Hybrid Air Vehicles
For the PSA Peugeot Citroën petro-hydraulic "hybrid air" engine see PSA Peugeot Citroën#Hybrid AirHybrid Air Vehicles Limited is a British manufacturer of hybrid airships. These aircraft use both aerodynamics and lighter-than-air technology to generate lift allowing the vehicle to stay aloft for several weeks; the company developed the HAV 3 technology demonstrator. This won it the US Army LEMV contract, in association with Northrop Grumman as the prime contractor, led to the HAV 304. Following termination of the LEMV project, the HAV 304 was rebuilt as the Airlander 10, it is the largest aircraft flying today. HAV is the latest in a line of companies to acquire and develop airship technologies in the UK. Aerospace Developments was formed in 1971 and since its assets have passed through successive companies Airship Developments, Airship Industries, Westinghouse Airships, Airship Technologies, Advanced Technologies Group and preceding HAV, the SkyCat group which folded in 2007. During this period a number of airships and hybrids were built.
Hybrid Air Vehicles was formed in 2007 by Roger Munk. It acquired the assets of the SkyCat group and established itself at Cardington Airfield, Bedfordshire, UK; the company developed the HAV 3 technology demonstrator. In partnership with Northrop Grumman as prime contractor, in 2009 it won a US$500 million US Army contract to develop a Long Endurance Multi-intelligence Vehicle, delivered between 2009 and early 2013. Hybrid Air Vehicles designed and manufactured the HAV 304 aircraft for the LEMV project, with NGC acting as the prime contractor and sensor system integrator. On 7 August 2012 a successful 90-minute test flight took place in New Jersey; the LEMV project was cancelled In February 2013. Hybrid Air Vehicles took the opportunity to buy back the envelope and associated materials, which they returned to the UK for conversion to the civilian Airlander 10. In 2014 it was unveiled in Cardington, it is reported as the world's largest aircraft. One investor, Bruce Dickinson, has announced plans to fly twice around the world nonstop.
The HAV-3 craft was a 50 feet long remote-controlled scale demonstrator based on the SkyCat concept. Registered as G-OHAV it was built in 2008, its first flight was in September 2008 at Cardington Airfield. It was retired in 2010 following receipt of the LEMV contract; the HAV 304 was developed for the US military LEMV project. Following cancellation of the LEMV project, HAV bought back the HAV 304, returned it to the UK and converted it for civilian use as the Airlander 10. Airlander 10 is 92 metres long, 44 metres wide, 26 metres high; the Airlander 10 landed nose-down on 24 August 2016 during its second test flight on the Cardington airfield in Bedfordshire, causing damage to the cockpit. Repairs were completed by February the following year and the Airlander recommenced its flight test programme on 10 May 2017; the Airlander 50 is a proposed larger transport craft with a 50 tonne payload. Company Home Page Gary Elliott Interview US Congress Budget Office Report on Military Airship programmes outlining plans
Martin-Baker Aircraft Co. Ltd. is a British manufacturer of ejection seats and safety-related equipment for aviation. The company's origins were as an aircraft manufacturer before becoming a pioneer in the field of ejection seats; the company's headquarters are in Higher Denham, England with other sites in France and the United States. Martin-Baker supplies ejection seats for 93 air forces worldwide. Martin-Baker seats have been fitted into over 200 fixed-wing and rotary types with the most recent being the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II programme. Martin-Baker claimed in 2016 that since the first live ejection test in 1946, a total of 7,545 lives have been saved by the company's ejection seats. Martin-Baker manufactures what it calls "crashworthy" seats for helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft; as of 2012, over 20,000 crashworthy seats have been delivered. The Martin-Baker company continues as a family-run business, run by the two sons of the late Sir James Martin. "Martin's Aircraft Works" was founded at Denham by James Martin and Captain Valentine Baker with financial help from Francis Francis.
