National Front (UK)
The National Front is a far-right, fascist political party in the United Kingdom. It is led by Tony Martin. A minor party, it has never had its representatives elected to the British or European Parliaments, although it gained a small number of local councillors through defections, it has had a few of its representatives elected to community councils. Founded in 1967, it reached the height of its electoral support during the mid-1970s, when it was the UK's fourth-largest party in terms of vote share; the NF was founded by A. K. Chesterton of the British Union of Fascists, as a merger between his League of Empire Loyalists and the British National Party, it was soon joined by the Greater Britain Movement, whose leader John Tyndall became the Front's chairman in 1972. Under Tyndall's leadership, it capitalised on growing concern about South Asian migration to Britain increasing its membership and vote share in urban areas of East London and Northern England, its public profile was raised through street marches and rallies, which resulted in clashes with anti-fascist protesters, most notably the 1974 Red Lion Square disorders and the 1977 Battle of Lewisham.
In 1982, Tyndall left the National Front to form his own British National Party. Many NF members defected to Tyndall's BNP, contributing to a substantial decline in the Front's electoral support. During the 1980s, the NF split in two. In 1995, the Flag NF's leadership transformed the party into the National Democrats, although a small splinter group retained the NF name. Ideologically positioned on the extreme right or far right of British politics, the NF has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists. Different factions have dominated the party at different points in its history, each with its own ideological bent, including neo-Nazis and racial populists; the party espouses the ethnic nationalist view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK, with settled non-white Britons to be stripped of citizenship and deported. A white supremacist group, it promotes biological racism and the white genocide conspiracy theory, calling for global racial separatism and condemning interracial relationships and miscegenation.
It espouses anti-semitic conspiracy theories, endorsing Holocaust denial and claiming that Jews dominate the world through both communism and finance capitalism. It promotes economic protectionism, a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, societal permissiveness. After the BNP, the NF has been the most successful far-right group in British politics since the Second World War. During its history, it has established sub-groups like a trade unionists' association, a youth group, the Rock Against Communism musical organisation. Only whites are permitted membership of the party and in its heyday most of its support came from White British working and lower middle-class communities in Northern England and East London; the NF has generated much opposition from left-wing and anti-fascist groups throughout its history, NF members are prohibited by law from membership in various professions. The National Front began as a coalition of small far-right groups active on the fringes of British politics during the 1960s.
The resolve to unite them came in early 1966 from A. K. Chesterton, the leader of the League of Empire Loyalists, he had a long history in the British fascist movement, having been a member of the British Union of Fascists in the 1930s. Over the following months, many far-rightists visited Chesterton at his Croydon apartment to discuss the proposal, among them Andrew Fountaine and Philip Maxwell of the British National Party, John Tyndall and Martin Webster of the Greater Britain Movement, David Brown of the Racial Preservation Society. In principle, everyone agreed with the idea of unification, but personal rivalries made the process difficult. Combining anti-Semitism and anti-communism with anti-Americanism and anti-capitalism, the LEL had filled a void on the British far-right since the 1950s but had been criticised by some far-rightists for being too elitist and failing to build a mass movement. Chesterton agreed to a merger of the LEL and BNP, a faction of the RPS decided to join them.
The BNP was eager to accelerate integration, in part. Chesterton and the BNP agreed that Tyndall's GBM would not be invited to join their new party because of its strong associations with neo-Nazism, as well as the recent arrest of Tyndall and seven other GBM members for illegal weapon possession. Chesterton met with the neo-Nazi Colin Jordan of the National Socialist Movement, but again deemed it unwise to unite with his group. Chesterton wanted to keep his new party clear of the crude racist sloganeering he thought was holding back the far-right's electoral success, its initial policy platform revolved around opposition to the political establishment, anti-communism, support for the white minority governments in Rhodesia and South Africa, a ban on migration into Britain, the repatriation of all settled non-white immigrants to their ancest
Belarusian Popular Front
The Belarusian Popular Front "Renaissance" was a social and political movement in Belarus in late 1980s and the 1990s which led Belarus to its independence from the Soviet Union. It was similar to the Popular Fronts of Latvia and Estonia, the Sąjūdis movement in the Republic of Lithuania; the Belarusian Popular Front was established in 1989, following the examples of the Popular Fronts in the Baltic states. Its founding conference had to be organized in Vilnius because of pressure from the authorities of the Belarusian SSR; the Popular Front was uniting numerous minor organizations promoting the Belarusian language and history. However, soon the movement began voicing political demands, supporting the Perestroika and democratization in the Soviet Union which would enable a Belarusian national revival; the Popular Front was the first political organization in Belarus to oppose the Communist Party of Byelorussia. The prominent Belarusian writer Vasil Bykau became an active member of the Belarusian Popular Front.
