William Nelson Joy is an American computer engineer. He co-founded Sun Microsystems in 1982 along with Vinod Khosla, Scott McNealy, Andy Bechtolsheim, served as chief scientist at the company until 2003, he played an integral role in the early development of BSD UNIX while a graduate student at Berkeley, he is the original author of the vi text editor. He wrote the 2000 essay Why The Future Doesn't Need Us, in which he expressed deep concerns over the development of modern technologies. Joy was born in the Detroit suburb of Farmington Hills, Michigan, to William Joy, a school vice-principal and counselor, Ruth Joy, he earned a Bachelor of Science in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan and a Master of Science in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California, Berkeley in 1979. As a UC Berkeley graduate student, he worked for Fabry's Computer Systems Research Group CSRG on the Berkeley Software Distribution version of the Unix operating system.
He worked on a Pascal compiler left at Berkeley by Ken Thompson, visiting the University when Joy had just started his graduate work. He moved on to improving the Unix kernel, handled BSD distributions; some of his most notable contributions were the C shell. Joy's prowess as a computer programmer is legendary, with an oft-told anecdote that he wrote the vi editor in a weekend. Joy denies this assertion. A few of his other accomplishments have been sometimes exaggerated. According to a Salon article, during the early 1980s, DARPA had contracted the company Bolt and Newman to add TCP/IP to Berkeley UNIX. Joy had been instructed to plug BBN's stack into Berkeley Unix, but he refused to do so, as he had a low opinion of BBN's TCP/IP. So, Joy wrote. According to John Gage: BBN had a big contract to implement TCP/IP, but their stuff didn't work, grad student Joy's stuff worked. So they had this big meeting and this grad student in a T-shirt shows up, they said, "How did you do this?" And Bill said, "It's simple — you read the protocol and write the code.
Rob Gurwitz, working at BBN at the time, disputes this version of events. In 1982, after the firm had been going for six months, Joy was brought in with full co-founder status at Sun Microsystems. At Sun, Joy was an inspiration for the development of NFS, the SPARC microprocessors, the Java programming language, Jini/JavaSpaces, JXTA. In 1986, Joy was awarded a Grace Murray Hopper Award by the ACM for his work on the Berkeley UNIX Operating System. On September 9, 2003, Sun announced Joy was leaving the company and that he "is taking time to consider his next move and has no definite plans". In 1999, Joy co-founded a venture capital firm, HighBAR Ventures, with two Sun colleagues, Andy Bechtolsheim and Roy Thiele-Sardiña. In January 2005 he was named a partner in venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Byers. There, Joy has made several investments in green energy industries though he does not have any credentials in the field, he once said, "My method is to look at something that seems like a good idea and assume it's true".
In 2011, he was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum for his work on the Berkeley Software Distribution Unix system and the co-founding of Sun Microsystems. In 2000, Joy gained notoriety with the publication of his article in Wired Magazine, Why The Future Doesn't Need Us, in which he declared, in what some have described as a "neo-Luddite" position, that he was convinced that growing advances in genetic engineering and nanotechnology would bring risks to humanity, he argued that intelligent robots would replace humanity, at the least in intellectual and social dominance, in the near future. He supports and promotes the idea of abandonment of GNR technologies, instead of going into an arms race between negative uses of the technology and defense against those negative uses; this stance of broad relinquishment was criticized by technologists such as technological-singularity thinker Ray Kurzweil, who instead advocates fine-grained relinquishment and ethical guidelines. Joy was criticized by The American Spectator, which characterized Joy's essay as a rationale for statism.
