An insulation-displacement contact known as insulation-piercing contact, is an electrical connector designed to be connected to the conductor of an insulated cable by a connection process which forces a selectively sharpened blade or blades through the insulation, bypassing the need to strip the conductors of insulation before connecting. When properly made, the connector blade cold-welds to the conductor, making a theoretically reliable gas-tight connection. Modern IDC technology developed after and was influenced by research on wire-wrap and crimp connector technology pioneered by Western Electric, Bell Telephone Labs, others. Although designed to connect only solid conductors, IDC technology was extended to multiple-stranded wire as well. IDCs were seen only in extra-low voltage applications, such as telecommunications and signal connections between parts of an electronic or computer system. However, they are now used in some domestic and industrial low voltage applications, as can be seen in the illustration.
The benefits claimed for their use in these applications include up to 50 percent faster installation, due to the reduction in the stripping and screwing down processes. Ribbon cable is designed to be used with multi-contact IDC connectors in such a way that many IDC connections can be made at once, saving time in applications where many connections are needed; these connectors are not designed to be reusable, but can be re-used if care is taken when removing the cable. Pin 1 is indicated on the body of the connector by a red or raised "V" mark; the corresponding wire in a ribbon cable is indicated by red coloration, a raised molded ridge, or markings printed onto the cable insulation. On the connector pin 2 is opposite pin 1, pin 3 is next to pin 1 along the length of the connector, so on. On the cable, the wire connected to pin 2 is next to the wire connected to pin 1, so on. In some types of telephone and network plug, including the BS 6312 and the registered jack family separate wires in a sheath are used.
In these applications, the outer sheath is stripped the wires are inserted into the connector and a special termination tool is used to force the conductors into the contacts. Traditionally these connectors have been used with flat cable which makes it easy to ensure the right conductors go into the right slots; however modular connectors used with Category 5 twisted pair cable require careful arranging of the conductors by hand before inserting them into the connector. Punch-down blocks are intended to connect individual conductors punched down into each position in the block with a special punch-down tool. Punch-down terminations are generally seen in telephone and network connectors, in patch panels and distribution frames, in telephone equipment such as PBXs. Pins are numbered from pin 1 with odd numbers along one side and the numbers along the other side. Connectors are categorized by pin spacing in mm, number of pins, number of rows. Connectors used in computers include: 3.5 inch IDE desktop computer hard disk drives – 2.54 mm pitch, 40 pins, 2×20 2.5 inch IDE notebook computer hard disk drives – 2.00 mm pitch, 44 pins, 2×22 SCSI 8-bit – 2.54 mm pitch, 50 pins, 2×25 SCSI 16-bit – 1.27 mm pitch, 68 pins, 2×34 Floppy disk – 2.54 mm pitch, 34 pins, 2×17 Serial DE-9 on motherboards – 2.54 mm pitch, 10 pins, 2×5 – sometimes called everex Parallel DB-25 – 2.54 mm pitch, 26 pins, 2×13 In some instances USB through version 2 on motherboards – 2.54 mm pitch, 10 pins, 2×5 For all of the above connectors, the computer manufacturer attaches a female IDC connector onto one end of a ribbon cable, slides that connector onto a matching male box header or pin header on the computer motherboard.
Vampire tap Wire wrap Electrical connector DC connector Krone LSA-PLUS Berg connector JST connector Molex connector Pin header IDC Cable, Headers & Connectors Brochure on 3M Scotchlok insulation displacement connectors Molex Connectors Explained, as used in Pinball Insulation Displacement Contact Technology from Sensors, May 2001. A New Type of Very High Reliability Torsion IDC Zierick Manufacturing Corporation white paper. AT/Everex wiring for RS-232 COM port
Category 6 cable
Category 6 cable referred to as Cat 6, is a standardized twisted pair cable for Ethernet and other network physical layers, backward compatible with the Category 5/5e and Category 3 cable standards. Compared with Cat 5 and Cat 5e, Cat 6 features more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise; the cable standard specifies performance of up to 250 MHz compared to 100 MHz for Cat 5 and Cat 5e. Whereas Category 6 cable has a reduced maximum length of 55 meters when used for 10GBASE-T, Category 6A cable is characterized to 500 MHz and has improved alien crosstalk characteristics, allowing 10GBASE-T to be run for the same 100 meter maximum distance as previous Ethernet variants. Cat 6 cable can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable sheath. Cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are defined by TIA/EIA-568. Cat 6 patch cables are terminated in 8P8C modular connectors. Connectors use either T568B pin assignments. If Cat 6 rated patch cables and connectors are not used with Cat 6 wiring, overall performance is degraded and may not meet Cat 6 performance specifications.
The standard for Category 6A is ANSI/TIA-568-C.1, defined by the Telecommunications Industry Association for enhanced performance standards for twisted pair cable systems. It was defined in 2009. Cat 6A performance is defined for frequencies up to 500 MHz—twice that of Cat 6. Cat 6A has an alien crosstalk specification as compared to Cat 6, which picks up high levels of alien noise at high frequencies; the global cabling standard ISO/IEC 11801 has been extended by the addition of amendment 2. This amendment defines new specifications for Cat 6A components and Class EA permanent links; these new global Cat 6A/Class EA specifications require a new generation of connecting hardware offering far superior performance compared to the existing products that are based on the American TIA standard. The most important point is a performance difference between ISO/IEC and EIA/TIA component specifications for the NEXT transmission parameter. At a frequency of 500 MHz, an ISO/IEC Cat 6A connector performs 3 dB better than a Cat 6A connector that conforms with the EIA/TIA specification.
3 dB equals 50% reduction of near-end crosstalk noise signal power. Confusion therefore arises because of the different naming conventions and performance benchmarks laid down by the International ISO/IEC and American TIA/EIA standards, which in turn are different from the regional European standard, EN 50173-1. In broad terms, the ISO standard for Cat 6A is the highest, followed by the European standard, the American; when used for 10/100/1000BASE-T, the maximum allowed. This consists of 90 meters of solid "horizontal" cabling between the patch panel and the wall jack, plus 5 meters of stranded patch cable between each jack and the attached device. For 10GBASE-T, an unshielded Cat 6 cable should not exceed 55 meters and a Cat 6A cable should not exceed 100 meters. Category 6 and 6A cable must be terminated to meet specifications; the cable must not be bent too tightly. The wire pairs must not be untwisted and the outer jacket must not be stripped back more than 0.5 in. Cable shielding may be required in order to improve a Cat 6 cable's performance in high electromagnetic interference environments.
This shielding reduces the corrupting effect of EMI on the cable's data. Shielding is maintained from one cable end to the other using a drain wire that runs through the cable alongside the twisted pairs; the shield's electrical connection to the chassis on each end is made through the jacks. The requirement for ground connections at both cable ends creates the possibility that a ground loop may result if one of the networked chassis is at different instantaneous electrical potential with respect to its mate; this undesirable situation may compel currents to flow between chassis through the network cable shield, these currents may in turn induce detrimental noise in the signal being carried by the cable. Soon after the ratification of Cat 6, a number of manufacturers began offering cable labeled as "Category 6e", their intent was to suggest their offering was an upgrade to the Category 6 standard—presumably naming it after Category 5e, a standardized enhancement to Category 5 cable. However, no legitimate Category 6e standard exists, Cat 6e is not a recognized standard by the Telecommunications Industry Association.
Category 7 is an ISO standard, but not a TIA standard. Cat 7 is in place as a shielded cable solution with non-traditional connectors that are not backward-compatible with category 3 through 6A. Category 8 is the next UTP cabling offering to be backward compatible. "10 Gb/s Over Copper: Horizontal Cabling Choices". The Siemon Company. 2006-01-10. Retrieved 2015-02-13. Information on cable construction and alien crosstalk mitigation. Schmidt, John. "Determining the Right Media". BICSI News. 28. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Information on TIA TSB-155 37m versus IEEE 55m limitations. "What Really Changes With Category 6". The Siemon Company. Retrieved 2013-01-05
Telephony is the field of technology involving the development and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is intimately linked to the development of the telephone. Telephony is referred to as the construction or operation of telephones and telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires; the term is used to refer to computer hardware and computer network systems, that perform functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment. In this context the technology is referred to as Internet telephony, or voice over Internet Protocol; the first telephones were connected directly in pairs. Each user had a separate telephone wired to the locations he or she might wish to reach; this became inconvenient and unmanageable when people wanted to communicate with more than a few people.
The inventions of the telephone exchange provided the solution for establishing telephone connections with any other telephone in service in the local area. Each telephone was connected to the exchange via the local loop. Nearby exchanges in other service areas were connected with trunk lines and long distance service could be established by relaying the calls through multiple exchanges. Switchboards were manually operated by an attendant referred to as the "switchboard operator"; when a customer cranked a handle on the telephone, it turned on an indicator on the board in front of the operator, who would plug the operator headset into that jack and offer service. The caller had to ask for the called party by name by number, the operator connected one end of a circuit into the called party jack to alert them. If the called station answered, the operator disconnected their headset and completed the station-to-station circuit. Trunk calls were made with the assistance of other operators at other exchangers in the network.
In modern times, most telephones are plugged into telephone jacks. The jacks are connected by inside wiring to a drop wire. Cables bring a large number of drop wires from all over a district access network to one wire center or telephone exchange; when a telephone user wants to make a telephone call, equipment at the exchange examines the dialed telephone number and connects that telephone line to another in the same wire center, or to a trunk to a distant exchange. Most of the exchanges in the world are interconnected through a system of larger switching systems, forming the public switched telephone network. After the middle of the 20th century and data became important secondary users of the network created to carry voices, late in the century, parts of the network were upgraded with ISDN and DSL to improve handling of such traffic. Today, telephony uses digital technology in the provisioning of telephone systems. Telephone calls can be provided digitally, but may be restricted to cases in which the last mile is digital, or where the conversion between digital and analog signals takes place inside the telephone.
This advancement has reduced costs in communication, improved the quality of voice services. The first implementation of this, ISDN, permitted all data transport from end-to-end speedily over telephone lines; this service was made much less important due to the ability to provide digital services based on the IP protocol. Since the advent of personal computer technology in the 1980s, computer telephony integration has progressively provided more sophisticated telephony services and controlled by the computer, such as making and receiving voice and data calls with telephone directory services and caller identification; the integration of telephony software and computer systems is a major development in the evolution of office automation. The term is used in describing the computerized services of call centers, such as those that direct your phone call to the right department at a business you're calling. It's sometimes used for the ability to use your personal computer to initiate and manage phone calls.
CTI is not a new concept and has been used in the past in large telephone networks, but only dedicated call centers could justify the costs of the required equipment installation. Primary telephone service providers are offering information services such as automatic number identification, a telephone service architecture that separates CTI services from call switching and will make it easier to add new services. Dialed Number Identification Service on a scale is wide enough for its implementation to bring real value to business or residential telephone usage. A new generation of applications is being developed as a result of standardization and availability of low cost computer telephony links. Starting with the introduction of the transistor, invented in 1947 by Bell Laboratories, to amplification and switching circuits in the 1950s, through development of computer-based electronic switching systems, the public switched telephone network has evolved towards automation and digitization of signaling and audio transmissions.
Digital telephony is the use of digital electronics in the operation and provisioning of telephony systems and services. Since the 1960s a digital core network has replaced the traditional analog transmission and signaling systems, much of the access network has been digitized. Digital
Belden (electronics company)
Belden Incorporated is an American manufacturer of networking and cable products. The company designs and markets signal transmission products for demanding applications; these products serve the industrial automation, security, transportation and residential markets. Belden is one of the largest U. S.-based manufacturers of high-speed electronic cables used in industrial and broadcast markets. Belden is headquartered in Missouri, its president and CEO is John Stroup. Belden operates in three regions: The Americas Europe, Middle East and Africa Asia Pacific PPC, a division of Belden, holds a number of patents for connector technology and has pioneered advancements for various industries. PPC Belden's innovations include the Universal Compression Connector, the wireless compression connector for the wireless industry and a locking HDMI connector, it was purchased by Belden in 2012. PPC Belden has its headquarters in New York. Belden was founded in Chicago in 1902, it was acquired by Crouse-Hinds Company in 1980.