The company was building a prototype aircraft, the M. B.1, using the design patents for aircraft structures held by Martin. On 17 August 1934 the Martin-Baker Aircraft Company was formed to continue the work of aircraft development. Martin and Baker designed an unconventional, two-seat, low-wing monoplane design in the early 1930s as the MB1; this was powered by a de Havilland Gipsy engine mounted in the fuselage behind the seats and driving a fixed pitch propeller through a shaft running horizontally between the pilot and passenger. The project was abandoned due to financial constraints, although the fuselage and engine installation had been completed. Martin-Baker constructed an autogyro designed by Raoul Hafner. This, their first complete aircraft project, was tested by Captain Baker at Heston Aerodrome. In 1935, Martin and Baker designed and flew their Martin-Baker M. B.1, a two-seat light touring aircraft. Their first military design was the Martin-Baker M. B.2, a Napier Dagger–powered fighter that flew in 1938.
It was a private venture to meet Air Ministry Specification F.5/34 for a fighter for service in the tropics. The M. B.2 was tested but neither it nor other designs to F.5/34 were adopted. Martin-Baker M. B.3: a six-cannon fighter design, powered by a Napier Sabre. Baker was killed in a crash while testing the prototype. Martin-Baker M. B.4: a Rolls-Royce Griffon-engined fighter, cancelled on the drawing board. The Martin-Baker M. B.5 which first flew in 1944 had started out as the second MB3 prototype but was extensively redesigned with a tubular steel fuselage. It used the Griffon engine driving contra-rotating propellers. Martin-Baker M. B.6: a Second World War jet fighter project with a swing-arm, 0/0 spring-loaded ejection seat. Martin-Baker M. B.7 Black Bess: a postwar interceptor/high-speed test aircraft concept. Small flying models were made but the concept was cancelled in 1947. Martin-Baker manufactured aircraft components, including retrofit improvements to the ammunition belt feeds and armoured seats for Supermarine Spitfires, throughout the Second World War.
James Martin designed and manufactured explosive bolt cutters fitted to bomber wings to cut barrage baloon cables that were fitted to many aircraft and saved a number of aircraft. In 1944 the company was approached by the Ministry of Aircraft Production to investigate ejection systems enabling pilots to bail out safely from high-speed fighter aircraft. Martin-Baker investigated ejection seats from 1934 onwards, several years before Germany and Sweden proposed similar systems in 1938; the company concluded. In particular, Baker's death in 1942 during a test flight of the MB3 affected Martin so much that pilot safety became his primary focus and led to the reorganisation of the company to focus on ejection seats. In 1944, James Martin was asked by the Ministry of Aircraft Production to develop methods for fighter pilots to escape their aircraft. Martin decided that the best method involved ejection of the seat with the occupant sitting in it, aided by an explosive charge. After ejection, the pilot would separate from the seat and open his parachute by pulling a ripcord in the usual way.
At that time there was little information on. Data relating to "g" forces in catapult launching of aircraft involved horizontal thrust and was therefore inapplicable to the new problem. Tests would have to be conducted to find out; these were done by shooting a seat up a near-vertical path, loading the seat to represent the weight of the occupant, measuring the accelerations involved. A 5-metre test rig was built in the form of a tripod, one of the legs being in the form of guide rails; the seat was propelled up the guide rails by a gun, consisting of two telescopic tubes energised by an explosive cartridge. The guide rails were provided with ratchet stops every 75mm, so that the seat was automatically arrested at the top of its travel. Studies were conducted to find the limits of upward acceleration; the first dummy shot with the seat loaded to 200lb was made on 20 January 1945, four days one of the company’s experimental fitters, Bernard Lynch, undertook the first "live" ride, being shot up the rig to a height of 4 feet 8inches.
In three further tests, the power of the cartridge was progressively increased until a height of 10 feet was reached, at which stage Lynch reported the onset of considerable physical discomfort. The first seat was live-tested by Lynch on 24 July 1946, who ejected from a Gloster M
The Aircraft Manufacturing Company Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer operating from 1912 to 1920. Airco produced thousands of aircraft for the British military during the First World War, most of which were designed by their chief designer, Geoffrey de Havilland. Advertised in 1918 as the largest aircraft company in the world, Airco established the first airline in the United Kingdom, Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited, as a subsidiary. A glut of war surplus aircraft and a lack of government interest in aviation caused the company to become unprofitable, in 1920 it was sold to Birmingham Small Arms Company, who had its operations liquidated that year. Airco was established in 1912 by George Holt Thomas at The Hyde in north London, England. Two years learning that Geoffrey de Havilland, at the Royal Aircraft Factory in Farnborough, might be available, Holt Thomas invited de Havilland to join Airco as chief designer. De Havilland's Airco designs were to provide around 30% of all trainers and bombers used by Britain and the United States during the First World War.
