Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a rare element in the universe occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays. Within the cores of stars beryllium is depleted as it creates larger elements, it is a divalent element which occurs only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include chrysoberyl; as a free element it is a steel-gray, strong and brittle alkaline earth metal. Beryllium improves many physical properties when added as an alloying element to aluminium, copper and nickel. Beryllium does not form oxides until it reaches high temperatures. Tools made of beryllium copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. In structural applications, the combination of high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density make beryllium metal a desirable aerospace material for aircraft components, missiles and satellites.
Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation. The high thermal conductivities of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in thermal management applications; the commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. Beryllium is a steel gray and hard metal, brittle at room temperature and has a close-packed hexagonal crystal structure, it has a reasonably high melting point. The modulus of elasticity of beryllium is 50% greater than that of steel; the combination of this modulus and a low density results in an unusually fast sound conduction speed in beryllium – about 12.9 km/s at ambient conditions. Other significant properties are high specific heat and thermal conductivity, which make beryllium the metal with the best heat dissipation characteristics per unit weight.
In combination with the low coefficient of linear thermal expansion, these characteristics result in a unique stability under conditions of thermal loading. Occurring beryllium, save for slight contamination by the cosmogenic radioisotopes, is isotopically pure beryllium-9, which has a nuclear spin of 3/2. Beryllium has a large scattering cross section for high-energy neutrons, about 6 barns for energies above 10 keV. Therefore, it works as a neutron reflector and neutron moderator slowing the neutrons to the thermal energy range of below 0.03 eV, where the total cross section is at least an order of magnitude lower – exact value depends on the purity and size of the crystallites in the material. The single primordial beryllium isotope 9Be undergoes a neutron reaction with neutron energies over about 1.9 MeV, to produce 8Be, which immediately breaks into two alpha particles. Thus, for high-energy neutrons, beryllium is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs; this nuclear reaction is: 94Be + n → 2 42He + 2 nNeutrons are liberated when beryllium nuclei are struck by energetic alpha particles producing the nuclear reaction 94Be + 42He → 126C + n, where 42He is an alpha particle and 126C is a carbon-12 nucleus.
Beryllium releases neutrons under bombardment by gamma rays. Thus, natural beryllium bombarded either by alphas or gammas from a suitable radioisotope is a key component of most radioisotope-powered nuclear reaction neutron sources for the laboratory production of free neutrons. Small amounts of tritium are liberated when 94Be nuclei absorb low energy neutrons in the three-step nuclear reaction 94Be + n → 42He + 62He, 62He → 63Li + β−, 63Li + n → 42He + 31HNote that 62He has a half-life of only 0.8 seconds, β− is an electron, 63Li has a high neutron absorption cross-section. Tritium is a radioisotope of concern in nuclear reactor waste streams; as a metal, beryllium is transparent to most wavelengths of X-rays and gamma rays, making it useful for the output windows of X-ray tubes and other such apparatus. Both stable and unstable isotopes of beryllium are created in stars, but the radioisotopes do not last long, it is believed that most of the stable beryllium in the universe was created in the interstellar medium when cosmic rays induced fission in heavier elements found in interstellar gas and dust.
Primordial beryllium contains only one stable isotope, 9Be, therefore beryllium is a monoisotopic element. Radioactive cosmogenic 10Be is produced in the atmosphere of the Earth by the cosmic ray spallation of oxygen. 10Be accumulates at the soil surface, where its long half-life permits a long residence time before decaying to boron-10. Thus, 10Be and its daughter products are used to examine natural soil erosion, soil formation and the development of lateritic soils, as a proxy for measurement of the variations in solar activity and the age of ice cores; the production of 10Be is inversely proportional to solar activity, because increased solar wind during periods of high solar activity decreases the flux of galactic cosmic rays that reach the Earth. Nuclear explosions form 10Be by the reaction of fast neutrons with 13C in the carbon dioxide in air; this is one of the indicators of past activity at nuclear weapon
Bob Evans Restaurants
Bob Evans Restaurants is an American national chain of restaurants owned by Golden Gate Capital and based in New Albany, Ohio. After its founding in 1948 by Bob Evans the restaurant chain evolved into a company with the corporate brand name Bob Evans Farms, Inc. and set up a separate food division to handle the sale of its products in other markets. The company made several major acquisitions, including Owens Country Sausage in 1987, was split in January 2017 with the sale of its restaurant division to an affiliate of Golden Gate Capital. BEF Foods remained independently owned until September 2017; the Bob Evans family restaurant chain includes 480 locations in 18 states in the Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic portion of the United States. The locations are all corporate owned and none of them are franchised; the restaurants feature a country-living theme with a close connection to farms. Breakfast is served from open to close, most locations sell baked goods and small gift items; the company offered pork products and refrigerated side dishes in the retail grocery and food service markets.