A bar-room discussion of these technologies with Ray Kurzweil started to set Joy's thinking along this path. He states in his essay that during the conversation, he became surprised that other serious scientists were considering such possibilities and more astounded at what he felt was a lack of consideration of the contingencies. After bringing the subject up with a few more acquaintances, he states that he was further alarmed by what he felt was the fact that although many people considered these futures possible or probable, that few of them shared as serious a concern for the dangers as he seemed to; this concern led to his in-depth examination of the issue and the positions of others in the scientific community on it, to his current activities regarding it. Despite this, he is a venture capitalist, he has raised a specialty venture fund to address the dangers of pandemic diseases, such as the H5N1 avian influenza and biological weapons. In his 2013 book Makers, author Chris Anderson credited Joy with establishing "Joy's law" based on a quip: "No matter who you are, most of the smartest people work for someone else [other th
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System, SPARC. Sun contributed to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California, on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. On April 20, 2009, it was announced; the deal was completed on January 27, 2010. Sun products included computer servers and workstations built on its own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture, as well as on x86-based AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Sun developed its own storage systems and a suite of software products, including the Solaris operating system, developer tools, Web infrastructure software, identity management applications. Other technologies included the Java platform and NFS.
In general, Sun was a proponent of open systems Unix. It was a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system. At various times, Sun had manufacturing facilities in several locations worldwide, including Newark, California. However, by the time the company was acquired by Oracle, it had outsourced most manufacturing responsibilities; the initial design for what became Sun's first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, it was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support. He built the first ones from spare parts obtained from Stanford's Department of Computer Science and Silicon Valley supply houses.
On February 24, 1982, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, Scott McNealy, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy of Berkeley, a primary developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution, joined soon after and is counted as one of the original founders; the Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network. Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68k-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DEC's VAX to run 4.2BSD. It licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Sun's initial public offering was in 1986 for Sun Workstations; the symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA. Sun's logo, which features four interleaved copies of the word sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt of Stanford; the initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was subsequently rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple, blue.
In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making much more money, its shares rose dramatically. It began spending much more, hiring workers and building itself out; some of this was because of genuine demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. In 2000, the bubble burst. Sales in Sun's important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop and auctioned high-end servers. Several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, other cost cutting. In December 2001, the stock fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100, but it kept falling, faster than many other tech companies. A year it had dipped below $10 but bounced back to $20. In mid-2004, Sun closed their Newark, California and consolidated all manufacturing to Hillsboro, Oregon. In 2006, the rest of the Newark campus was put on the market. In 2004, Sun canceled two major processor projects which emphasized high instruction-level parallelism and operating frequency.
Instead, the company chose to concentrate on processors optimized for multi-threading and multiprocessing, such as the UltraSPARC T1 processor. The company announced a collaboration with Fujitsu to use the Japanese company's processor chips in mid-range and high-end Sun servers; these servers were announced on April 17, 2007, as the M-Series, part of the SPARC Enterprise series. In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage; this offering built upon an existing 3,000-CPU server farm used for internal R&D for over 10 years, which Sun marketed as being able to achieve 97% utilization. In August 2005, the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations, launched as its first software as a service product. In January 2005, Sun reported a net profit of $19 million for fiscal 2005 second quarter, for the first time in three years.
This was followed by net loss of $9 million on GAAP basis for the third quarter 2005, as reported on April 14, 2005. In January 2007, Sun reported a net GAAP profit of $126
Theo de Raadt
Theo de Raadt is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Canada. He is the founder and leader of the OpenBSD and OpenSSH projects, was a founding member of NetBSD. In 2004, De Raadt won the Free Software Award for his work on OpenBSD and OpenSSH. Theo de Raadt is the eldest of four children to a Dutch father and a South African mother, with two sisters and a brother. Concern over the mandatory two-year armed forces conscription in South Africa led the family to emigrate to Calgary, Canada in November 1977. In 1983, the largest recession in Canada since the Great Depression sent the family to the Yukon. Prior to the move, De Raadt got his first computer, a Commodore VIC-20, soon followed by an Amiga, it is with these computers. In 1992, he obtained a BSc in Computer Science from the University of Calgary. In 1993, Theo de Raadt founded NetBSD with Chris Demetriou, Adam Glass, Charles Hannum, who felt frustrated at the poor quality of 386BSD and believed an open development model would be better.