De Havilland's designs for Airco were marked with his initials "DH". Their pusher configuration fighter DH.2 of 1916 helped to end the "Fokker scourge" of 1915. Notable aircraft designed and built by Airco during the war included the DH.6 trainer, of which more than 2,280 examples were built, the DH.4 and DH.9 light bombers. These types, the DH.9A, a developed version that served for many years with the postwar Royal Air Force, formed the basis of early de Havilland designed airliners, including the company's DH.16 and DH.18 types which were operated by Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited, the first airline established in the United Kingdom owned by George Holt Thomas. Flight Magazine reported in 1920 that during the period from August 1914 to November 1918 the D. H. Airco machines built in Great Britain and the United States of America comprised 30 per cent of the total output of aeroplanes of these two allies. William Taylor Birchenough worked as test pilot for the company from August 1914.
By December 1918, Holt Thomas claimed in an advertisement that Airco was the largest aircraft company in the world and was building aeroplanes and propellors in large numbers, as well as airships and flying boats. The engines being built included licensed production of Le Rhone rotary engines; the company's works at Hendon employed between 7,000 and 8,000 people and had the latest metal-working machinery, a materials testing laboratory, a wind tunnel. Airco was completing on average a new aircraft every 45 minutes. Aircraft Transport and Travel, a subsidiary of Airco, started the world's first regular daily international service on 25 August 1919, between Hounslow Heath Aerodrome and Le Bourget. DH.16s were used for this service. Following the cessation of hostilities, the large number of war-surplus machines, sharp fluctuations in business confidence, the government's failure, unlike those of USA and France, to provide any form of support, Airco became unprofitable. Thomas endeavoured to sell Airco to a car manufacturer.
Airco and BSA, parent company of Daimler, announced on 1 March 1920 that Airco had amalgamated with Birmingham Small Arms Company. Within days BSA discovered. Thomas was removed from his new seat on the BSA board and all BSA's new acquisitions were placed in liquidation. BSA failed to pay a dividend for the following four years. With help from Thomas, de Havilland bought the group's assets he needed to form the de Havilland Aircraft Company in 1920. Aircraft Transport and Travel had been allowed to continue to operate until December 1920. BSA bought Aircraft Transport and Travel's aircraft from the liquidator and, in early 1921, established Daimler Airway and Daimler Air Hire under Daimler Hire Limited's Frank Searle. Airco DH.1: – Two-seat biplane fighter with single pusher propeller Airco DH.1A - Around 70 built with Beardmore engines. Airco DH.2 – Single-seat biplane fighter with single pusher propeller Airco DH.3 – Two-engine biplane bomber. Two prototypes only built. Airco DH.4 – Two-seat biplane day bomber with single tractor propeller Airco DH.4A Civil version.