The distribution of these products, sold under the Bob Evans and Owens Country Sausage brand names, was independent of the restaurant division. Bob Evans Restaurants was founded in 1948 by Bob Evans, when he began processing and packaging sausage for his small diner located in Gallipolis, Ohio. Early operations were based out of his southeastern Ohio farm in Rio Grande; as the reputation of his sausage grew, so did the number of guests that visited his farm to buy it in bulk. Friends and family partnered together to establish Bob Evans Farms, Inc. in 1953. The increased traffic led him to build the first company restaurant at the farm in 1962, named "The Sausage Shop". After running into a capacity issue fulfilling large orders, Bob Evans contracted with his cousin Tim Evans of the Evans Packing Company to package Bob Evans Sausage products. Another relative, Dan Evans, served as CEO until his retirement in 2000; the company acquired Texas-based Owens Country Sausage in 1987. Owing to trademark issues, the company branded its otherwise identical restaurants in Texas as Owens Restaurants.
By January 2006, all Owens restaurants had been closed. The company operated a Mexican-themed restaurant called Cantina del Rio in the mid-1990s, a move which founder Bob Evans called "a disaster" in 2003; the Evans family controlled daily operations of the company until 2000 when Dan Evans retired as CEO. After Dan's retirement, Stewart K. Owens assumed control of Bob Evans Farms Inc. as CEO. In 2001, he became chairman of the board. Company profits faltered under Owens' tenure. In August 2005, after corporate profits had dropped in eight of the previous nine quarters, Owens announced his resignation. After operating for several months under interim CEO Larry Corbin, the company hired Steven Davis, former president of Long John Silver's, as CEO in May 2006. In July 2004, Bob Evans Farms purchased the California-based Mimi's Cafe restaurant chain for $182 million. Mimi's Cafe had 144 locations throughout the U. S. at the time. They featured American food with a French emphasis and decorative elements.
Bob Evans Farms sold Mimi's Cafe to the U. S. branch of Groupe Le Duff in 2013. On August 17, 2009, Bob Evans opened a prototype restaurant in Ohio; this restaurant had a more farm-like feel, resembling the original Bob Evans farm concept. CEO Steven Davis resigned in December 2014. In December 2015, the chain announced its intention to sell 145 properties to Mesirow Financial Holdings Inc. for a total price of $165-175 million. On January 24, 2017, Bob Evans Farms announced the sale of its restaurants business unit to the private equity company Golden Gate Capital for US$565 million plus the assumption of up to US$50 million in liabilities. In addition to the restaurants, Golden Gate Capital will take ownership of the Bob Evans Farm in Bidwell, near Rio Grande. Once the sale is finalized, Bob Evans Farms CEO Saed Mohseni will move to Golden Gate Capital to serve as President of the Bob Evans restaurant division. BFF Foods President Mike Townsley will become President and CEO of the new Bob Evans Farms, which would remain a public company and will focus on grocery products such as breakfast sausage and refrigerated side dishes.
Net proceeds from the sale to Bob Evans Farms are expected to be between $475 million to $485 million. On the same day, Bob Evans Farms entered into an agreement to acquire the Pineland Farms Potato Co. of Mars Hill, for US$115 million. Pineland Farms is a value-added potato processor, including a 900-acre potato farm, serving the retail and food service markets. Both the sale of the restaurant division to Golden Gate Capital and the purchase of Pineland Farms Potato Company closed on March 1, 2017. On September 19, 2017, Bob Evans Farms announced. Post Holdings announced that upon completion of the acquisition, they would combine their existing Michael Foods refrigerated retail business with that of Bob Evans Farms; this unit would operate under the Bob Evans Farms name and would be led by the then-current Bob Evans Farms President and CEO, Mike Townsley. Bob Evans Farms foodservice business would be moved to Michael Foods, will be led by current division President Jim Dwyer; the sale of Bob Evans Farms to Post Holdings closed on January 12, 2018, at which point Bob Evans Farms stock was delisted from the NASDAQ Global Select
Flybe styled as flybe, is a British airline based in Exeter, England. Until its sale to Connect Airways, it was the largest independent regional airline in Europe. Flybe carries 8 million passengers a year between 81 airports across the UK and the rest of Europe, with over 210 routes across 15 countries, its two hubs are Manchester and Birmingham airports but it has a number of codeshares allowing connections to long-haul flights from airports such as London Heathrow, Paris CDG, Dublin and Amsterdam. The airline is a member of the European Regions Airline Association; the airline launched in 1979 as Jersey European Airways following the merger of Intra Airways and Express Air Services. In 1983 the airline was sold to Walker Steel Group, which owned Spacegrand Aviation, the two airlines were merged under the Jersey European name in 1985. Jersey European was renamed British European in 2000, received its current name in 2002. In February 2019, the airline was sold to the Connect Airways consortium, backed by Virgin Atlantic and Stobart Aviation.