386BSD was derived from the original University of California Berkeley's 4.3BSD release, while the new NetBSD project would merge relevant code from the Networking/2 and 386BSD releases. The new project focused on clean, correct code, with the goal of producing a unified, multi-platform, production-quality BSD operating system; because of the importance of networks such as the Internet in the distributed, collaborative nature of its development, De Raadt suggested the name "NetBSD", which the three other founders agreed upon. The first NetBSD source code repository was established on March 21, 1993 and the initial release, NetBSD 0.8, was made in April 1993. This was derived from 386BSD 0.1 plus the version 0.2.2 unofficial patchkit, with several programs from the Net/2 release missing from 386BSD re-integrated, various other improvements. In August 1993, NetBSD 0.9 was released. This was still a PC-platform-only release, although by this time work was underway to add support for other architectures.
NetBSD 1.0 was released in October, 1994. This was the first multi-platform release, supporting the IBM PC compatible, HP 9000 Series 300, Amiga, 68k Macintosh, Sun-4c series and PC532. In this release, the encumbered Net/2-derived source code was replaced with equivalent code from 4.4BSD-lite, in accordance with the USL v BSDi lawsuit settlement. De Raadt played a vital role in the creation of the SPARC port, implementing much of the initial code together with Chuck Cranor. In December 1994, Theo de Raadt was forced to resign from the NetBSD core team, his access to the source repository was revoked. Fellow team members claimed. In his book Free for All, Peter Wayner claims that De Raadt "began to rub some people the wrong way" before the split from NetBSD, while Linus Torvalds has described him as "difficult". Many have different feelings: the same interviewer describes De Raadt's "transformation" on founding OpenBSD and his "desire to take care of his team," some find his straightforwardness refreshing, De Raadt remains respected as a hacker and security expert.
In October 1995, De Raadt founded OpenBSD, a new project forked from NetBSD 1.0. The initial release, OpenBSD 1.2, was made in July 1996, followed in October of the same year by OpenBSD 2.0. Since the project has followed a schedule of a release every six months, each of, maintained and supported for one year. De Raadt has been a vocal advocate of free software since the inception of OpenBSD, but he is a strong proponent of free speech, having on occasion had rather public disputes with various groups, from Linux advocates to governments; this outspoken attitude, while sometimes the cause of conflict, has led him to acclaim. S. AUUG Conference in Melbourne, Australia and FISL in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. After De Raadt stated his disapproval of the U. S.-led invasion of Iraq in an April, 2003 interview with Toronto's Globe and Mail, a multi-million-dollar US Department of Defense grant to the University of Pennsylvania's POSSE project was cancelled ending the project. Funding from the grant had been used in the development of OpenSSH and OpenBSD, as well as many other projects and was to be used to pay for the hackathon planned for May 8, 2003.
Despite money from the grant having been used to secure accommodations for sixty developers for a week, the money was reclaimed by the government at a loss and the hotel was told not to allow the developers to pay the reclaimed money to resecure the rooms. This resulted in criticism among some; the grant termination was, not as bad a blow as some portrayed it. The project's supporters rallied to help and the hackathon went on as planned; the funding was cut mere months before the end of the grant, further fueling the speculations regarding the situation surrounding the grant's termination. De Raadt is well known for his advocacy of free software drivers, he has long been critical of developers of Linux and other free platforms for their tolerance of non-free drivers and acceptance of non-disclosure agreements. In particular, De Raadt has worked to convince wireless hardware vendors to allow the firmware images of their products to be redistributed; these efforts have been successful in negotiations with Taiwanese companies, leading to many new wireless drivers.
De Raadt has commented that "most
PlayStation Portable system software
The PlayStation Portable system software is the official firmware for the PlayStation Portable. It uses the XrossMediaBar as its user interface, similar to the PlayStation 3 console. Updates add new functionality as well as security patches to prevent homebrew applications and plugins from being executed on the system. Updates can be obtained in four ways: Direct download to the PSP over Wi-Fi; this can be performed by choosing, from the XMB. Download to a PC transfer to the PSP via a USB cable or Memory Stick. Included on the UMD of some games; these games may not run with earlier firmware than the version on their UMD. See List of PlayStation Portable system software compatibilities. Download from a PS3 to a PSP system via USB cable. While system software updates can be used with consoles from any region, Sony recommends only downloading system software updates released for the region corresponding to the system's place of purchase. System software updates have added various features including a web browser, Adobe Flash Player 6 support, additional codecs for images and video, PlayStation 3 connectivity, as well as patches against several security exploits and execution of homebrew programs.
The battery must be at least 50% charged or else the system will prevent the update from installing. If the power supply is lost while writing to the system software, the console will no longer be able to operate unless the system is booted in service mode or sent to Sony for repair if still under warranty; the current version of the software, 6.61, was made available on January 15, 2015. It is a minor update released more than three years after the release of the previous version 6.60 in 2011. The PlayStation Portable uses the XrossMediaBar as its graphical user interface, used in the PlayStation 3 console, a variety of Sony BRAVIA HDTVs, Blu-ray disc players and many more Sony products. XMB displays icons horizontally across the screen. Users can navigate through them using the left and right buttons of the D-pad, which move the icons forward or back across the screen, highlighting just one at a time, as opposed to using any kind of pointer to select an option; when one category is selected, there are more specific options available to select that are spread vertically above and below the selected icon.
The version 2.50 upgrade added Unicode character encoding and Auto-Select as options in the browser's encoding menu, introduced the saving of input history for online forms. Version 2.70 of the PSP's system software introduced basic Flash capabilities to the browser. However, the player runs Flash version 6, five iterations behind the current desktop version 11, making some websites difficult to view. There are three different rendering modes: "Normal", "Just-Fit", "Smart-Fit". "Normal" will display the page with no changes, "Just-Fit" will attempt to shrink some elements to make the whole page fit on the screen and preserve layout and "Smart-Fit" will display content in the order it appears in the HTML, with no size adjustments. The browser has limited tabbed browsing, with a maximum of three tabs; when a website tries to open a link in a new window, the browser opens it in a new tab. Parents can limit content by enabling Browser Start Up Control which blocks all access to the web browser and creating a 4-digit PIN under in.
Additionally, the browser can be configured to run under a proxy server and can be protected by the security PIN to enable the use of web filtering or monitoring software through a network. TrendMicro for PSP was added as a feature that can be enabled via a subscription to filter or monitor content on the PSP; the PSP browser is slower compared to modern browsers and runs out of memory due to limitations put in place by Sony. Alternatively, Homebrew has allowed a custom version of the browser to be released that utilizes all 32/64 MB of the PSP's RAM, which allows the browser to load pages faster and have more memory for larger pages. Opera Mini can be used on PSP through PSPKVM, a homebrew application, a Sun Java Virtual Machine, it was claimed to provide much faster loading times than the default browser and provides better web page compatibility. Like many other video game consoles, the PlayStation Portable is capable of photo and video playback in a variety of formats. However, unlike Sony's home consoles such as the PlayStation 3 and the PlayStation 4, it is not possible to play Blu-ray or DVD movies
Berkeley Software Distribution
The Berkeley Software Distribution was an operating system based on Research Unix and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, "BSD" refers to its descendants, such as FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, or DragonFly BSD. BSD was called Berkeley Unix because it was based on the source code of the original Unix developed at Bell Labs. In the 1980s, BSD was adopted by workstation vendors in the form of proprietary Unix variants such as DEC Ultrix and Sun Microsystems SunOS due to its permissive licensing and familiarity to many technology company founders and engineers. Although these proprietary BSD derivatives were superseded in the 1990s by UNIX SVR4 and OSF/1 releases provided the basis for several open-source operating systems including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, DragonFly BSD, TrueOS. These, in turn, have been used by proprietary operating systems, including Apple's macOS and iOS, which derived from them, Microsoft Windows, which used a part of its TCP/IP code.
