The Philippine Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It has an estimated strength of 24,000 active service personnel, including the 7,500-strong Philippine Marine Corps, it shares the responsibility of patrolling the maritime borders with the Philippine Coast Guard, a attached unit which became a separate maritime law enforcement agency in 1998. "To organize, equip, maintain and deploy forces for prompt and sustained naval and maritime. operations in support of the Unified Commands in the accomplishment of the AFP mission". Its powers and functions are as follows: "To organize, equip and operate naval forces and naval aircraft including naval reserve units, necessary to provide water-borne support and assistance required by the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the accomplishment of its mission" "To assist the proper governmental agencies in the enforcement of laws and regulations pertaining to navigation, customs revenue, quarantine and neutrality in the territorial and contiguous waters of the Philippine Archipelago" "To develop, in coordination with the other major services and area commands the doctrines and naval equipment for joint operations, the doctrines and procedures for amphibious operations" Before the Spanish arrived in the Philippines the ancient peoples there were engaging in naval warfare, piracy and communication using balangay.
A flotilla of balangay was discovered in the late 1970s in Agusan del Norte. Philippine ships, such as the karakao or korkoa were of excellent quality and some of them were used by the Spaniards in expeditions against rebellious tribes and Dutch and British forces; some of the larger rowed vessels held up to a hundred rowers on each side besides a contingent of armed troops. The larger vessels held at least one lantaka at the front of the vessel or another one placed at the stern. Philippine sailing ships called praos had double sails that seemed to rise well over a hundred feet from the surface of the water. Despite their large size, these ships had double outriggers; some of the larger sailing ships, did not have outriggers. Antecedent to this raids, sometime between A. D. 1174 and 1190, a traveling Chinese government bureaucrat Chau Ju-Kua reported that a certain group of "ferocious raiders of China’s Fukien coast" which he called the "Pi-sho-ye," believed to have lived on the southern part of Formosa.
In A. D. 1273, another work written by Ma Tuan Lin, which came to the knowledge of non-Chinese readers through a translation made by the Marquis D’Hervey de Saint-Denys, gave reference to the Pi-sho-ye raiders, thought to have originated from the southern portion of Formosa. However, the author observed that these reaiders spoke a different language and had an different appearance. In the Battle of Manila in 1365 is an unspecified and disputed battle occurring somewhere in the vicinity of Manila between the forces of the Kingdoms in Luzon and the Empire of Majapahit. Though the exact dates and details of this battle remain in dispute, there are claims of the conquest of the area around Saludong according to the text NagarakretagamaNevertheless, there may have been a battle for Manila that occurred during that time but it was a victory for Luzon's kingdoms considering that the Kingdom of Tondo had maintained its independence and was not enslaved under another ruler. Alternatively, Luzon may have been invaded but was able to regain its independence later.
The Republic's need for a naval force was first provided for by Filipino revolutionaries when they included a provision in the Biák-na-Bató Constitution. This authorised the government to permit privateers to engage foreign enemy vessels. Hen the necessary army is organized … for the protection of the coasts of the Philippine archipelago and its seas. On May 1, 1898, the first ship handed by Admiral George Dewey to the Revolutionary Navy is a small pinnace from the Reina Cristina of Admiral Patricio Montojo, named Magdalo; the Philippine Navy was established during the second phase of the Philippine Revolution when General Emilio Aguinaldo formed the Revolutionary Navy, composed of a small fleet of eight Spanish steam launches captured from the Spaniards. The ships were refitted with 9 centimeter guns; the rich, namely Leon Apacible, Manuel Lopez and Gliceria Marella de Villavicencio donated five other vessels of greater tonnage, the Taaleño, the Balayan, the Bulusan, the Taal and the Purísima Concepción.