Connect Airways intends Flybe and Stobart Air to subsequently operate under the Virgin Atlantic brand, though they will retain their own Air Operator Certificates. Flybe started operations on 1 November 1979 as Jersey European Airways as a result of a merger of the Jersey-based Intra Airways and the Bournemouth-based Express Air Services, was founded by John Habin, a resident of Jersey and the majority investor. After selling Aviation Beauport and other business interests, Habin established some key routes from Jersey Airport to the UK, before selling the airline in November 1983 to Jack Walker's Walker Steel Group, which owned the Blackpool-based charter airline Spacegrand Aviation; the two airlines were run separately, with shared management, until 1985 when they amalgamated under the Jersey European name, with the airline's headquarters moving to Exeter Airport. The airline became British European in June 2000, shortening this title to Flybe on 18 July 2002 and repositioning itself as a full-service, low-fare airline.
On 3 November 2006 it was announced that Flybe would buy BA Connect, except for that airline's services out of London City Airport. The takeover was complete in March 2007; the expanded airline's owners were Rosedale Aviation Holdings, Flybe staff and – as a result of the BA Connect takeover – International Airlines Group. The acquisition increased Flybe's route network in both the UK and continental Europe, making Flybe Europe's largest regional airline. On 14 January 2008 it was announced that Flybe had signed a franchise agreement with Scottish airline Loganair, to commence on 26 October 2008 following the termination of Loganair's franchise agreement with British Airways on 25 October 2008; the agreement would see Loganair aircraft flying in Flybe colours on 55 routes from Scotland. In 2008, in order to avoid losing a £280,000 rebate from Norwich Airport, Flybe advertised for "actors", as well as offering free return flights to Dublin on its website; as a result, the environmental group Friends of the Earth called on the government to launch an investigation into the aviation industry.
Chief executive officer Jim French was recognised in the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours List with a CBE for his services to the airline industry. On 10 December 2010, Flybe floated an IPO on the London Stock Exchange, with trading in shares commencing on the same day. Full public release of shares followed on 15 December 2010; the share price was set at 295p, valuing the company at £215 million, raising £66 million for the company, half of, to pay for fleet expansion. On 23 May 2013, it was reported that Flybe had sold its slots at Gatwick Airport to EasyJet for £20 million, that the slots would be handed over to EasyJet on 29 March 2014. CEO and chairman Jim French retired in August 2013, leaving the post of CEO to Saad Hammad of EasyJet, while Simon Laffin became chairman. By November 2013, Hammad had shaken up the operation, requesting the resignations of three top managers within six weeks of his arrival. Out of 158 routes flown at the time, over 60 did not cover their direct operating expenses and the costs of crew and aircraft.
On 23 April 2014, Flybe announced that it would launch domestic and international flights from London City Airport from 27 October 2014 after signing a five-year deal with the airport. The airline is expecting to carry around 500,000 passengers a year, with all five allocated aircraft being based around the Flybe network overnight. In March 2014, it was announced; this new scheme included new interior features and new uniforms. British Airways sold most of its remaining stake in the airline in June 2014, it had been reduced to 5% by share issues. In early 2015 it was announced that Flybe had negotiated a six-year agreement with SAS Scandinavian Airlines to fly 4 ATR 72–600 aircraft on their behalf, starting in October 2015. On 4 March 2015, Flybe announced new routes from Cardiff Airport bringing the number of routes to eleven. Flybe stated their intention to create a new base at Cardiff Airport and in Summer 2015 based two Embraer 195 aircraft there, which has since increased to three. On 10 November 2015, Flybe announced that it would base two Embraer 195 aircraft at Doncaster Sheffield Airport, starting new routes to Amsterdam, Berlin Tegel, Paris CDG, Alicante, Málaga and Newquay as of 27 March 2016.