Writer Ales Adamovich was an active supporter of the Popular Front. The Front had about 10 thousand activists in different regions of Belarus as well as in Moscow and Riga, it published a newspaper, Навіны БНФ "Адраджэньне". Among the significant achievements of the Front was the uncovering of the burial site of Kurapaty near Minsk, a major NKVD mass extermination sites of Soviet political prisoners in the 1930s; the Belarusian Popular Front protested against Soviet policies following the Chernobyl accident, after which a large territory of Belarus was contaminated by nuclear fallout. In May 1990, 37 members of the Belarusian Popular Front were elected into the 12th Belarusian Supreme Council and formed a dynamic opposition group in the parliament of the Soviet-controlled Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. In July 1990, the Belarusian Popular Front initiated the passing of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic. In August 1991, following the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt and supported by tens of thousands of protesters outside the parliament building, the Belarusian Popular Front has managed to convince the Supreme Soviet to declare full independence of Belarus from the USSR.
The historical Belarusian national symbols: the white-red-white flag and the Pahonia coat of arms were restored as state symbols of Belarus. In 1994, Alexander Lukashenko was elected president of Belarus. From the beginning, the Belarusian Popular Front became one of the main political forces opposing president Lukashenko. In 1994 the BPF formed a shadow cabinet consisting of 100 BPF intellectuals. In 1995, members of parliament from the Belarusian Popular Front went on a hunger strike as a protest against Lukashenko's controversial referendum to replace state symbols by amended Soviet ones and to make Russian language official in Belarus; the hunger strike was violently interrupted by police forces. In 1996, the Belarusian Popular Front was one of the main powers behind mass protests against Lukashenko's policies of russification and integration with Russia, as well as against his second controversial referendum amending the Constitution in a way to concentrate power in the president's hands.
The protests were violently dispersed by the police. Two leaders of the Belarusian Popular Front, Zianon Pazniak and Siarhei Navumchyk, have fled the country and received political asylum in the United States. In the late 1990s the Belarusian Popular Front split in two rivaling organizations, its conservative wing under the exiled leader Zianon Pazniak formed the Conservative Christian Party – BPF, while the moderate majority formed the BPF Party led by Vincuk Viačorka. Both parties claim to be the only legitimate successor of the Belarusian Popular Front established in 1989; the Malady Front the Popular Front's youth organization, has become an autonomous organization. In 2011, following an internal conflict, more than 90 further members left BPF Party, including several prominent veterans of the original Belarusian Popular Front, such as Lyavon Barshchewski, Jury Chadyka, Vincuk Viačorka; this was sometimes described as a "second split" of the Belarusian Popular Front. Formally, the Belarusian Popular Front continues to exist as an NGO affiliated with the BPF Party.
Vasil Bykau, Nobel prize nominee Ryhor Baradulin and writer, Nobel prize nominee Siarhei Navumchyk, vice President of the Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic in Exile Ales Bialiatski, human rights activist and political prisoner Piatro Sadoŭski, first ambassador of Belarus to Germany Paval Sieviaryniets, Christian Democratic politician and political prisoner Jauhien Kulik, graphic designer, author of the Coat of arms of Belarus adopted in 1991 Uładzimir Arłou, writer Yauhen Shatokhin, artist People's Movement of Ukraine Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Sąjūdis The Belarusian Popular Front in 1988—1996: photo and video НАРОДНЫ ФРОНТ. Фотагісторыя змаганьня і перамогі
British National Formulary for Children
The British National Formulary for Children is the standard UK paediatric reference for prescribing and pharmacology, among others indications, side effects and costs of the prescription of all medication drugs available on the National Health Service. The BNFC is jointly published annually by the British Medical Association, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, the Neonatal and Paediatric Pharmacists Group; the latest edition, BNF for Children 2018-2019, is the thirteenth edition. British National Formulary Pharmacopeia Pharmacy Specification Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Pharmaceutical Press Pharmaceutical Press BNF
British Nuclear Fuels Ltd
British Nuclear Fuels Limited was a nuclear energy and fuels company owned by the UK Government. It was a former manufacturer and transporter of nuclear fuel, ran reactors and sold electricity and managed spent fuel, decommissioned nuclear plants and other similar facilities; until 2003, its headquarters were near Warrington, England. BNFL's headquarters were moved to Daresbury Park industrial estate near Warrington. On 1 April 2005, BNFL formed a new holding company and started a rigorous restructuring process which would transfer or sell most of its entire domain, divisions. In 2005, it transferred all of its nuclear sites to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, it sold its Westinghouse Electric Company subsidiary in February 2006. BNFL sold the separate companies that made up its major subsidiary, British Nuclear Group, leaving a decommissioning and reprocessing organisation which became Sellafield Ltd. By May 2009, BNFL had completed the sales of all its assets and had no remaining operational activities or businesses.
BNFL continued to exist only as a legal entity to meet all pension liabilities and any obligations arising from disposal programmes. However, on 14 October 2010, the Minister for the Cabinet Office, Francis Maude, announced that BNFL would be abolished along with a number of other government organisations. British Nuclear Fuels Limited was set up in February 1971 from the demerger of the production division of the UK Atomic Energy Authority. In 1984, BNFL became a public limited company as British Nuclear Fuels plc, wholly owned by the UK government. Under the chairmanship of Christopher Harding, the Windscale plant was renamed as "Sellafield" and BNFL created a visitor centre at the site in a bid to improve its public image. US subsidiary BNFL Inc was established in 1990 and specialised in decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear sites. In 1996 the UK's eight most advanced nuclear plants, seven Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor and one Pressurised Water Reactor were privatised as British Energy, raising £2.1 billion.
The oldest reactors, the Magnox sites, were not attractive for commercial operations and remained in public ownership as Magnox Electric. On 30 January 1998 Magnox Electric was merged into BNFL as BNFL Magnox Generation. In 1999 it was discovered that BNFL staff had been falsifying some MOX fuel quality assurance data since 1996. A Nuclear Installations Inspectorate investigation concluded that "the level of control and supervision... had been non-existent." BNFL had to pay compensation to the Japanese customer, Kansai Electric, take back a flawed shipment of MOX fuel from Japan. BNFL's Chief Executive John Taylor resigned, after resisting resignation when the NII's damning report was published; as a consequence of this crisis, a possible partial privatisation of BNFL was delayed by two years. In 1999 BNFL acquired Westinghouse Electric Company, the commercial nuclear power businesses of CBS, for $1.1 billion. Westinghouse's businesses are fuel manufacture, decommissioning of nuclear sites and reactor design and servicing.
Westinghouse was acquired as a possible core for the privatisation of a portion of BNFL. In 2000 BNFL purchased the nuclear businesses of ABB for £300 million; this company, merged into Westinghouse, had nuclear interests in the United States and Asia. In June 2000 BNFL took a 22.5% stake in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Ltd in South Africa. In January 2003 the research and development arm of BNFL was relaunched as Nuclear Sciences and Technology Services; however BNFL's financial difficulties increased, the prospect of partial privatisation diminished. On 1 April 2005 the company was reorganised as part of the restructuring of the wider nuclear industry. British Nuclear Fuels plc became British Nuclear Group and a new holding company was established and adopted the British Nuclear Fuels plc name; this new BNFL operated through its major subsidiaries of Westinghouse and BNG as well as Nexia Solutions, its commercial nuclear technology business formed out of NSTS. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority was established on 1 April 2005 and took ownership of all of BNFL's nuclear sites, including Sellafield.
The NDA opened up the decommissioning of the different sites to tender to drive down costs. BNFL became one of a number of decommissioning contractors through BNG. BNFL's nuclear waste transfer companies, Direct Rail Services and International Nuclear Services, were both transferred to the NDA. On 19 April 2005 BNFL Inc was renamed BNG America and made a subsidiary of BNG. In July 2005 BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse estimated to be worth $1.8bn. However the bid attracted interest from several companies, including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on 23 January 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company's offer at $5bn. On 6 February 2006 Toshiba confirmed it was buying Westinghouse Electric Company for $5.4bn and announced it would sell a minority stake to investors. On 3 February 2006 BNFL announced it had agreed to sell BNG America to Envirocare to form EnergySolutions. In March 2006 BNFL announced its intention to sell BNG.
With the sale of Westinghouse, BNG America and BNG this was to bring BNFL to an end. Mike Parker, CEO of BNFL, said: "By the end of 2007... There will be little need for the BNFL corporate centre from this time". On 22 August 2006 BNFL announced that instead of selling BNG as a going concern it would instead sell it off piece by piece. In January 2007 BNFL announced that it would s
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia or related nitrogenous compounds. Atmospheric nitrogen, is molecular dinitrogen, a nonreactive molecule, metabolically useless to all but a few microorganisms. Biological nitrogen fixation converts N2 into ammonia, metabolized by most organisms. Nitrogen fixation is essential to life because fixed inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of all nitrogen-containing organic compounds, such as amino acids and proteins, nucleoside triphosphates and nucleic acids; as part of the nitrogen cycle, it is essential for the manufacture of fertilizer. It is indirectly, relevant to the manufacture of all chemical compounds that contain nitrogen, which includes explosives, most pharmaceuticals, dyes. Nitrogen fixation is carried out in the soil by a wide range of microorganisms termed diazotrophs that include bacteria such as Azotobacter, archaea; some nitrogen-fixing bacteria have symbiotic relationships with some plant groups legumes.
Looser non-symbiotic relationships between diazotrophs and plants are referred to as associative, as seen in nitrogen fixation on rice roots. Nitrogen fixation occurs between some termites and fungi, it occurs in the air by means of NOx production by lightning. All biological nitrogen fixation is effected by enzymes called nitrogenases; these enzymes contain iron with a second metal molybdenum but sometimes vanadium. Nitrogen can be fixed by lightning converting nitrogen and oxygen into NO x. NO x may react with water to make nitrous acid or nitric acid, which seeps into the soil, where it makes nitrate, of use to growing plants. Nitrogen in the atmosphere is stable and nonreactive due to there being a triple bond between atoms in the N2 molecule. Lightning produces enough energy and heat to break this bond allowing the nitrogen atoms to react with oxygen forming NOx; this itself cannot be used by plants, but as this molecule cools it reacts with more oxygen to form NO2. This molecule in turn reacts with water to produce HNO3, usable by plants.
Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by the German agronomist Hermann Hellriegel and Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck. Biological nitrogen fixation occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called a nitrogenase; the overall reaction for BNF is: N2 + 16ATP + 8e- + 8H+ -> 2NH3 + H2 + 16ADP + 16PiThe process is coupled to the hydrolysis of 16 equivalents of ATP and is accompanied by the co-formation of one equivalent of H2. The conversion of N2 into ammonia occurs at a metal cluster called FeMoco, an abbreviation for the iron-molybdenum cofactor; the mechanism proceeds via a series of protonation and reduction steps wherein the FeMoco active site hydrogenates the N2 substrate. In free-living diazotrophs, the nitrogenase-generated ammonia is assimilated into glutamate through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway; the microbial nif genes required for nitrogen fixation are distributed in diverse environments. Nitrogenases are degraded by oxygen.
For this reason, many bacteria cease production of the enzyme in the presence of oxygen. Many nitrogen-fixing organisms exist only in anaerobic conditions, respiring to draw down oxygen levels, or binding the oxygen with a protein such as leghemoglobin. Diazotrophs are widespread within domain Bacteria including cyanobacteria, as well as green sulfur bacteria, Azotobacteraceae and Frankia. Several obligately anaerobic bacteria fix nitrogen including many Clostridium spp; some Archaea fix nitrogen, including several methanogenic taxa, which are significant contributors to nitrogen fixation in oxygen-deficient soils. Cyanobacteria inhabit nearly all illuminated environments on Earth and play key roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. In general, cyanobacteria can use various inorganic and organic sources of combined nitrogen, like nitrate, ammonium, urea, or some amino acids. Several cyanobacterial strains are capable of diazotrophic growth, an ability that may have been present in their last common ancestor in the Archean eon.
Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria in coral reefs can fix twice as much nitrogen as on land—around 1.8 kg of nitrogen is fixed per hectare per day. The colonial marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is thought to fix nitrogen on such a scale that it accounts for half of the nitrogen fixation in marine systems globally. Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include those of the legume family – Fabaceae – with taxa such as kudzu, soybeans, lupines and rooibos, they contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. When the plant dies, the fixed nitrogen is released; the great majority of legumes have this association. In many traditional and organic farming practices, fields are rotated through various types of crops, which include one consisting or of clover or buckwheat referred to as "green manure"; the efficiency of nitrogen fixation in soil is dependent on many factors, including the legume as well as air and soil conditions.
For example, nitrogen fixation by red clover can range from 50 - 200 lb./acre depending on these variables. Inga alley farming relies on the leguminous genus Inga, a small tropical, tough-leaved, nitrogen