Built in the United Kingdom. Two passengers in glazed cabin behind pilot. Airco DH.4R Single seat racer - 450 hp Napier Lion engine. Airco DH.5 – Single-seat biplane fighter with single tractor propeller Airco DH.6 – Two-seat biplane training aircraft with single tractor propeller Airco DH.9 – Two-seat biplane day bomber with single tractor propeller. Airco DH.9A - development of DH.9 with Liberty engine Airco DH.9C - conversion of DH.9 as passenger aircraft Airco DH.10 Amiens – Two-engine biplane bomber. First prototype used pusher propeller. Manufactured by Daimler. DH.11 Oxford Variant of DH.10 with radial engines. One prototype built. Airco DH.16 - redesign of DH.9A with cabin for four passengers. Used as airliner Airco DH.18 – Single-engine biplane airliner. Cabin for eight passengers
Astrium was an aerospace manufacturer subsidiary of the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company that provided civil and military space systems and services from 2006 to 2013. In 2012, Astrium had a turnover of €5.8 billion and 18,000 employees in France, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Astrium was a member of Institute of its Applications and Technologies. In late 2013 Astrium was merged with Cassidian, the defence division of EADS and Airbus Military to form Airbus Defence and Space. EADS itself was reorganized as the Airbus Group, with three divisions that include Airbus, Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus Helicopters. During 2006–2013, the three main areas of activity within Astrium were: Astrium Satellites for spacecraft and ground segment EADS Astrium Space Transportation for launchers and orbital infrastructure Astrium Services for the development and delivery of satellite services. Astrium Satellites was one of the three business units of Astrium, a subsidiary of EADS, it is a European space manufacturer involved in the manufacturing of spacecraft used for science, Earth observation and telecommunications, as well as the equipment and subsystems used therein and related ground systems.
EADS Astrium Satellites employs around 8,348 people on nine sites in the United Kingdom, France and Spain. As of 15 October 2012, the CEO of Astrium is Eric Beranger who took over from Evert Dudok who became Astrium Services. Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Paradigm Secure Communications created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defence became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services.
CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004. EADS Astrium is the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with other French subsidiaries of EADS Space; the name of the new company is Astrium SAS. Equivalent mergers have been achieved in 2006 in the other countries; the EADS group does not communicate about these mergers, excepted when required by the law, such as in contractual documents. EADS Astrium Space Transportation was formed in June 2003 from the Space Infrastructure division of Astrium and the EADS Launch Vehicles division; until July 2006 it was called EADS Space Transportation and was a owned subsidiary of EADS Space. In July 2006 the three subsidiaries of EADS Space were reintegrated into one company, EADS Astrium, of which EADS Astrium Space Transportation is a business division. 4397 employees work in the launcher segment. The Space Transportation company is the prime contractor for the Ariane 5 launcher, the Columbus Module of the International Space Station, the ATV, as well as a number of smaller projects.
It builds launchers for the French nuclear missile program, such as the M51 SLBM. It joined the team led by Lockheed Martin for a bid on NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle, being in charge of the craft's Mission Module; the team won a contract from NASA in June 2005. In 2005, EADS Astrium Space Transportation started a campaign in favour of a project called LIFE, for astronomy from the Moon surface; the company has facilities in Germany. These manufacturing facilities utilise specialist CTH03 and CTH04 high technology equipment containers which allow the safe transport of Airbus integrated spacecraft in a horizontal position when sending them worldwide to launch sites. After Evert Dudok took over from Antoine Bouvier as Head of EADS Astrium Satellites on 11 June 2007, Alain Charmeau assumed responsibility of the management of EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Astrium Services is the services division of EADS Astrium; the services division specializes in military satellite communications services and employs about 2,200 personnel.
Astrium Services is responsible for delivering the following services and systems: In June 2007, EADS Astrium announced it would be entering the space tourism sector. On 20 June 2007 the company unveiled a model of the space jet, a one-stage sub-orbital hybrid craft, utilising both jet and rocket engines. Carrying four passengers, the space jet would take off from regular airports using conventional jet engines. After flying to the needed altitude, the rockets would be fired. After reaching its final altitude of 100 km, passengers would experience weightlessness for three minutes. Tickets were expected to cost up to €200,000 with flights beginning in 2012. EADS estimated. In March 2009 EADS Astrium confirmed. In
ABC Motors Limited of Hersham, England was a manufacturer of cars, motor scooters, engines for road and air. Established by Ronald Charteris in Hersham, Surrey in 1912, its chief designer was the young and talented Granville Bradshaw, it was absorbed into Vickers in 1951 and the factory closed in the 1970s. Some of the premises survive today as part of the Hersham Trading Estate and are occupied by Ian Allan Publishing; the ABC radial aero engines of the World War I period were advanced for their time, were thought to be promising indeed. They were all more or less plagued by problems – and although a number of types for the Royal Air Force were designed around ABC engines none saw squadron service with the RAF. ABC made a large number of engines for electrical generators and other purposes – with a flat twin cylinder layout and unusual exhaust-over-inlet valve configuration; these smaller ABC engine have the distinction of being the first airborne APUs- the Coastal class blimp had a 1.5-horsepower unit installed to provide electricity for the onboard wireless set, whilst a similar engine was used to power the searchlight of the Supermarine Nighthawk'Zeppelin killer' of 1917.