The 900-ton inter-island tobacco steamer further reinforced the fleet, Compania de Filipinas, steam launches purchased from China and other watercraft donated by wealthy patriots. Naval stations were established to serve as ships' home bases in the following: Ports of Aparri Ports of Legaspi Ports of Balayan Ports of Calapan Ports of San Roque, CaviteOn September 26, 1898, Aguinaldo appointed Captain Pascual Ledesma as Director of the Bureau of the Navy, assisted by Captain Angel Pabie. After passing of the Malolos Constitution the Navy was transferred from the Ministry of Foreign Relations to the Department of War headed by Gen. Mariano Trías; as the tensions between Filipinos and Americans erupted in 1899 and a continued blockade on naval forces by the Americans, the Philippine naval forces started to be decimated. The American colonial government in th
Blue Ridge Parkway
The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. The parkway, America's longest linear park, runs for 469 miles through 29 Virginia and North Carolina counties, linking Shenandoah National Park to Great Smoky Mountains National Park, it runs along the spine of the Blue Ridge, a major mountain chain, part of the Appalachian Mountains. Its southern terminus is at U. S. 441 on the boundary between Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Indian Reservation in North Carolina, from which it travels north to Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. The roadway continues through Shenandoah as Skyline Drive, a similar scenic road, managed by a different National Park Service unit. Both Skyline Drive and the Virginia portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway are part of Virginia State Route 48, though this designation is not signed; the parkway has been the most visited unit of the National Park System every year since 1946 except three.
Land on either side of the road is owned and maintained by the National Park Service, in many places parkway land is bordered by United States Forest Service property. The parkway was on North Carolina's version of the America the Beautiful quarter in 2015. Begun during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the project was called the Appalachian Scenic Highway. Most construction was carried out by private contractors under federal contracts under an authorization by Harold L. Ickes in his role as federal public works administrator. Work began on September 1935, near Cumberland Knob in North Carolina. On June 30, 1936, Congress formally authorized the project as the Blue Ridge Parkway and placed it under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service; some work was carried out by various New Deal public works agencies. The Works Progress Administration did some roadway construction. Crews from the Emergency Relief Administration carried out landscape work and development of parkway recreation areas.
Personnel from four Civilian Conservation Corps camps worked on roadside cleanup, roadside plantings, grading slopes, improving adjacent fields and forest lands. During World War II, the CCC crews were replaced by conscientious objectors in the Civilian Public Service program; the parkway's construction created jobs in the region, but displaced many residents and created new rules and regulations for landowners, including requirements related to how farmers could transport crops. Residents could no longer build on their lands without permission, or develop land except for agricultural use, they were not permitted to use the parkway for any commercial travel but were required to transport equipment and materials on side roads. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians were affected by the parkway, built through their lands. From 1935 to 1940, they resisted giving up the right-of-way through the Qualla Boundary, they were successful in gaining more favorable terms from the U. S. government. The revised bill "specified the parkway route, assured the $40,000 payment for the tribe's land, required the state to build regular highway through the Soco Valley".
Cherokee leaders participated in the dedications. Construction of the parkway was complete by the end of 1966 with one notable exception; the 7.7-mile stretch including the Linn Cove Viaduct around Grandfather Mountain did not open until 1987. The project took over 52 years to complete. Flowering shrubs and wildflowers dominate the parkway in the spring, including rhododendrons and dogwoods, moving from valleys to mountains as the cold weather retreats. Smaller annuals and perennials such as the daisy and aster flower through the summer. Brilliant autumn foliage occurs in September on the mountaintops, descending to the valleys by in October. In early-to-middle October and middle to late April, all three seasons can be seen by looking down from the cold and windy parkway to the green and warm valleys below. October is dramatic, as the colored leaves stand out boldly and occur at the same time, unlike the flowers. Major trees include oak and tulip tree at lower elevations and buckeye and ash in the middle, turning into conifers such as fir and spruce at the highest elevations on the parkway.
Trees near ridges and passes are distorted and contorted by the wind, persistent rime ice is deposited by passing clouds in the winter. The Blue Ridge Parkway tunnels were constructed through the rock—one in Virginia and 25 in North Carolina. Sections of the parkway near the tunnels are closed in winter; because groundwater drips from above with freezing temperatures and a lack of sunlight, ice accumulates inside these locations despite above-freezing temperatures in the surrounding areas. The highest point on the parkway is 6,053 feet above sea level on Richland Balsam at milepost 431 and is closed from November to April because of inclement weather such as snow and freezing fog from low clouds; the parkway is carried across streams, railway ravines and cross roads by 168 bridges and six viaducts. The parkway runs from the southern terminus of Shenandoah National Park's Skyline Drive in Virginia at Rockfish Gap to U. S. Route 441 at Oconaluftee in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Cherokee, North Carolina.
There is no fee for using the parkway.