This announcement came on the same day that Flybe announced that they would be pulling flights from Bournemouth Airport. Dublin Airport was added in October 2016. On 26 October 2016, it was announced that Hammad would be standing down as CEO with immediate effe
British Eventing is the Great Britain governing body for the equestrian sport of eventing, which combines a single rider and horse pairing competing in dressage and cross country. The organisation both regulates the sport and organises nearly 200 affiliated events across the country. In Great Britain, the eventing season runs from March to October every year, weather conditions permitting. There are all sorts of different levels from BE80 to 4* eventing. Which is badminton level British Eventing is responsible for Team GB selection for the Olympics and other international events, it forms part of the British Equestrian Federation. Based at Stoneleigh in Warwickshire, it has over 11,000 members. Known as the British Horse Trials Association, the organisation changed its name at the start of 2001, as the term'horse trials' was being replaced across the globe. Eventing combines three phases: dressage and cross country. BE has a Board and Committee responsible for such areas as major events, training and team selection.
The body employs five regional coordinators, each responsible for the events that take place in their respective geographical areas. The current chairman is Amanda Ratcliffe; the management comprises Mike Etherington Smith, the Chief Executive, Wendy McGowan the Finance Director. Alexander, Jeremy. "Eventing's fatal attraction. The Guardian. 4 May. Corbett, Sue. "A Sport, Never Less Than an Event." The Times. 14 February
British European Airways
British European Airways, formally British European Airways Corporation, was a British airline which existed from 1946 until 1974. BEA operated to North Africa and the Middle East from airports around the United Kingdom; the airline was the largest UK domestic operator, serving major British cities, including London, Glasgow and Belfast, as well as areas of the British Isles such as the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. From 1946 until 1974, BEA operated a network of internal German routes between West Berlin and West Germany as well. Formed as the British European Airways division of British Overseas Airways Corporation on 1 January 1946, BEA became a crown corporation in its own right on 1 August 1946. Operations commenced from Croydon and Northolt airports, with DH89A Dragon Rapides and Douglas DC-3s. Having established its main operating base at Northolt, BEA operated its first service from Heathrow in April 1950. During 1952, BEA carried its millionth passenger, by the early 1960s it had become the western world's fifth-biggest passenger-carrying airline and the biggest outside the United States.
In 1950, BEA operated the world's first turbine-powered commercial air service with Vickers' Viscount 630 prototype, from London to Paris. The airline entered the jet age in 1960 with de Havilland's DH106 Comet 4B. On 1 April 1964, it became the first to operate the DH121 Trident. For most of its existence, BEA was headquartered at BEAline House in Ruislip, London Borough of Hillingdon. BEA ceased to exist as a separate legal entity on 1 April 1974 when the merger with BOAC to form British Airways took effect; however the name was revived by British Airways from 1991 to 2008 when it renamed its existing subsidiary British Airways Tour Operations Limited as British European Airways Limited. British Airways Tour Operations Limited was itself founded in 1935 as an air travel company under the name Silver Wing Surface Arrangements Limited. With the outbreak of war in September 1939 all commercial and private flying within the UK had been restricted by the government due to the possibility of civil flights encountering enemy aircraft.
To offset this halting of civilian air traffic limited aerial services were instead carried out from 1940 onwards by the state-owned and operated British Overseas Airways Corporation to a number of destinations, both European, worldwide. On 1 January 1946, the Attlee government lifted wartime restrictions on civil flying in the United Kingdom. Within Europe, this resulted in BOAC resuming Imperial Airways' pre-war routes to continental Europe augmented by Royal Air Force Transport Command non-military flights from Croydon Airport, using Douglas Dakotas in RAF livery flown by crews in RAF uniforms, UK domestic air services operated by the Associated Airways Joint Committee, formed of several pre-war charter companies on 27 June 1940. BOAC formed a British European Airways division on 1 January 1946 in anticipation of that year's Civil Aviation Act. Following its formation, BOAC's new division began taking over Transport Command's operations from 4 March 1946. On that day, it inaugurated a weekly Dakota service from Northolt to Madrid and Gibraltar, followed by additional Dakota services to Stavanger and Oslo, Copenhagen, as well as Athens via Marseille and Rome.
On each of these flights, half of the Dakota's 16 seats were reserved for UK government officials. Crews continued to wear BOAC uniforms. Although some services still used Croydon for some time, the main operating base moved to RAF Northolt. On 1 August 1946, the Civil Aviation Act 1946 was passed into law; this established BEA as a crown corporation in its own right and transferred primary responsibility for scheduled air services from the UK to Europe to BEA. To fulfill its role as the new short- and medium-haul British flag carrier, BEA was organised into two divisions based at Northolt and Liverpool Speke with the former responsible for all scheduled services to the Continent and the latter for all scheduled services within the British Isles; the Civil Aviation Act 1946 furthermore provided for nationalisation of private, independent British scheduled airlines and gave BEA a legal monopoly as the sole short-haul scheduled British airline. Due to BEA's inability to take over the UK domestic flights of independent scheduled operators such as Railway Air Services, Allied Airways and British Channel Islands Airways on 1 August, these independents continued to ply their scheduled routes under contract to BEA until they were absorbed into the corporation in 1947.
