The Helena Train Wreck occurred in the early morning on February 2, 1989, in Helena, Montana, USA, when 48 cars of a Montana Rail Link freight train, decoupled from their locomotives by a train crew on Mullan Pass rolled backwards down the pass, traveling nine miles back into the city of Helena and colliding with a work train at a railway crossing near the center of the community. The collision resulted in a fire and explosion that damaged Carroll College and other nearby structures, knocked out power to most of the town, led to the evacuation of residents within an area of 2 square miles due to concerns of possible toxic chemical release; the event occurred during a severe cold snap, with temperatures below −30 °F that morning and with a wind chill factor of as much as −75 °F, which froze the water that firefighters used to attempt to extinguish the fire. In the early morning of February 2, 1989, during a record cold snap, a Montana Rail Link freight train picked up three extra "pusher" locomotives in Helena, Montana, to help move the train over Mullan Pass.
The train traveled west from Helena. Halfway up the pass, the lead engine developed an electrical problem that caused a loss of power and at about the same time was stopped by a malfunctioning signal; the train crew parked the train at the Austin siding, on the east side of Mullan Pass. While waiting for the signal to be fixed, the crew uncoupled the engines from the 48-car train to switch the order of the locomotives, setting the air brakes but not the hand brakes on the cars. At about 5:30 a.m. record cold temperatures caused the air brakes to fail on the decoupled cars. The cars rolled backwards 9 miles downhill, into Helena, crashed into a parked work train near the Benton Avenue crossing and Carroll College, caught fire, exploded; the explosion awakened many local residents. The blast caused extensive damage to Carroll College, shaking St. Charles Hall, a classroom and dormitory building, shattering most of the windows in Guadelupe Hall, the women's dormitory. A piece of a railroad car landed in the college library, vacant at the time due to the early hour of the day.
Other buildings damaged in Helena included the scagliola columns and other interior features of the Cathedral of St. Helena, located over 1 mile away. No one was killed, but the explosion disabled electric service to much of the community, as well as to some residents outside Helena, including rolling brownouts extending as far north as Great Falls, Montana 90 miles away, it shattered windows 1 mile distant, ejected debris for blocks, increased concerns about toxic gases spreading through the community. Neighborhoods within a radius of 2 miles were evacuated; the temperature at the time of the accident was about −32 °F and the resulting power outage disabled heat for a significant number of community residents. Consequences included water damage to buildings resulting from frozen plumbing and other difficulties that necessitated expensive repairs and plagued local residences for years; the event headlined a three-minute story on winter weather on NBC News that evening. The cold snap that ran from January 30 to February 4 was ranked number 4 on the NOAA's list of Montana's Top Weather/Water/Climate events of the 20th century.
The temperature remained colder than −20 °F for 84 hours. A record low, −33 °F, occurred on February 4. Wind chill was as low as −75 °F. Firefighters were hampered by water freezing. First responders were concerned about the potential for exposure to toxic chemicals, as they did not know at the time what materials were being transported by the freight cars; the explosion was determined to have been caused by a tanker carrying isopropyl alcohol, which caught fire and caused an explosion in another nearby car containing hydrogen peroxide. This was deemed a hazardous materials release; the accident due to the chemical release, has been used as an example of the risks inherent in rail transportation by those assessing the risks of rail transportation of nuclear materials. This derailment was part of a 2003 study of highway and train derailment accidents by the United States Department of Energy on accident sequence and nuclear risk. Video review of the event, 30 years later
Season 1874–75 in Scottish football saw the Scottish Cup being contested for the second time. After its successful introduction the previous season, the Scottish Cup was again competed for, with Queen's Park once again lifting the trophy. For the second season running, Queen's contented themselves with the domestic tournament, declining to enter the FA Cup. International competition was once again restricted to the annual clash with England, while the Glasgow v Sheffield representative fixture was played in Scotland for the first time. There was a modest expansion in the competition in its second season, which attracted 25 entrants – up from 16 for the previous season. There was geographic expansion too, with the 3rd Edinburgh Rifle Volunteers team becoming the first team from the east of the country to participate. Holders Queen's Park once again lifted the trophy, defeating Western and West End in the early rounds progressing to the semi-finals when opponents Rovers withdrew; the semi-final, against the previous season's runners-up, took three games to settle with Queen's winning 1–0 at Kinning Park following 0–0 and 2–2 draws.
Renton, meanwhile had defeated their local rivals Dumbarton in their own replayed tie. The final saw Queen's Park comfortably run out 3–0 winners; the crowd, estimated at 7,000, reflected the growing interest in football as it was three times the number that had attended the previous year. The 1875 international saw Scotland visiting London for a second time, on this occasion returning with a draw. 27 February 1875: Glasgow 2 Sheffield 0 Smailes, Gordon. The Breedon Book of Scottish Football Records. Derby: Breedon Books. ISBN 1-85983-020-X
Martha M. Place was the first woman to die in the electric chair, she was executed on March 20, 1899, at Sing Sing Correctional Facility for the murder of her stepdaughter Ida Place. Born Martha "Mattie" Garretson on September 18, 1849, in Readington Township, New Jersey, to Ellen and Isaac V. N. Garretson, Martha Place was struck in the head by a sleigh at age 23, her brother claimed that she never recovered and that the accident left her mentally unstable. Martha married widower William Place in 1893. Place had a daughter named Ida from a previous marriage. William married Martha to help him raise his daughter, although it was rumored that Martha was jealous of Ida. William called the police at least once. On the evening of February 7, 1898, William Place arrived at his Brooklyn, New York and was attacked by Martha, wielding an axe. William escaped for help and when the police arrived, they found Martha Place in critical condition, she was lying on the floor with clothes over her head and gas from burners was escaping into the room.
Upstairs they discovered the dead body of 17-year-old Ida Place lying on a bed. Her mouth was bleeding and her eyes disfigured from having acid, which William used in his hobby of photography, thrown in them; the evidence indicated Ida Place died from asphyxiation. Martha Place was arrested. Place proclaimed her innocence while awaiting trial. One contemporary newspaper report described the defendant in this way: She is rather tall and spare, with a pale, sharp face, her nose is long and pointed, her chin sharp and prominent, her lips thin and her forehead retreating. There is something about her face that reminds one of a rat's, the bright but changeless eyes somehow strengthen the impression. Martha Place was sentenced to death, her husband was a key witness against her. The governor of the state of New York, Theodore Roosevelt, was asked to commute Place's death sentence, but he refused. Having never executed a woman in the electric chair, those responsible for carrying out the death warrant devised a new way to place the electrodes upon her, deciding to slit her dress and place the electrode on her ankle.
Edwin F. Davis was the executioner. According to the reports of witnesses, she died instantly. Martha Place was buried in the family cemetery plot in East Millstone, New Jersey, without religious observances. Although Place was the first woman to die in the electric chair, she was the third to be sentenced to die by this method, the first two being serial killer Lizzie Halliday and Maria Barbella. Capital punishment in the United States List of people executed in Marlin. Penalty Is Death: U. S. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Executions. Columbia, MO, USA: University of Missouri Press. Martha M. Place at Find a Grave
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of
The Friends Association for Higher Education is a consortium of Quaker colleges and study centers, as well as individual members, who support the Quaker ideal of integrating academic work with social responsibility and spiritual life. FAHE's seventeen member institutions are located in the United Kingdom and Kenya. FAHE includes all who identify themselves with Quaker higher education, affirms the beliefs and tenets which are shared by all Friends, such as peace and stewardship. Quaker educators held a conference at Wilmington College June 22-23, 1980, to discuss how to strengthen Friends values in higher education. Participants included Theodor Benfey, Charles Browning and T. Canby Jones. At the end of the conference, the participants resolved to form an organization to further this work, created FAHE, its first office was located on the campus of Guilford College. Each June, FAHE members gather on the campus of one of the organization's member institutions for a conference; the agenda includes workshops and papers on various themes of concern to Quaker educators presented by members and other scholars, the annual meeting of the membership, the writing and reading of an annual epistle.
The conference is enlarged to include Quakers involved in other aspects of education. In 1988 FAHE co-hosted the International Congress on Quaker Education with the Friends Council on Education. In 2019 the conference was held at FAHE member institutions Swarthmore College and Pendle Hill in suburban Philadelphia. In June, 2020, FAHE will meet at Earlham College and Earlham School of Religion in Richmond, Indiana. FAHE publishes Quaker Higher Education. Much of its content derives from presentations from FAHE's annual conference. In 2014, FAHE began publishing a book series entitled "Quakers and the Disciplines." Each annual volume examines the contributions of Friends to a particular area of scholarship: Volume 1 is an overview of Quaker pedagogy, Volume 2 focuses on philosophy, Volume 3 looks at Quakers in literature, Volume 4 examines Quakers in business and industry, Volume 5 covers Quakers in politics and economics, Volume 6 features Quakers in sustainability and creation care. FAHE and Philadelphia Yearly Meeting co-sponsor an annual Quaker college fair in Philadelphia.
List of Friends schools Official website List of Friends Association for Higher Education member institutions Back issues of Quaker Higher Education Bryn Mawr hosts Friends Association for Higher Education conference