Bronx River Parkway
The Bronx River Parkway is a 19.12-mile long parkway in downstate New York in the United States. It is named for the nearby Bronx River; the southern terminus of the parkway is at Story Avenue near Bruckner Expressway in the Bronx neighborhood of Soundview. The northern terminus is at the Kensico Circle in North Castle, Westchester County, where the parkway connects to the Taconic State Parkway and, via a short connector, New York State Route 22. Within the Bronx, the parkway is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation and is designated New York State Route 907H, an unsigned reference route. In Westchester County, the parkway is maintained by the Westchester County Department of Public Works and is designated unsigned County Route 9987. Most of the exits on the parkway, including the traffic light-controlled intersections in Westchester County, have interchange numbers; the term "Bronx River Parkway" referred to the Bronx River Reservation, New York's first linear park, of which the road is a portion, from the Bronx–Westchester county line to Kensico Dam Plaza.
Current usage of the term is confined to the roadway, but extends it to the portion which now continues southward beyond the Reservation. The southern third of the parkway, in the Bronx, is limited-access, it serves as a commuter route. Halfway through the borough it begins to parallel the Harlem Line of Metro-North Railroad, a pairing which continues to the road's northern terminus. In Westchester County, the road continues to have the same character until the Sprain Brook Parkway splits off at Bronxville, allowing most through traffic to bypass White Plains; the stretches north of that junction have more of the original park character, are still used that way. North of White Plains the exits take the form of at-grade intersections with traffic lights; the parkway begins at Story Avenue in the Bronx neighborhood of Soundview, where two roadways merge near Metcalf and Morrison Avenues. To the north is the cloverleaf interchange at the Bruckner Expressway, where most traffic enters the parkway.
Basketball courts and baseball fields flank the highway in the strip of parkland as the road leads to the north northwestward. North of Watson Avenue, within a half-mile of the southern terminus, an on-ramp carries northbound traffic from Metcalf; the corresponding offramp for southbound traffic merges onto Harrod Avenue north of Westchester Avenue. Now in West Farms, another onramp joins the southbound lanes from East 174th Street. North of it is the interchange with the Cross Bronx Expressway; the single ramp of exit 5 allows southbound traffic to follow East 177th Street to the northern terminus of the Sheridan Expressway and the Triborough Bridge. North of the interchange the road veers to the northeast and crosses the railroad tracks of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor line. At East 180th Street, the linear park ends temporarily; the road becomes elevated to cross the East 180th Street Yard along the New York City Subway's IRT White Plains Road Line, which carries the 2 and 5 services, as well as the former New York and Boston Railway.
After crossing the yard, wooded surroundings resume as the parkway follows the eastern edge of the Bronx Zoo in the Bronx Park neighborhood and the Bronx River, which gives the road its name, begins to follow it on the west. On the northbound side, as it enters the park, is an unnumbered exit allowing authorized vehicles access to local streets via Birchall Avenue. A quarter-mile to the north is the main exit for the zoo at Boston Road, with access to Boston Road for northbound traffic the full cloverleaf at Pelham Parkway, where traffic can join US 1 southbound on Fordham Road. Past the exit the large wooded area on the west is the New York Botanical Garden, a National Historic Landmark. One half-mile further north, exit 8 allows access to the Mosholu Allerton Avenue. At the next exit, Gun Hill Road, the Williamsbridge station serving that neighborhood on Metro-North Railroad's Harlem Line, which parallels the parkway from this point on, is located west of the highway; the railroad tracks join the river and the parkland in paralleling the road north as it continues straight along the east edge of Woodlawn Cemetery, another NHL.
A mile and a half to the north, the Woodlawn station is located at the northeast corner of the cemetery next to the East 233rd Street exit. The highway bends left and right again, crossing the river and the railroad, near the split along the tracks between the Harlem and New Haven lines north of the station. After the curves, the Bronx River Parkway crosses the county line into Westchester County at the McLean Avenue/Nereid Avenue overpass and leaves the Bronx. Once across the county line the parkway is in Yonkers, close to its boundary with Mount Vernon. A southbound exit, 10C, serves Bronx River Road at Wakefield Avenue near that train station a quarter-mile north of the county line though the station is in the Bronx and the Harlem Line enters Westchester north of it. Northound traffic has 10A, for Mount Vernon Avenue and Yonkers Avenue at the Mount Vernon West station three-quarters of a mile to the north. Another southbound exit, 10B, serves Bronx River Road just to the north at its Mile Square Road and Winfred Avenue intersections.