The earliest distributions of Unix from Bell Labs in the 1970s included the source code to the operating system, allowing researchers at universities to modify and extend Unix. The operating system arrived at Berkeley in 1974, at the request of computer science professor Bob Fabry, on the program committee for the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles where Unix was first presented. A PDP-11/45 was bought to run the system, but for budgetary reasons, this machine was shared with the mathematics and statistics groups at Berkeley, who used RSTS, so that Unix only ran on the machine eight hours per day. A larger PDP-11/70 was installed at Berkeley the following year, using money from the Ingres database project. In 1975, Ken Thompson came to Berkeley as a visiting professor, he started working on a Pascal implementation for the system. Graduate students Chuck Haley and Bill Joy improved Thompson's Pascal and implemented an improved text editor, ex. Other universities became interested in the software at Berkeley, so in 1977 Joy started compiling the first Berkeley Software Distribution, released on March 9, 1978.
1BSD was an add-on to Version 6 Unix rather than a complete operating system in its own right. Some thirty copies were sent out; the second Berkeley Software Distribution, released in May 1979, included updated versions of the 1BSD software as well as two new programs by Joy that persist on Unix systems to this day: the vi text editor and the C shell. Some 75 copies of 2BSD were sent out by Bill Joy. A VAX computer was installed at Berkeley in 1978, but the port of Unix to the VAX architecture, UNIX/32V, did not take advantage of the VAX's virtual memory capabilities; the kernel of 32V was rewritten by Berkeley students to include a virtual memory implementation, a complete operating system including the new kernel, ports of the 2BSD utilities to the VAX, the utilities from 32V was released as 3BSD at the end of 1979. 3BSD was alternatively called Virtual VAX/UNIX or VMUNIX, BSD kernel images were called /vmunix until 4.4BSD. After 4.3BSD was released in June 1986, it was determined that BSD would move away from the aging VAX platform.
The Power 6/32 platform developed by Computer Consoles Inc. seemed promising at the time, but was abandoned by its developers shortly thereafter. Nonetheless, the 4.3BSD-Tahoe port proved valuable, as it led to a separation of machine-dependent and machine-independent code in BSD which would improve the system's future portability. In addition to portability, the CSRG worked on an implementation of the OSI network protocol stack, improvements to the kernel virtual memory system and new TCP/IP algorithms to accommodate the growth of the Internet; until all versions of BSD used proprietary AT&T Unix code, were therefore subject to an AT&T software license. Source code licenses had become expensive and several outside parties had expressed interest in a separate release of the networking code, developed outside AT&T and would not be subject to the licensing requirement; this led to Networking Release 1, made available to non-licensees of AT&T code and was redistributable under the terms of the BSD license.
It was released in June 1989. After Net/1, BSD developer Keith Bostic proposed that more non-AT&T sections of the BSD system be released under the same license as Net/1. To this end, he started a project to reimplement most of the standard Unix utilities without using the AT&T code. Within eighteen months, all of the AT&T utilities had been replaced, it was determined that only a few AT&T files remained in the kernel; these files were removed, the result was the June 1991 release of Networking Release 2, a nearly complete operating system, distributable. Net/2 was the basis for two separate ports of BSD to the Intel 80386 architecture: the free 386BSD by William Jolitz and the proprietary BSD/386 by Berkeley Software Design. 386BSD itself was short-lived, but became the initial code base of the NetBSD and FreeBSD projects that were started shortly thereafter. BSDi soon found itself in legal trouble with AT&T's Unix System Laboratories subsidiary the owners of the System V copyright and the Unix trademark.
The USL v. BSDi lawsuit was filed in 1992 and led to an injunction on the distribution of Net/2 until the validity of USL's copyright claims on the source could be determined; the lawsuit slowed development of the free-
A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give