ABC 6 hp Midge National Archives Kew ABC 8 hp ABC 30 hp ABC 60 hp ABC 100 hp ABC Dragonfly ABC Gadfly ABC Gnat ABC Mosquito ABC Hornet ABC Scorpion ABC Wasp ABC Robin ABC ABC Supersports ABC Skootamota ABC motorcycles ABC motorcycles Related lists List of aircraft engine manufacturers
MBDA is a European developer and manufacturer of missiles. It was formed as a joint venture by a merger of the guided missile divisions of Airbus, BAE Systems in December 2001. In 2016 the company had more than 10,500 employees. In 2017, MBDA recorded orders for an order book of € 16.8 bn. MBDA works with over 90 armed forces worldwide; the consolidation of Europe's missile companies began in 1996, when parts of Matra Defence and BAe Dynamics merged their missile activities to form Matra BAe Dynamics. Matra BAe Dynamics represented half of Matra Hautes Technologies' missile business. Matra group merged with Aérospatiale in 1999. In 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra became part of EADS. In 1998, GEC-Marconi Radar and Defence Systems and Alenia Difesa combined their missile and radar activities to form Alenia Marconi Systems. In 1999 GEC-Marconi was sold to British Aerospace and became part of the merged company, BAE Systems. In December 2001, MBD and the Missile and Missile Systems activities of AMS merged, creating MBDA.
In June 2005, LFK, a unit of EADS Defence and Security Systems, agreed to be merged into MBDA. On 1 March 2006, LFK became MBDA Germany. ON 9 May 2012, the LFK-Lenkflugkörpersysteme GmbH became MBDA Deutschland GmbH. Since February 2002, MBDA has owned 40% of Inmize Sistemas S. L. A Spanish company, formed to integrate the experience and technology of the major Spanish defence companies in the guided weapons sector; as AMS had R&D assets located in California, MBDA managed to acquire development and production facilities in the United States, choosing to operate in the country as a wholly owned subsidiary, called MBDA Inc. In December 2011, MBDA Inc acquired the Viper Strike activity of Northrop Grumman in Huntsville, Alabama. Overall, the group has 45 products in service and 15 more in development. MBDA's products include: Air-to-air missiles: ASRAAM - short range, IR guided Meteor - long range, active radar terminal homing MICA - IR and radar guided versions Surface-to-air missiles: Mistral Eurosam Aster - medium and long range SAMs land and naval versions LFK NG Aspide Rapier Sea Wolf CAMM Air-to-surface missiles: Apache Brimstone Storm Shadow/SCALP-EG AS-30L PGM 500 and PGM 2000 guided missiles ASMPA - French nuclear missile Laser-Guided Zuni Diamond Back range extension kit for the SDB Viper Strike Anti-ship missiles: Exocet Otomat/Teseo Sea Eagle Marte Sea Venom Perseus Anti-tank missiles: MILAN PARS 3 LR - long range ERYX - short range HOT Missile Moyenne Portée Systems Spada Eurosam SAMP/T PAAMS missile system comprising: UKAMS PAAMS Eurosam PAAMS MEADS Next Generation Multiple Warhead System France: Bourges Selles-Saint-Denis Le Plessis-Robinson Germany: Schrobenhausen Ulm Aschau am Inn Italy: La Spezia Rome Fusaro United Kingdom: Filton, Bristol Bolton, Greater Manchester Stevenage, Hertfordshire London, Greater London United States:Westlake Village, California Washington, DC Huntsville, Alabama MBDA website MBDA Presents Multiple Solutions For Modern Combat Missions: Meteor, Marte, MMP, Exocet on airrecognition.com
Fort Dunlop, is the common name of the original tyre factory and main office of Dunlop Rubber in the Erdington district of Birmingham, England. It was established in 1917, by 1954 the entire factory area employed 10,000 workers. At one time it was the world's largest factory. Fort Dunlop, the main building of the former factory area, is next to the M6 motorway, near to junction 5, it is a Grade A locally listed building. It was designed by W. W. Gibbings in the 1920s; the building's use was called Base stores. An identical building housing administrative and general offices was located on Wood Lane. Dunlop Tyres now occupies a small part of the building; the Dunlop Rubber Co. Ltd was set up in Birmingham in 1901 to manufacture Dunlop tyres for bicycles and for motor vehicles; the First World War initiated a huge expansion in the demand for solid tyres for lorries, the Fort Dunlop factory was built in 1916 on a 120-hectare site on the east side of Birmingham. Post-war, the motor industry grew and Dunlop was well placed to supply the demand for tyres.