The park widens around the highway as it bends heading more to the northeast. Just past this is exit 11, the Cross County Parkway, where
Bombardier Recreational Products
BRP Inc. is a Canadian company making various vehicles. Once part of Bombardier Inc. it was founded in 1942 as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée by Joseph-Armand Bombardier at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. In 2003, Bombardier Inc. sold its Recreational Products Division to a group of investors: Bain Capital, the Bombardier family, the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. The newly formed independent company, named Bombardier Recreational Products, included all the activities started 60 years earlier by its founder; as of October 6, 2009, it had about 5,500 employees. BRP has manufacturing facilities in five countries: Canada, the United States, Mexico and Austria; the company's products are sold in more than 100 countries, some of which have their own direct-sales network. BRP has a long legacy of innovation and has multiple brands: Ski-Doo, Can-Am motorcycles, Sea-Doo, Evinrude Outboard Motors, Rotax; the Ski-Doo personal snowmobile brand is so iconic in Canada, that it was listed in 17th place on the CBC's The Greatest Canadian Invention list in 2007.
Before the start of the company's development of track vehicles, Joseph-Armand Bombardier experimented with propeller-driven snow vehicles. His work with snowplane designs can be traced to before 1920, he abandoned his efforts to develop a snowplane and turned his inventive skills to tracked vehicles. From the start, the company made truck-sized half-track vehicles, with skis in the front and caterpillar tracks in the rear, designed for the worst winter conditions of the flatland Canadian countryside. After producing half-tracks in World War II for the Canadian Army, the company experimented with new forms of track systems and developed an all-tracked, heavy duty vehicle designed for logging and mining operations in extreme wilderness conditions, such as heavy snow or semiliquid muskeg, they produced it under the name Muskeg tractor. Each track is composed of two or more rubber belts joined into a loop; the loops are held together with interior wheel guides and exterior cleats called grousers.
The tracks are driven by a large drive sprocket that engages the grousers in sequence and causes the track to rotate. Two belt tracks were common on muskeg machines. For deep-snow use, wider tracks, employing additional belts, are used for added flotation over the snow; the research for the track base made it possible to produce a small, continuous-rubber track for the light one- or two-person snowmobile the founder of the company had dreamed about during his teen years. This led to the invention of snowmobiles; the company created the snowmobile market, held its own after international competitors entered the market in the late 1960s. From the 1940s through the early 1970s, Bombardier built the most successful snowcat models produced by any snowcat manufacturer; the B12 seated 12 people, the C18 seated 18. Both were similar in design with skis used to steer the vehicle; the B12 and C18 were fast for their day, with speeds over the snow exceeding 30 miles per hour. Most historic and most modern snowcats have a top speed of 20 mph.
The Bombardier B12 and C18 were the precursors to the more modern snow coach used by resorts for transporting tourists. In their day, the B12 and C18 vehicles were used as school buses, mail delivery and emergency vehicles in northern United States and Canada, were best suited to flat land conditions, frozen roadways, or frozen lakes. While more than 3,000 of the Bombardier B12/C18 variants were produced, Bombardier had competitors in both the North American and world markets. Most of the Bombardier production stayed in North American; the front ski design was incapable of being used in deep snow and rough ground conditions, which opened the door for the development of dual-track and quad-track snowcats. The front ski design was not adapted to change for other ground conditions, so while it was successful on flat lands, frozen lakes, snow-covered roads, it could not compete on rough, off-road conditions; the combination of the lack of design flexibility, incompatibility with off-road conditions, the advent of modern snowplowing practices of public roadways beginning in the 1950s, becoming common in remote areas by the 1960s led to the demise of the B12/C18 design.
Today, B12s are still in used in large-scale ice fishing in northern Canada. Notable competitors included the Aktiv Snow Trac ST4 from Sweden and Tucker Sno-Cat from the USA; the Snow Trac was produced unchanged, until 1981, but it was successful, with over 2,000 units sold, it was used all over the globe for exploration and commercial purposes, as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan. Tucker Sno-Cat grew to become one of the world's largest builders of these vehicles, produces a wide range of large commercial and exploration vehicles from its location in Medford, Oregon, USA. Thiokol produced many popular units, notably the Imp, Super Imp, Spryte models, but changed ownership and name several times before going out of business in 2000 as the Logan Machine Company and manufacturer of the LMC brand. Armand dreamed of developing a lightweight snowmobile that could carry one or two people. In the early 1950s, Armand set aside his dream to focus on developing his company's other tracked vehicles.
But by the end of the decade, more efficient engines ha
British Racing Partnership
British Racing Partnership was a racing team, latterly constructor, from the United Kingdom. It was established by Alfred Moss and Ken Gregory — Stirling Moss's father and former manager — in 1957 to run cars for Stirling, when not under contract with other firms, along with other up-and-coming drivers. BRP ran a Cooper-Borgward Formula Two car and a BRM Formula One car in 1959, the latter being demolished in a spectacular crash at the Avus street circuit. BRP was the first Formula One team to sell the entire identity of the team in return for sponsorship income. BRP was given a sum of £40,000 just to buy their equipment plus £20,000/year to operate the team; the team ran Coopers in both Formula One and Formula Two with mixed success. During this time four of the team's drivers were killed while racing their cars, the Yeoman Credit management became concerned that the team was not generating positive publicity for their company; the Yeoman Credit deal was passed to Reg Parnell Racing at the end of the year, for the 1961 and 1962 seasons BRP was renamed UDT Laystall Racing, as part of a new, similar sponsorship deal.
UDT was United Dominions Trust, who among various holdings owned Laystall Engineering, the principle supplier of crankshafts to the British automotive and aviation industries. For 1963, the team became a true constructor; this caused chief designer, Tony Robinson, to design his own monocoque car, patterned closely after the Lotus 25, but with a thicker skin and running a BRM V8 rather than the typical Coventry Climax engine run in the Lotus 25. This car is referred to as the BRP-BRM and was raced by Innes Ireland and Trevor Taylor; as a constructor, BRP took part in 13 Grand Prix rounds. After 1964 the team was forced to withdraw from F1 when BRP were denied membership of the Formula 1 Constructors Association which deprived them of start money a significant factor in a team's income. Instead, BRP was hired by Masten Gregory's stepfather George Bryant to built two cars for the 1965 Indianapolis 500, but enjoyed little success. Forix article on BRP Team Profile at Grand Prix Encyclopedia F1 Database entry Results from Formula1.com
Brioche knitting is a family of knitting patterns involving tucked stitches, i.e. yarn overs that are knitted together with a slipped stitch from the previous row. Such stitches may be made by knitting into the row below and dropping the stitch above; the tucked stitches may form a second layer of knitting in front of the first layer, resembling an array of arches or of fish scales. Although warm and beautiful in texture, garments made from brioche knitting have the possible drawback that the tucked stitches might get caught and be pulled out. Brioche knitting may have originated in the Middle East. However, the term "brioche" seems to have derived from French slang for "mistake"; the name might be a reference to the brioche dinner roll, formed of two pieces, one stacked atop the other. Brioche Stitch is included in Barbara G. Walker's A Treasury of Knitting Patterns and in Elizabeth Zimmermann's Knitting Without Tears. Nancy Marchant introduced several varieties of the brioche stitch to American knitters with her book Brioche Knitting, inspired by the brioche knitting she found prevalent in the Netherlands.
The brioche stitch can be used to knit any kind of garment or project that regular knitting can be used for, but will be double-thick. Nancy Marchant standardized brioche-knitting abbreviations and terminology so that knitters worldwide could share patterns and understand the abbreviations. Marchant has attempted to simplify the terminology for the stitch, she defines the basic stitch of brioche knitting as the brioche-knit stitch, which she calls the "bark" stitch, which consists of a knit-stitch knitted together with its "wrap," a yarnover from the previous row. The brioche-purl stitch (or the "burp" stitch is the purled version; each bark or burp stitch is followed by a yarn-front, slip-one, yarnover. This sets up the burp stitches for the next row. In brioche knitting, it takes two "passes" to complete a single row of knitting, since only half the stitches are knitted each time; the other half are slipped. For this reason, it takes more conscious effort to be able to count rows and stitches and measure gauge.
Walker, Barbara G. A Treasury of Knitting Patterns, Charles Scribner's Sons, pp 45–46. ISBN 0-684-17314-X Zimmermann, Elizabeth Knitting Without Tears, Charles Scribner's Sons, pp 95–97. ISBN 0-684-106892, ISBN 0-684-13505-1 June Hemmons Hiatt The Principles of Knitting and Schuster, pp. 29–32, 85-86. ISBN 0-671-55233-3 Nancy Marchant, 1949- "Knitting Brioche: the essential guide to the brioche stitch" ISBN 978-1-600613-01-2 Nancy Marchant, 1949- "Knitting Fresh Brioche", Sixth&Spring books, 2014, ISBN 978-1-936096-77-0 Nancy Marchant 1949- "Leafy Brioche", self publication, 2016, ISBN 978-9-082481-80-8