on Fiendish Codex I, but tragically I was swamped with a project for another company, so I had to take a pass.

I kicked myself. I wouldn't make that same mistake twice. So, I cleared my decks for this one; as for an interest in devils, I've always been keen on the darker elements in the D&D cosmology. Maybe it's because my mother freaked a bit. Devils have been among the coolest for me. I'm ashamed to admit it, but I've had a fondness for Glasya since Monster Manual 2--what can I say, I like women with horns and tails."

Mycena alcalina

Mycena alcalina known as the stump fairy helmet mushroom, is a species of fungus in the family Mycenaceae. It grows ranging from North America to Europe. Mycena is a genus of saprotrophic mushroom; the name "Mycena" comes from the Ancient Greek μύκης, or mykes, meaning "mushroom." It is characterized by a white/grey spore print, small conical cap, thin stem. The genus Mycena is large and includes many species including Mycena alcalina, Mycena leptocephala, Mycena austera, Mycena brevipes. Species found in the genus Mycena are known as bonnets; the cap of Mycena alcalina ranges from conical to bell shaped and is 1–4 cm in diameter. The cap is supported by a hollow stem growing anywhere from 20-65mm long; the cap appears black at first, but fades to a grey-brown colour around the edges, with the stem being the same colour as the cap. The flesh of Mycena alcalina is fragile and thin; this species of mushroom is edible, but it has a mild acrid taste and distinct bleach-like odour, making it unpleasant to eat.

Mycena alcalina is saprotrophic, meaning it derives nutrients from the breakdown of organic materials through use of extracellular enzymes. This particular species is found most growing on the wood of coniferous trees, it can be found growing during the early summer and fall. Its geography is widespread, being found in both North America and Europe. In North America, it grows predominately on the western coast, it can be found in habitats ranging from the old growth forests of British Columbia, throughout Washington and Oregon. It can be found in other states, including Montana, Idaho and Virginia, it is found throughout Europe growing in densely forested areas including Britain, the Netherlands and Spain. Mycoremediation, a form of bioremediation, is the process of using fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants in the environment; some types of fungi are hyperaccumulators, are capable of absorbing and concentrating heavy metals within the fruiting bodies. Some mushrooms produce large amounts of extracellular enzymes, which break down the toxins and render them inert or less dangerous.

In the case of Mycena alcalina, it is believed that the bleach-like odor is due to this species ability to break down chlorinated compounds. There has been recent research done with M. alcalina indicating it has the ability to break down brominated compounds "Mycena alcalina" at the Encyclopedia of Life E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia Mycena in the Pacific Northwest: dichotomous key for identification of Mycenoid species