The first flight operated by the newly constituted British European Airways Corporation departed Northolt for Marseille and Athens on the day of its formation at 8:40 am. This was followed by further route launches to Amsterdam and Lisbon. BEA supplemented its ex-RAF Transport Command Dakotas with Dragon Rapides and Avro Nineteens. Between August and October 1946, BEA took delivery of the first 11 of an eventual 83 Vickers Viking piston-engined airliners; these were BEA's first new aircraft. The first Viking revenue service departed Northolt for Copenhagen on 1 September 1946. Compared with the Dakota, the Viking took 35 minutes less to reach Copenhagen from London. Following their introduction on the London–Copenhagen route, Vikings began replacing D
BE (Pain of Salvation album)
BE is Pain of Salvation's fifth studio album, released by InsideOutMusic in September 2004. It humankind. Along with the band it features a nine-part orchestra, The Orchestra of Eternity, which features prominently throughout the album; this is the last album to feature Kristoffer Gildenlöw on bass. The album is the first Pain of Salvation album to be divided into more than three chapters; the band performed. It was released as "BE". BE attempts to explore the many facets of human existence, it begins with the narration of Animae, someone or something who/that has existed for as long as he/she/it can remember and contemplates the nature of his/her/its existence and begins a journey of understanding with the words: "I will call myself GOD and I will spend the rest of forever trying to figure out who I am". The story continues from there; the characters that appear and disappear throughout the story are as follows: Animae: Animae is the album's representation of God, or a Godhead. Nauticus: Nauticus is the name of a fictional space probe that is, according to the album, the most intelligent space probe to be created.
In reference to the marine'neighborhood', Nauticus'drifts' throughout space, searching for answers to save Earth from itself. Imago: Imago is the image of humanity in its most natural form. Combined, Imago is the reflection of Animae. Dea Pecuniae: Dea Pecuniae can be seen as a feminine version of Mr. Money, the Eve of humanity's dark side. In a way, she represents sin. Mr. Money: Mr. Money is the main character of the story, he represents the darker side of humanity. The sound and style are somewhat more varied than previous Pain of Salvation albums, but at the same time, calling upon those previous albums as influences; the album includes: narrative passages. Another song consists of voice messages to be left on "God's answering machine". To approach this song, the band asks the subscribers of their newsletter to call a certain phone number and say what they would want to say to God. In writing "BE", Daniel Gildenlöw used many resources for information and inspiration; these can be viewed at the "BE" home page, are intended as "points of departure" for listeners to continue their "own journey through "BE" ". is a word puzzle, as so many other titles and phrases on the album.
It derives from a combination of Messiah. Other puzzles on the same theme is Machinassiah and Machinauticus; the Latin errors are on purpose on behalf of Daniel. In a letter to a fan, posted on the Remedy Lane forum, he wrote: I'd say the trick is not to see the titles as pure Latin, but a connecting thread woven by words in Latin. Thus, Lilium Cruentus is formed by the words for lily and stained by blood and is preferably interpreted as a loss of innocence and virginity, see? There are no rules here, just triggers to the mind. Deus Nova - a god and the sense of novelty and beginning - the new. A new god on the rise. I was aware of the fact that the Latin was not correct and for many of the titles I was left to choose between the erred one and the linguistically correct. In all cases I went for the poetically correct and/or most versatile in interpretation; the title with most errors in relation to its meaning would be Nihil Morari - for that one you have to make a two-step translation. Nihil meaning nothing is pretty simple, but Morari is something like left-overs or corps as I recall it, but if you use the word remains for that same notion you have a words with two different meanings - and there's the magic, see?
I should make clear that I didn't do this to puzzle people or make them feel stupid, it's just a way of naming your children, sometimes they need a whole world - the naming being some sort of magical process like a baptism of some sort, affecting the song whether the receivers will understand the titles or not. I don't know if this makes sense at all, but... it's like doing the right thing if no one's watching you know? Non-meta-physics in a way I guess... The rough translations for the song titles are: Prologue 01. Animae Partus - A God Is Born 1:48"BE" I Animae Partus All in the Image of02. Deus Nova - New God. Note that'Deus' is masculine and'Nova' is feminine, so it should have been either'Deus Novus' or'Dea Nova' if it were to be grammatically correct. However, this is intentional. 3:1803. Imago - Imago 5:1104. Pluvius Aestivus - Summer Rain 5:00 Of Summer Rain - Of Summer Rain II Machinassiah -
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon