Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian Government. It carries out geoscientific research; the agency is the government's technical adviser on all aspects of geoscience, custodian of the geographic and geological data and knowledge of the nation. On a user pays basis it produces geospatial products such as satellite imagery, it is a major contributor to the Australian Government's free, open data collections such as data.gov.au. The agency has six strategic priority areas: building Australia's resource wealth in order to maximise benefits from Australia's minerals and energy resources and into the future. Geoscience Australia came into being in 2001 when the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group merged with the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, its history dates back to Federation in 1901 when it was decided to set aside land for the national capital. This decision led to the establishment of the Australian Survey Office in 1910, when surveying began for the Australian Capital Territory.
AUSLIG's main function was to provide national geographic information. It was formed in 1987, when the Australian Survey Office joined with the Division of National Mapping, formed in 1947. Another important component of AUSLIG was the provision of satellite imagery to industry and government, started by the Australian Landsat Station in 1979, renamed the Australian Centre for Remote Sensing in 1986. AGSO's predecessor organisation the Bureau of Mineral Resources and Geophysics was established in 1946; the BMR was a geological survey with the main objective was the systematic geological and geophysical mapping of the continent as the basis for informed mineral exploration. Geoscience Australia's activities have expanded and today it has responsibility for meeting the Australian Government's geoscience requirements; this role takes the Agency well beyond its historic focus on resource development and topographic mapping to topics as diverse as natural hazards such as tsunami and earthquakes, environmental issues, including the impacts of climate change, groundwater research and coastal research, carbon capture and storage and vegetation monitoring as well as Earth observations from space.
Geoscience Australia's remit extends beyond the Australian landmass to Australia's vast marine jurisdiction. It has a free place name search and its earthquake monitoring services can be accessed; the Library is the premier geoscience library in Australia providing services to geoscience organisations, research centres, the mining and petroleum industries and the public. Geological Survey of South Australia Geological Survey of Western Australia List of national mapping agencies Geoscience Australia home page. Geoscience Australia in Google Cultural Institute As the cocky flies distance calculator International Map of the World XNATMAP's home page preserving NATMAP's history and maintaining contact with the people who were part of that history
Big Machine Records
Big Machine Records is an American independent record label distributed by Universal Music Group, specializing in country and pop artists. Big Machine is based on Music Row in Tennessee; the label was founded in September 2005 by former DreamWorks Records executive Scott Borchetta and became a joint venture between Borchetta and Country singer Toby Keith. The company concentrates on publishing and merchandising and oversees imprints, such as Valory Music, that are part of the Big Machine Label Group. Borchetta is from Los Angeles, California's San Fernando Valley area, he played bass guitar in punk rock bands in his younger years. Borchetta's father, Mike Borchetta, worked in Nashville as a country promoter who courted radio stations with music he transported in the trunk of his car. Mike Borchetta was married to an aspiring country singer at the time, as he had divorced Scott's mother. Borchetta did not leave Nashville after a 1981 visit. Borchetta worked in the mailroom of his father's music company and became a promotions staff member in 1991 for Universal's MCA Records label.
According to Bloomberg Businessweek, Borchetta was an "involved manager" at MCA, "choosing singles and dispensing advice." After he was fired from MCA in 1997, Borchetta accepted a role at the Nashville division of DreamWorks Records, but decided to start his own label after Universal acquired the division. Before he left DreamWorks, Borchetta approached Taylor Swift and her family after the musician performed at the Bluebird Cafe in Nashville, TN after first meeting her in 2004. At the time, Borchetta had no infrastructure or financing, made an offer to Swift and her parents, whereby he would recruit her to the new label's roster after it was established. Swift recontacted Borchetta around two weeks telling him: "I'm waiting for you."After he formed the label in 2005, Big Machine released Swift's first recording, the single "Tim McGraw" and her debut album Taylor Swift. Keith dropped his affiliation with the label in 2006, but he was reported as an equity holder in November 2014, alongside the Swift family and Borchetta.
In October 2012, Borchetta told Rolling Stone magazine: "Scott Swift owns three percent of Big Machine". By March 2009, Big Machine artist Danielle Peck had left the label; the departure occurred during a downturn period for the overall U. S. music industry. In February, 2010, Swift won 4 Grammys, including Album of the Year, Best Country Album, Best Country Song and Best Female Country Vocal Performance, she is the first Big Machine's artist. Borchetta signed a deal with Clear Channel, which changed its name to iHeartMedia, in 2012 that ensures payment for Big Machine artists from terrestrial and digital radio airplay. Three years after the deal was signed, Borchetta said that the revenue streams were "very meaningful."On November 3, 2014, Swift removed all but one of her songs from Spotify after indications of her disapproval of the streaming service emerged in July of the same year. Swift, statistically one of the world's most popular music artists at the time, had delayed the streaming of her 2012 album, Red.
Big Machine country music artists Justin Moore and Brantley Gilbert removed their music from Spotify on November 12, 2014. Like Swift, both artists allowed a single song to remain on the streaming platform. In response to a claim that Borchetta was seeking a sum of US$200 million for Big Machine since the release of Swift's fifth studio album 1989, the label head refuted the claim in November 2014: "Every time we have a Taylor record, they're like,'Oh, he's selling the company'." However, Borchetta did not rule out a future change of ownership, stating that "the business is changing so and if I see a strategic opportunity that's going to be better for our artists and executives, it's going to be a serious conversation". Following the release of 1989, her Big Machine contract requires her to produce one more full-length album for the label; the Zac Brown Band announced on January 12, 2015, that it had finalized a four-way strategic partnership involving the Southern Ground Artists record label, Big Machine Label Group, Republic Records and John Varvatos Records for the release of its fourth studio album.
The terms of the deal state that Zac Brown Band will work with Big Machine Label Group for marketing and distribution, while Southern Ground Artists will work on radio promotion, Republic will provide support in the area of non-country radio formats and international promotion, Varvatos will oversee branding and styling. Borchetta was quoted in the Big Machine press release as saying that there is "literally no ceiling" to what can be achieved by the new partnership, spoke of "moments when our best artists hit a global stride and a deeper sense of engagement that speaks a clearer musical language". In a February 2015 interview, Borchetta refused to comment on the status of the label's distribution deal with UMG, up for renegotiation at the time, he confirmed that the label would release the next American Idol album, in partnership with 19 Entertainment and UMG—Borchetta would be one of the mentors on the reality program's next series. Borchetta disclosed that Swift agreed to the withdrawal of her catalog from Spotify after he first suggested the idea to her, that he would remove the music of all Big Machine artists if it was within his power.
In November, 2017, Swift released her sixth studio album Reputation. After she returned to streaming service, this is her first album on the streaming; this is her last album released by Big Machine. In October 2018, Big Machine was
Bayesian model reduction
Bayesian model reduction is a method for computing the evidence and posterior over the parameters of Bayesian models that differ in their priors. A full model is fitted to data using standard approaches. Hypotheses are tested by defining one or more'reduced' models with alternative priors, which – in the limit – switch off certain parameters; the evidence and parameters of the reduced models can be computed from the evidence and estimated parameters of the full model using Bayesian model reduction. If the priors and posteriors are distributed there is an analytic solution which can be computed rapidly; this has multiple scientific and engineering applications: these include scoring the evidence for large numbers of models quickly and facilitating the estimation of hierarchical models. Consider some model with parameters θ and a prior probability density on those parameters p; the posterior belief about θ after seeing the data p is given by Bayes rule: The second line of Equation 1 is the model evidence, the probability of observing the data given the model.
In practice, the posterior cannot be computed analytically due to the difficulty in computing the integral over the parameters. Therefore, the posteriors are estimated using approaches such as MCMC sampling or variational Bayes. A reduced model can be defined with an alternative set of priors p ~: The objective of Bayesian model reduction is to compute the posterior p ~ and evidence p ~ of the reduced model from the posterior p and evidence p of the full model. Combining Equation 1 and Equation 2 and re-arranging, the reduced posterior p ~ can be expressed as the product of the full posterior, the ratio of priors and the ratio of evidences: The evidence for the reduced model is obtained by integrating over the parameters of each side of the equation: And by re-arrangement: Under Gaussian prior and posterior densities, as are used in the context of variational Bayes, Bayesian model reduction has a simple analytical solution. First define normal densities for the priors and posteriors: where the tilde symbol indicates quantities relating to the reduced model and subscript zero – such as μ 0 – indicates parameters of the priors.
For convenience we define precision matrices, which are the inverse of each covariance matrix: The free energy of the full model F is an approximation on the log model evidence: F ≈ ln p, optimised explicitly in variational Bayes. The reduced model's free energy F ~ and parameters are given by the expressions: Consider a model with a parameter θ and Gaussian prior p = N, the Normal distribution with mean zero and standard deviation 0.5. This prior says that without any data, the parameter is expected to have value zero, but we are willing to entertain positive or negative values; the model with this prior is fitted to the data, to provide an estimate of the parameter q and the model evidence p. To assess whether the parameter contributed to the model evidence, i.e. whether we learnt anything about this parameter, an alternative'reduced' model is specified in which the parameter has a prior with a much smaller variance: e.g. p ~ 0 = N. This is illustrated in the Figure; this prior effectively'switches off' the parameter, saying that we are certain that it has value zero.
The parameter q ~ and evidence p ~ for this reduced model are computed from the full model using Bayesian model reduction. The hypothesis that the parameter contributed to the model is tested by comparing the full and reduced models via the Bayes factor, the ratio of model evidences
Basal metabolic rate
Basal metabolic rate is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/. Proper measurement requires a strict set of criteria be met; these criteria include being in a physically and psychologically undisturbed state, in a thermally neutral environment, while in the post-absorptive state. In bradymetabolic animals, such as fish and reptiles, the equivalent term standard metabolic rate is used, it follows the same criteria as BMR, but requires the documentation of the temperature at which the metabolic rate was measured. This makes BMR a variant of standard metabolic rate measurement that excludes the temperature data, a practice that has led to problems in defining "standard" rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit time that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest.
Some of those processes are breathing, blood circulation, controlling body temperature, cell growth and nerve function, contraction of muscles. Basal metabolic rate affects the rate that a person burns calories and whether that individual maintains, gains, or loses weight; the basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by several factors. BMR declines by 1–2% per decade after age 20 due to loss of fat-free mass, although the variability between individuals is high; the body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR decreases with age, with the decrease in lean body mass. Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic fitness level, a product of cardiovascular exercise, while thought to have effect on BMR, has been shown in the 1990s not to correlate with BMR when adjusted for fat-free body mass, but anaerobic exercise does increase resting energy consumption.
Illness consumed food and beverages, environmental temperature, stress levels can affect one's overall energy expenditure as well as one's BMR. BMR is measured under restrictive circumstances when a person is awake. An accurate BMR measurement requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system not be stimulated, a condition which requires complete rest. A more common measurement, which uses less strict criteria, is resting metabolic rate. BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired through an equation using age, sex and weight. Studies of energy metabolism using both methods provide convincing evidence for the validity of the respiratory quotient, which measures the inherent composition and utilization of carbohydrates and proteins as they are converted to energy substrate units that can be used by the body as energy. BMR is a flexible trait, for example, lower temperatures resulting in higher basal metabolic rates for both birds and rodents.
There are two models to explain how BMR changes in response to temperature: the variable maximum model and variable fraction model. The VMM states that the summit metabolism increases during the winter, that the sustained metabolism remains a constant fraction of the former; the VFM says that the summit metabolism does not change, but that the sustained metabolism is a larger fraction of it. The VMM is supported in mammals, when using whole-body rates, passerine birds; the VFM is supported in studies of passerine birds using mass-specific metabolic rates. This latter measurement has been criticized by Eric Liknes, Sarah Scott, David Swanson, who say that mass-specific metabolic rates are inconsistent seasonally. In addition to adjusting to temperature, BMR may adjust before annual migration cycles; the red knot increases its BMR by about 40% before migrating northward. This is because of the energetic demand of long-distance flights; the increase is primarily due to increased mass in organs related to flight.
The end destination of migrants affects their BMR: yellow-rumped warblers migrating northward were found to have a 31% higher BMR than those migrating southward. The early work of the scientists J. Arthur Harris and Francis G. Benedict showed that approximate values for BMR could be derived using body surface area and sex, along with the oxygen and carbon dioxide measures taken from calorimetry. Studies showed that by eliminating the sex differences that occur with the accumulation of adipose tissue by expressing metabolic rate per unit of "fat-free" or lean body mass, the values between sexes for basal metabolism are the same. Exercise physiology textbooks have tables to show the conversion of height and body surface area as they relate to weight and basal metabolic values; the primary organ responsible for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located on the diencephalon and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum; the chief functions of the hypothalamus are: control and integration of activities of the autonomic nervous system The ANS regulates contraction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, along with secretions of many endocrine organs such as the th
The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979. Powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306 hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability, it can be transported by air. It has received different kind of weapons throughout its life and there is a field ambulance version; as part of its optional amphibious equipment, it has two hydrojets for travel through water. Pegaso BMRs are used by Spanish, Saudi Arabian and Peruvian Armies; the Spanish Army BMRs have been instrumental in the performance of Spanish forces in international interventions in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan and Lebanon. In the last few years, all of them had their original Pegaso engines replaced by new 310 hp Scania DS9 61A 24S engines, as part of the "BMR 2" programme. Furthermore, the vehicles were fitted with an air conditioning unit, they are now known as BMR M1. The Austrian Pandur I is based on the BMR-600.
BMR 3560.50 - Basic APC. Can be armed with machine guns.50cal M2HB, 7.62mm MG1A1 or an automatic grenade launcher 40mm LAG-40. BMR EDEX - Version for EOD teams with higher roofline and equipped with special boxes to transport explosives. BMR C/C MILAN - Tank hunter with MILAN ATGM. BMR C/C TOW - Tank hunter with TOW ATGM. BMR VCZ - Combat engineer vehicle with light bulldozer blade and winch. BMR VRAC-NBQ - NBC reconnaissance vehicle. BMR GEL - Version fitted with specialised equipment for electronic warfare. BMR 3560.51 - Command post vehicle. BMR 3560.53E - Mortar platform with 81mm mortar LN M-86 and 100 rounds. BMR 3560.54 - Ambulance. BMR 3560.55 - Light repair vehicle with crane and tow bars. BMR 3560.56 - Signals vehicle. BMR 3560.57 - Tank hunter with HOT ATGM. Prototype. BMR 3560.59E - Mortar carrier with 120mm mortar L-65. VMA - With improved amphibious capabilities. Prototype. Spain: 682 Egypt: 260 Mexico: 7 with the Mexican Marines. Peru: 20 Saudi Arabia: 200 with the Royal Saudi Navy Morocco: 100 Iraq: Unknown Number, but certain reports claiming interest shown by Iraqi MoD.= Somalia - Status unknown Pegaso VEC BMR 3562.03 BMR data Santa Barbara's website
NASCAR K&N Pro Series West
The NASCAR K&N Pro Series West the Winston West Series and Camping World West Series, is a regional stock car racing division of NASCAR. The series was first formed in 1954 as a proving ground for drivers from the western United States who could not travel to race in the more traditional stock car racing regions like North Carolina and the rest of the southern United States. In 1954, the series was formed under the name Pacific Coast Late Model circuit, with nine races on the schedule. At first the series sanctioned races on dirt tracks and paved tracks, but as the series developed, more races were held on paved tracks, with the final race on a dirt track being held in 1979. In 1988, the series traveled out of the United States for the first time, sanctioning a race in Australia. Eight years the series once again traveled outside the United States to Japan. In 1999, the season finale was held at Twin Ring Motegi, making it the first NASCAR championship race held in a different country. Four years NASCAR consolidated the Busch North Series into the series.
Jack McCoy has the most career wins in the series with 54, followed by Ray Elder with 47. Elder, has recorded six championships, the most out of any driver in the series. Other notable drivers who participated in the series include Ryan Blaney, Kevin Harvick, Brendan Gaughan, Derrike Cope, Chad Little and David Gilliland; the other regional division at the Grand National level of NASCAR is the K&N Pro Series East. The K&N Pro Series West began in 1954 as the Pacific Coast Late Model circuit. Nine races were in held in the first year, many of which were held in California, in cities such as Oakland, San Diego, San Mateo and Gardena; the inaugural series championship was won by Lloyd Dane driving a 1953 Hudson Hornet. Afterward, the series became known as the Grand National West Series the Winston Grand National West Series. In the beginning the series raced on dirt ovals, but as the series developed began to race only on paved tracks, with the last race held on a dirt oval until 2018 being in 1979.
Though the series sanctions races in the United States, the series has traveled to Australia in 1988 and Japan from 1996 to 1998 for exhibition races. The series became the first series to sanction a championship race outside the United States in 1999, when the final race was held at Twin Ring Motegi. In 2003, the Busch North Series was consolidated into the series forming the modern day series. For the 2008 season, Camping World bought naming rights of the series, renaming it the Camping World West Series. Two years K&N Engineering, Inc. replaced Camping World as the title sponsor. A total of 110 different drivers have scored wins in the series with Jack McCoy having the most with 54, followed by Ray Elder who has 47 wins. Elder has scored the most championships with six, while Roy Smith each have four; the series has had several notable NASCAR drivers throughout the years, including Ryan Blaney, Kevin Harvick, Brendan Gaughan, Derrike Cope, Chad Little and David Gilliland. As part of NASCAR's unification of the two Camping World Series in 2003, the cars can be either a 105-inch or 110-inch wheelbase.
Cambered/off-set rear ends are not allowed. The car bodies are a hand-built steel body, however teams may use a one-piece composite body; the composite body is a "common" item. Teams "brand" the composite body by the grill opening, quarter window openings and the vehicle decal package. Due to the introduction of the Car of Tomorrow in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, many of the vehicles on the series are old Sprint Cup cars. Another popular way to get a complete body is to buy a "cut-off" body from a Nationwide series team and mount it on a chassis. Teams have an option of building their own engines or they may run a specification engine, similar to what is used in many short tracks. Both engines are pushrod, 12:1 compression motors. "Built" motors are built to team specifications using any configuration of pieces as long as it still meets NASCAR specifications. The spec engine is built using NASCAR-Approved pieces that may be purchased from an approved supplier; the engines may be purchased as pre-assembled.
All of the spec pieces are individually encrypted with a barcode for verification and tracking purposes and can be checked during the inspection process with an encryption reader. When the series first started, the cars ran a V6 engine with a maximum 274 cu in displacement and no compression limit. In the early/mid 1990s the V8 engine with a 9.5:1 compression and maximum 358 cu in displacement was introduced to the series as an alternative to the V6 engines. Due to the decrease in popularity of the V6, it was phased out for the 1999 season; when the East and West series rules were combined, the compression ratio changed to 12:1. Cars may use unleaded fuel. However, when running in conjunction with one of the three national touring series, unleaded fuel must be used. Along with NASCAR's international series, the K&N Pro Series have General Tire as their exclusive tire supplier. Engine displacement: 358 cu in Pushrod V8. Transmission: 4 speed Manual. Weight: 3,300 lb Minimum. Power output: ~650 hp unrestricted.
Fuel: Sunoco Leaded or Unleaded gasoline. Fuel capacity: 22 U. S. gallons. Fuel delivery: Carburetion. Compression ratio: 12:1. Aspiration: Naturally aspirated. Carburetor size: 390 cu ft/min (184
Buffalo Metro Rail
The Buffalo Metro Rail is the public transit rail system in Buffalo, New York, United States. The system consists of a single, 6.4-mile long light rail line that runs for most of the length of Main Street in the City of Buffalo, from KeyBank Center in Downtown Buffalo to the south campus of the University at Buffalo in the northeast corner of the city. The first section of the line opened in October 1984. Construction on the initial Metro Rail line began in 1979 and opened in stages: the surface portion opened on October 9, 1984 while the subway opened as far as Amherst Street Station on May 20, 1985, following an opening ceremony on May 18; the line was further extended to University Station, serving the University at Buffalo, on November 10, 1986 due to construction issues at LaSalle Station. At the time of the start of construction, the line was intended to be the first line for an extensive heavy rail system that would spread throughout the city and suburbs. However, during the construction of the line and afterward, Buffalo's population declined by 55% from around 580,000 in 1950 to about 261,000 in 2010 and the new line's ridership was much lower than anticipated.
The cost of the urban section was so high that no funding was available to extend the lines into the suburbs, including the Amherst campus of the University at Buffalo. Efforts to obtain funding for feeder lines have been met with little to no success. Although a centerpiece of the original line, the downtown transit mall did not live up to expectations; because of poor traffic patterns on Downtown Buffalo's Main Street, some business groups called for the removal of the transit system so that they can return to normal vehicle traffic and curbside parking on Main Street, hoping that this measure would recreate the prosperous days of the past. In 2008, Buffalo began a project to reintroduce cars to Main Street; the project in question involved creating a shared trackbed/roadway with curbside parking, as well as the permanent closure of the Theater Station, which occurred on February 18, 2013. The closure of Theater Station meant that Fountain Plaza Station, located 546 feet south in the 500 block of Main Street, now serves as the beginning and ending of the Free Fare Zone.
On January 23, 2015, after less than two years of construction, traffic was reintroduced to the 600 block of Main Street, between Tupper and Chippewa Streets, in the Theater District. On December 15, 2015, traffic was reintroduced to the 500 block of Main Street, between Chippewa and Mohawk Streets, in the Central Business District. On January 9, 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced in his State of the State address that funding would be secured for the Amherst and Cobblestone line extensions. If successful, this would be the first extension in the service's history. Funding for an environmental review into the Amherst extension was approved in 2018; the study is expected to take between 30 months. Metro Rail is a light rail transit system as characterized by the American Public Transportation Association although it shares many characteristics with "heavy rail" metro systems and could be considered a "light metro." 80% of its track is an underground subway with high-level platforms. This section has eight stations that are spaced widely apart, comparable to subway systems elsewhere.
This section is cut-and-cover from Allen/Medical Campus to Utica deep-bored from Delavan/Canisius College to University. The remaining 20% of its track are on the surface on Main Street in downtown Buffalo. On the surface section, trains interact with automobile traffic from the theater district where it emerges from the tunnel until Mohawk Street where it reverts to a transit mall and at cross streets, where movements are governed by traffic signals. Catenary poles are spaced every 130 feet to support the overhead electrical lines. Metro Rail operates electric multiple-unit light rail vehicles in two-to-four car trains with power drawn from an overhead catenary system. Three-car trains are limited to rush hour and special events and four-car trains to special events; the Buffalo trains and SEPTA's light rail cars in Philadelphia are the only modern non-articulated LRVs operating in the United States. Fares are collected through a proof-of-payment system enforced by ticket inspectors. Travel is free on the above ground portion of the system.
Regular fare is $2. All stations have ticket machines. Metro Rail runs as follows: Monday-Friday from 5:10am–12:50am, Saturdays from 7:05am–12:50am, Sundays and holidays from 8:00am–11:50pm. Trains run as as once every ten minutes at rush hour and no less than once every twenty minutes. In July 2008, the NFTA reported that the passenger count "eclipsed the previous year's tally by 23%." As a result of this, in September 2008, the NFTA began an earlier starting time to the weekday schedule in response to an 11% increase in ridership over eight months of growth. Numbers are from the Federal Transit Administration's National Transit Database, which contains statistics from 1996–2011: Buffalo Metro Rail is ranked 25th in the nation in light rail daily ridership service as of 2013, with 5,058,300 passengers. However, it is noted that the line lacks extended branches to the suburbs, being confined to the city limits of Buffalo. One group, the Citizens Regional Transit Corporation, advocates for expansion.
As indicated in its statement, the CRTC seeks to educate the public, public off