In 2004 the company merged with Cable Design Technologies forming Belden CDT Inc. and since the company has been headquartered in St. Louis. In 2005 John Stroup became CEO. Belden expanded in the 21st century through a number of corporate acquisitions: In early 2007, Belden purchased Hirschmann Automation and Control, an industrial marketing company focused on industrial automation and networking systems, for $260 million. In the summer of 2007, Belden acquired Lumberg Automation, which manufactures connectors used in industrial automation, for an undisclosed price. In June 2008, Belden purchased wireless LAN vendor Trapeze for $113 million. In December 2009, Belden purchased Telecast Fiber Systems, a manufacturer of fiber-optic systems for television broadcast production, for an undisclosed price. In late 2010, Belden acquired GarrettCom, an industrial networking products manufacturer, for $52 million. In late 2010, Belden purchased Thomas & Betts Corporation, a coax connectivity and communications products company, $78 million.
In November 2010, Belden purchased the communications products business of broadcast connector manufacturer Thomas & Betts of Memphis, Tennessee for $78 million. In December 2010, Belden divested its wireless business to Juniper Networks. In April 2011, Belden expanded its presence in South America with the acquisition of Poliron, a Brazilian cable company for $30 million. In September 2011, Belden acquired SCADA, a security solutions provider, Byres Security, makers of the Tofino brand industrial security solutions, for $7 million. In June 2012, Belden acquired Miranda Technologies, a global provider of hardware and software solutions for the broadcast television, satellite and IPTV industries, for $377 million. In December 2012, Belden purchased PPC, a developer and manufacturer of connectivity solutions for the broadband service provider market, for $515.7 million. In early 2014, Belden acquired Grass Valley, a manufacturer of end-to-end broadcast solutions, for $220 million. In December 2014, Belden said.
The deal, expected to close in the first quarter of 2015, will allow the companies to deliver cybersecurity solutions across industrial and broadcast markets. Belden website PPC website
A punch-down block is a type of electrical connection used in telephony. It is named because the solid copper wires are "punched down" into short open-ended slots which are a type of insulation-displacement connector; these slots cut crosswise across an insulating plastic bar, contain two sharp metal blades which cut through the wire's insulation as it is punched down. These blades make the electrical contact with the wire as well. A tool called a punch down tool is used to push the wire down and properly into the slot; some will automatically cut any excess wire off. The exact size and shape of the tool blade varies by manufacturer, which can cause problems for those working on existing installations when there is a poorly documented mix of different brands. Punch-down blocks are a quick and easy way to connect wiring, as there is no stripping of insulation and no screws to loosen and tighten. Punch-down blocks are used as patch panels, or as breakout boxes for PBX or other similar key phone systems with a 50-pin RJ21 connector.
They are sometimes used in other audio applications, such as in reconfigurable patch panels. A separate tool known as a spudger is used to remove small stray pieces of cut off wiring stuck within punch-down blocks, it is possible to insert wiring without the proper tool, but this requires great care to avoid damaging the connectors. For example, pushing a screwdriver down the middle of the block is a bad practice as it forces the two blades of the terminal post apart, leading to bad contacts, it is possible to punch-down multiple wires on top of each other in a single post of a punch-down block, but this practice is discouraged because of reliability concerns. If these multiple wires are of different thicknesses, it is more that the thinner wire will develop contact problems. Stranded wire can be used on punch-down blocks though they were designed for solid wire connections. Marginal practices like these are discouraged in large or mission-critical installations, because they can introduce troublesome intermittent connections, as well as more-obvious outright bad connections.
Once the contact blades in a punchdown block are "sprung apart" by poor practices, the entire block must be replaced to restore reliable connections. In addition, punch-down blocks are being used to handle larger numbers of faster data signals, requiring greater care and proper procedures to control impedance and crosstalk. A 66 block is used in older analog telephone systems. A 110 block is used in residential telephone and Cat 5 wire systems. A Krone block is a proprietary European alternative. A BIX block is a proprietary block developed by Nortel Networks. Media related to Punch down blocks at Wikimedia Commons
Nortel Networks Corporation commonly known as Northern Electric and Northern Telecom, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Canada. It was founded in Quebec, in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company; until an antitrust settlement in 1949, Northern Electric was owned principally by Bell Canada and the Western Electric Company of the Bell System, producing large volumes of telecommunication equipment based on licensed Western Electric designs. At its height, Nortel accounted for more than a third of the total valuation of all the companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange, employing 94,500 people worldwide. In 2009, Nortel filed for bankruptcy protection in Canada and the United States, triggering a 79% decline of its corporate stock; the bankruptcy case was the largest in Canadian history, left pensioners and former employees with enormous losses. By 2016 Nortel had sold billions of dollars' worth of assets.
Courts in the U. S. and Canada approved a negotiated settlement of bankruptcy proceedings in 2017. Alexander Graham Bell conceived the technical aspects of the telephone and invented it in July 1874, while residing with his parents at their farm in Tutela Heights, on the outskirts of Brantford, Ontario, he refined its design at Brantford after producing his first working prototype in Boston. Canada's first telephone factory, created by James Cowherd of Brantford, was a three-story brick building that soon started manufacturing telephones for the Bell System, leading to the city's style as The Telephone City. After Cowherd's death in 1881 which resulted in the closure of his Brantford factory, a mechanical production department was created within the Bell Telephone Company of Canada and production of Canadian telephone equipment was transferred to Montreal in 1882, to compensate the restrictions on importing telephone equipment from the United States. In addition to telephones, four years the department started manufacturing switchboards, at first the 50-line Standard Magneto Switchboard.
The small manufacturing department expanded yearly with the growth and popularity of the telephone to 50 employees in 1888. By 1890 it had been transformed into its own branch of operations with 200 employees, a new factory was under construction; as the manufacturing branch expanded, its production ability increased beyond the demand for telephones, it faced closure for several months a year without manufacturing other products. The Bell Telephone Company of Canada's charter prohibited the company to build other products. In 1895, the Bell Telephone of Canada spun off its manufacturing arm to build telephones for sale to other companies, as well as other products, such as fire alarm boxes, police street call boxes, fire department call equipment; this company was incorporated as the Northern Manufacturing Company Limited. Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company Limited was incorporated on December 7, 1895, by the following corporate members: Charles Fleetford Sise Sr. President of Bell Canada – Provisional Director.
McFarlane, all of the city and district of Montreal, Quebec. The initial stock capital was $50,000 at $100 per share, with 93 percent held by the Bell Telephone Company of Canada and the remainder held by the seven corporate members above; the first general stockholders meeting was held on March 24, 1896. In December 1899, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada bought a cabling company for $500,000. Northern Electric and Manufacturing further expanded its product line in 1900, manufacturing the first Canadian wind-up gramophones that played flat discs. In 1911 the Wire and Cable company changed its name to the Imperial Cable Company; the construction of a new manufacturing plant started in 1913 at Shearer Street in Montreal, Canada, as preparations began for the two manufacturing companies' integration. In January 1914, the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company and the Imperial Wire and Cable Company merged into the Northern Electric Company known as Northern Electric, the new company opened the doors on a new manufacturing plant in January 1915.
This facility at Shearer Street was the primary manufacturing centre until the mid-1950s. Edward Fleetford Sise was the president and his brother Paul Fleetford Sise was the vice-president and general manager. During the First World War Northern Electric manufactured the Portable Commutator, a one-wire telegraphic switchboard for military operations in the field. In 1922, Northern started to produce, for $5, the "Peanut" vacuum tube, which required only a single dry-cell battery; the use of alternating current was still under development during this time. The "Northern Electric Peanut tube was the smallest tube made, drew only one-tenth of an ampere and was the most remarkable radio frequency amplifier made." During the 1920s Northern Electric made kettles, cigar lighters, electric stoves, washing machines. In January 1923, Northern Electric started to operate an AM radio station with call letters CHYC, in the Shearer Street plant, much of the programming was religious services for the Northern Electric employees and families in the community.
In July 1923, CHYC-AM was the first radio station to provide entertainment to the riders of the transcontinental train, in a parl