In the 1970s it was still the largest tyre factory outside the United States, the increased number of foreign cars imported into Britain led to a decline in demand, the company was sold in the 1980s and large-scale tyre production ceased at Fort Dunlop in November 2000. <personal experience> Dunlop Tyres continued to produce specialised vintage and motorsport tyres on the site. The factory was to close with production moving to Germany and France; the company Urban Splash acquired the building and the 4.02 hectares of land from English Partnerships in 1999 and started work developing proposals in conjunction with Advantage West Midlands, the regional development agency who funded the reclamation of the land. Urban Splash possess the building by a 999-year lease from Advantage West Midlands; the Fort Dunlop building, derelict for twenty years, has been redeveloped into an office and retail space with an adjoining Travelodge hotel. Work on the redevelopment commenced in December 2004, it now has 300,000 square feet of office space within the main building as well as recreational leisure space.
There are 1,150 basement and surface car parking spaces. The developers were Urban Splash and the architects were Liverpool-based Hazel Rounding of shedkm; the landscape designer for the building's setting was Martha Schwartz Inc. By March 2005, all windows and poor quality extensions were removed to reveal the shell; the steel structure which would house the 100-bed Travelodge hotel began construction and the largest advertisement hoarding in the world at that time was constructed on the front of the building. The steel structure was completed in June 2005 along with the roof structure; the concrete was added to the steel structure two months later. They were transported to the building where they were fitted into place, they contained the circular holes on one side to allow for the circular windows. By the end of 2005, the windows were being added to the inside of the building; the outside structure was left as it was and the glass structure was built behind it. The assembly work had been completed to the adjacent structure and work had begun to paint it dark blue with a sign saying "FORT DUNLOP" added to the top of the structure by March 2006.
The sign is illuminated at night The skyline signage, with its programmable, RGB LED illumination resulted in three separate industry awards for ASG, the company that designed and installed the structures. By June 2006, the windows had been fitted to the Travelodge and the hotel opened to the public. Window work on the inside of the old building was being completed and the floor layouts were being defined. Fort Dunlop opened by a ceremony on 1 December 2006; the roof was covered by the largest such grass roof in the United Kingdom. In August 2006, Urban Splash announced. Another company, Boxer, a design consultancy, was announced as the first tenant, relocating from their base in Coleshill. In 2015, Fort Dunlop had over 30 businesses including: Trinity Mirror Midlands. In 2017, Trinity Mirror Midlands relocated back to Birmingham City Centre having occupied the entire 6th floor of the building – all 53,582 sq ft. At over one acre in area, it was the largest open plan office space in the country outside of London.
During 2018, the 6th floor was refurbished offering the largest available floor plate in Birmingham at over 27,000 sq ft. The early structure is of concrete, clad to a steel frame. Upon redevelopment, it was found that the steel frame had moved no more than 2 mm, a reflection of the quality of construction; the building is 52 metres deep. The south side measures 130 metres in width; the extension housing the Travelodge hotel extends 170 metres from the building, has a width of 8 metres. The northern facade is of different architecture from the remainder of the building as it was damaged during World War II by bombing raids by the Luftwaffe. A circular light well was constructed from the roof to the atrium at the reception, allowing natural light to illuminate the middle of the building. At each floor, the light well is lined with steel to represent the industrial heri